Effects of Evening Exercise on Sleep in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Current recommendations advise against exercising in the evening because of potential adverse effects on sleep.
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the extent to which evening exercise affects sleep and whether variables such as exercise intensity or duration modify the response.
A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Studies evaluating sleep after a single session of evening physical exercise compared to a no-exercise control in healthy adults were included. All analyses are based on random effect models.
The search yielded 11,717 references, of which 23 were included. Compared to control, evening exercise significantly increased rapid eye movement latency (+ 7.7 min; p = 0.032) and slow-wave sleep (+ 1.3 percentage points [pp]; p = 0.041), while it decreased stage 1 sleep (− 0.9 pp; p = 0.001). Moderator analyses revealed that a higher temperature at bedtime was associated with lower sleep efficiency (SE) (b = − 11.6 pp; p = 0.020) and more wake after sleep onset (WASO; b = + 37.6 min; p = 0.0495). A higher level of physical stress (exercise intensity relative to baseline physical activity) was associated with lower SE (− 3.2 pp; p = 0.036) and more WASO (+ 21.9 min; p = 0.044). Compared to cycling, running was associated with less WASO (− 12.7 min; p = 0.037). All significant moderating effects disappeared after removal of one study.
Overall, the studies reviewed here do not support the hypothesis that evening exercise negatively affects sleep, in fact rather the opposite. However, sleep-onset latency, total sleep time, and SE might be impaired after vigorous exercise ending ≤ 1 h before bedtime.
The authors would like to thank Dr. Jacopo Vitale for providing unpublished data, Dr. med Niels Hagenbuch and Dr. Ulrike Held (Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zürich) and the statistical consulting service of ETH Zürich for statistical support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Jan Stutz, Remo Eiholzer and Christina Spengler declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.
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