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Sports Medicine

, Volume 48, Issue 12, pp 2843–2857 | Cite as

Effects of Jumping Exercise on Muscular Power in Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis

  • Jason Moran
  • Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
  • Urs Granacher
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Jump training (JT) can be used to enhance the ability of skeletal muscle to exert maximal force in as short a time as possible. Despite its usefulness as a method of performance enhancement in athletes, only a small number of studies have investigated its effects on muscle power in older adults.

Objectives

The aims of this meta-analysis were to measure the effect of JT on muscular power in older adults (≥ 50 years), and to establish appropriate programming guidelines for this population.

Data Sources

The data sources utilised were Google Scholar, PubMed, and Microsoft Academic.

Study Eligibility Criteria

Studies were eligible for inclusion if they comprised JT interventions in healthy adults (≥ 50 years) who were free of any medical condition that could impair movement.

Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods

The inverse variance random-effects model for meta-analyses was used because it allocates a proportionate weight to trials based on the size of their individual standard errors and facilitates analysis while accounting for heterogeneity across studies. Effect sizes (ESs), calculated from a measure of muscular power, were represented by the standardised mean difference and were presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

Thirteen training groups across nine studies were included in this meta-analysis. The magnitude of the main effect was ‘moderate’ (0.66, 95% CI 0.33, 0.98). ESs were larger in non-obese participants (body mass index [BMI] < 30 vs. ≥ 30 kg/m2; 1.03 [95% CI 0.34, 1.73] vs. 0.53 [95% CI − 0.03, 1.09]). Among the studies included in this review, just one reported an acute injury, which did not result in the participant ceasing their involvement. JT was more effective in programmes with more than one exercise (range 1–4 exercises; ES = 0.74 [95% CI − 0.49, 1.96] vs. 0.53 [95% CI 0.29, 0.78]), more than two sets per exercise (range 1–4 sets; ES = 0.91 [95% CI 0.04, 1.77] vs. 0.68 [95% CI 0.15, 1.21]), more than three jumps per set (range 1–14 jumps; ES = 1.02 [95% CI 0.16, 1.87] vs. 0.53 [95% CI − 0.03, 1.09]) and more than 25 jumps per session (range 6–200 jumps; ES = 0.88 [95% CI 0.05, 1.70] vs. 0.49 [95% CI 0.14, 0.83]).

Conclusions

JT is safe and effective in older adults. Practitioners should construct varied JT programmes that include more than one exercise and comprise more than two sets per exercise, more than three jumps per set, and 60 s of recovery between sets. An upper limit of three sets per exercise and ten jumps per set is recommended. Up to three training sessions per week can be performed.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Conflicts of interest

Jason Moran, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo and Urs Granacher declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.

Supplementary material

40279_2018_1002_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SportHartpury UniversityGloucestershireUK
  2. 2.Department of Physical Activity Sciences, Research Nucleus in Health, Physical Activity and Sport, Laboratory of Measurement and Assessment in SportUniversidad de Los Lagos (University of Los Lagos)OsornoChile
  3. 3.Division of Training and Movement ScienceUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

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