Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 48, Issue 7, pp 1533–1540 | Cite as

Development of Foundational Movement Skills: A Conceptual Model for Physical Activity Across the Lifespan

  • Ryan M. Hulteen
  • Philip J. Morgan
  • Lisa M. Barnett
  • David F. Stodden
  • David R. LubansEmail author
Current Opinion

Abstract

Evidence supports a positive association between competence in fundamental movement skills (e.g., kicking, jumping) and physical activity in young people. Whilst important, fundamental movement skills do not reflect the broad diversity of skills utilized in physical activity pursuits across the lifespan. Debate surrounds the question of what are the most salient skills to be learned which facilitate physical activity participation across the lifespan. In this paper, it is proposed that the term ‘fundamental movement skills’ be replaced with ‘foundational movement skills’. The term ‘foundational movement skills’ better reflects the broad range of movement forms that increase in complexity and specificity and can be applied in a variety of settings. Thus, ‘foundational movement skills’ includes both traditionally conceptualized ‘fundamental’ movement skills and other skills (e.g., bodyweight squat, cycling, swimming strokes) that support physical activity engagement across the lifespan. A proposed conceptual model outlines how foundational movement skill competency can provide a direct or indirect pathway, via specialized movement skills, to a lifetime of physical activity. Foundational movement skill development is hypothesized to vary according to culture and/or geographical location. Further, skill development may be hindered or enhanced by physical (i.e., fitness, weight status) and psychological (i.e., perceived competence, self-efficacy) attributes. This conceptual model may advance the application of motor development principles within the public health domain. Additionally, it promotes the continued development of human movement in the context of how it leads to skillful performance and how movement skill development supports and maintains a lifetime of physical activity engagement.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Adrian Edmunds of Nodding Dog for his assistance in creating the figure for this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

Author RMH is supported through an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. DRL is supported by an ARC Future Fellowship.

Conflict of interest

Ryan Hulteen, Lisa Barnett, Philip Morgan, David Stodden, and David Lubans declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Biddle SJ, Asare M. Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(11):886–95.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eime RM, Young JA, Harvey JT, Charity MJ, Payne WR. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10(1):1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamer M, Stamatakis E, Steptoe A. Dose-response relationship between physical activity and mental health: the Scottish Health Survey. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(14):1111–4.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.046243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Janssen I, Leblanc AG. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7(40):1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kohl HW, Craig CL, Lambert EV, Inoue S, Alkandari JR, Leetongin G, et al. The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):294–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60898-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hallal PC, Andersen LB, Bull FC, Guthold R, Haskell W, Ekelund U, et al. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):247–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nader PR, Bradley RH, Houts RM, McRitchie SL, O’Brien M. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA. 2008;300(3):295–305.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.300.3.295.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tremblay MS, Gray CE, Akinroye K, Harrington DM, Katzmarzyk PT, Lambert EV, et al. Physical activity of children: a global matrix of grades comparing 15 countries. J Phys Act Health. 2014;Suppl 1:S113–25.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2014-0177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robinson LE, Stodden DF, Barnett LM, Lopes VP, Logan SW, Rodrigues LP, et al. Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Med. 2015;45(9):1273–84.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, Roberton MA, Rudisill ME, Garcia C, et al. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Quest. 2008;60(2):290–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Cliff DP, Barnett LM, Okely AD. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits. Sports Med. 2010;40(12):1019–35.  https://doi.org/10.2165/11536850-000000000-00000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barnett LM, van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(3):252–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holfelder B, Schott N. Relationship of fundamental movement skills and physical activity in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2014;15(4):382–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lopes VP, Rodrigues LP, Maia JA, Malina RM. Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(5):663–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01027.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Logan SW, Webster EK, Getchell N, Pfeiffer KA, Robinson LE. Relationship between fundamental motor skill competence and physical activity during childhood and adoelscence: a systematic review. Kinesiol Rev. 2015;4(4):416–26.  https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2013-0012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cattuzzo MT, Henrique RDS, Ré AHN, de Oliveira IS, Melo BM, Moura MDS, et al. Motor competence and health related physcial fitness in youth: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(2):123–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(12):2137–44.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818160d3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, Gentier I, Verstuyf J, Vaeyens R, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. A longitudinal study of gross motor coordination and weight status in children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(6):1505–11.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, Gentier I, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Vaeyens R, Philippaerts R, et al. A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37(1):61–7.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2012.55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clark JE, Whitall J. What is motor development? The lessons of history. Quest. 1989;41(3):183–202.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1989.10483969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barnett LM, Stodden D, Cohen KE, Smith JJ, Lubans DR, Lenoir M, et al. Fundamental movement skills: an important focus. J Teach Phys Educ. 2016;35(3):219–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC, Goodway JD. Understanding motor development: infants, children, adolescents, adults. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clark JE, Metcalfe JS. The mountain of motor development: a metaphor. In: Clark JE, Humphrey JH, editors. Motor development: research and reviews. Reston: National Association of Sport and Physical Education; 2002. p. 163–90.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cantell M, Crawford SG, Doyle-Baker PK. Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence. Hum Mov Sci. 2008;27(2):344–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rinne MB, Pasanen ME, Millunpalo SI, Oja P. Test-retest reproducibility and inter-rater reliability of a motor skill test battery for adults. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(3):192–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nesbitt DR, Molina S, Cattuzzo MT, Phillips D, Robinson LE, Stodden DF. Assessment of a Supine-to-Stand (STS) tasks in early childhood: a measure of functional motor competence. J Mot Learn Dev. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2016-0049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    VanSant A. Age differences in movement patterns used by children to rise from a supine position to erect stance. Phys Ther. 1988;68(9):1330–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    VanSant A. Rising from a supine position to erect stance: description of adult movement and a developmental hypothesis. Phys Ther. 1988;68(2):185–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lorson K, Stodden DF, Goodway J, Langendorfer SJ. Age and gender differences in adolescent and adult overarm throwing. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013;84(2):239–44.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.784841.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Urbin MA, Stodden DF, Fleisig GS. Overarm throwing variability as a function of trunk action. J Mot Learn Dev. 2013;1(4):89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paterson DH, Warburton DE. Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada’s physical activity guidelines. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7(38):1–22.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hirvensalo M, Rantanen T, Heikkinen E. Mobility difficulties and physical activity as predictors of mortality and loss of independence in the community-living older population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(5):493–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, Glynn RJ, Berkman LF, Blazer DG, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 1994;49(2):85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Seefeldt V. Developmental motor patterns: implications for elementary school physical education. In: Nadeau CH, Halliwell WR, Newell M, Roberts C, editors. Psychology of motor behavior and sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1980. p. 314–23.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Haubenstricker JL, Seefeldt V. Acquisition of motor skills during childhood. In: Seefeldt V, editor. Physical activity & well-being. Reston: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance; 1986. p. 49–110.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Langendorfer SJ, Roberton MA, Stodden DF. Biomechanical aspects of the development of object projection skills. In: De Ste Croix M, Korff T, editors. Paediatric biomechanics and motor control: theory and application. Oxford: Routledge; 2011.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Côté J, Baker J, Abernethy B. From play to practice. Expert performance in sports: advances in research on sport expertise. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2003.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Côté J, Hay J. Children’s involvement in sport: a developmental perspective. Psychological foundations of sport. Boston: Merrill; 2002.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Balyi I, Hamilton A. Long-term athlete development: trainability in childhood and adolescence. Windows of opportunity. Optimal trainability. Victoria: National Coaching Institute British Columbia & Advanced Training and Performance Ltd; 2004.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goodway JD, Robinson LE. Developmental trajectories in early sport specialization: a case for early sampling from a physical growth and motor development perspective. Kinesiol Rev. 2015;4(3):267–78.  https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2015-0028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Myer GD, Jayanthi N, DiFiori JP, Faigenbaum AD, Kiefer AW, Logerstedt D, et al. Sports specialization, part II: alternative solutions to early sport specialization in youth athletes. Sports Health. 2016;8(1):65–73.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738115614811.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Malina R. Early sport specialization: roots, effectiveness, risks. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2010;9(6):364–71.  https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181fe3166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Babic MJ, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Lonsdale C, White RL, Lubans DR. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(11):1589–601.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0229-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barnett LM, Lai SK, Veldman SLC, Hardy LL, Cliff DP, Morgan PM, et al. Correlates of gross motor competence in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2016;46(11):1663–88.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Burton AW, Miller DE. Movement skill assessment. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1998.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Adolph KE, Franchak JM. The development of motor behavior. WIREs Cogn Sci. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hulteen RM, Lander NJ, Morgan PJ, Barnett LM, Robertson SJ, Lubans DR. Validity and reliability of field-based measures for assessing movement skill competency in lifelong physical activities: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2015;45(10):1443–54.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0357-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hulteen RM, Smith JJ, Morgan PJ, Barnett LM, Hallal PC, Colyvas K, et al. Global participation in sport and leisure-time physical activities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2017;95:14–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Meester A, Stodden DF, Goodway J, True L, Brian A, Ferkel RC, et al. Identifying a motor proficiency barrier for meeting physical activity guidelines in children. J Sci Med Sport. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.05.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stodden DF, True LK, Langendorfer SJ, Gao Z. Associations among selected motor skills and health-related fitness: indirect evidence for Seefeldt’s proficiency barrier in young adults? Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013;84(3):397–403.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.814910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stodden DF, Gao Z, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ. Dynamic relationships between motor skill competence and health-related fitness in youth. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2014;26(3):231–41.  https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2013-0027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stodden D, Langendorfer S, Roberton MA. The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009;80(2):223–9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2009.10599556.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rodrigues LP, Stodden D, Lopes VP. Developmental pathways of change in fitness and motor competence are related to overweight and obesity status at the end primary school. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(1):87–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lopes VP, Maia JAR, Rodrigues LP, Malina R. Motor coordination, physical activity and fitness as predictors of longitudinal change in adiposity during childhood. Eur J Sport Sci. 2012;12(4):384–91.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.566368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Eccles JS, Wigfield A. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annu Rev Psychol. 2002;53:109–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eccles JS, Harold RD. Gender differences in sport involvement: applying the Eccles’ expectancy-value model. J Appl Sport Psychol. 1991;3:7–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harter S. Effectance motivation reconsidered: toward a developmental model. Hum Dev. 1978;21:34–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Harter S, Connell J. A model of the relationship among children’s academic achievement and their self perceptions of competence, control, and motivational orientation. In: Nicholls JG, editor. The development of achievement motivation. Greenwich: JAI Press; 1984. p. 219–50.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1986.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Deci EL, Ryan RM. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plennum Press; 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lubans DR, Richards J, Hillman CH, Faulkner G, Beauchamp M, Nilsson M, et al. Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: a systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics. 2016;138(3):e20161642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bauman AE, Reis RS, Sallis JF, Wells JC, Loos RJF, Martin BW. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not? Lancet. 2012;380(9838):258–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)60735-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, Van Beurden E, Ball K, Lubans DR. A reverse pathway? Actual and perceived skill proficiency and physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(5):898–904.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181fdfadd.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, van Beurden E, Beard JR. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5(40):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-5-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryan M. Hulteen
    • 1
  • Philip J. Morgan
    • 1
  • Lisa M. Barnett
    • 2
  • David F. Stodden
    • 3
  • David R. Lubans
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and NutritionUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.School of Health and Social Development, Faculty of HealthDeakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia
  3. 3.Yvonne and Schuyler Moore Child Development Research Center, Department of Physical Education and Athletic TrainingUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations