Sports Medicine

, Volume 47, Issue 7, pp 1289–1302 | Cite as

Cognitive Functioning and Heat Strain: Performance Responses and Protective Strategies

  • Cyril SchmitEmail author
  • Christophe Hausswirth
  • Yann Le Meur
  • Rob Duffield
Review Article


Despite the predominance of research on physical performance in the heat, many activities require high cognitive functioning for optimal performance (i.e. decision making) and/or health purposes (i.e. injury risk). Prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity or exercise-induced fatigue will incur altered cognitive functioning. The addition of hot environmental conditions will exacerbate poor cognitive functioning and negatively affect performance outcomes. The present paper attempts to extract consistent themes from the heat–cognition literature to explore cognitive performance as a function of the level of heat stress encountered. More specifically, experimental studies investigating cognitive performance in conditions of hyperthermia, often via the completion of computerised tasks (i.e. cognitive tests), are used to better understand the relationship between endogenous thermal load and cognitive performance. The existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between hyperthermia development and cognitive performance is suggested, and highlights core temperatures of ~38.5 °C as the potential ‘threshold’ for hyperthermia-induced negative cognitive performance. From this perspective, interventions to slow or blunt thermal loads and protect both task- and hyperthermia-related changes in task performances (e.g. cooling strategies) could be used to great benefit and potentially preserve cognitive performance during heat strain.


Heat Stress Cognitive Performance Simple Reaction Time Skin Blood Flow Heat Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Cyril Schmit, Christophe Hausswirth, Yann Le Meur and Rob Duffield declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cyril Schmit
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christophe Hausswirth
    • 1
  • Yann Le Meur
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rob Duffield
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance (EA 7370), Research DepartmentFrench National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance (INSEP)ParisFrance
  2. 2.Medical DepartmentAS Monaco Football ClubMonacoMonaco
  3. 3.Laboratory LAMHESS (EA6312)University of Nice Sophia-AntipolisNiceFrance
  4. 4.Sport and Exercise Discipline Group, Faculty of HealthUniversity of Technology Sydney (UTS)Moore ParkAustralia

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