The Effects of Wearable Resistance Training on Metabolic, Kinematic and Kinetic Variables During Walking, Running, Sprint Running and Jumping: A Systematic Review
- 558 Downloads
Wearable resistance training (WRT) provides a means of activity- or movement-specific overloading, supposedly resulting in better transference to dynamic sporting performance.
The purpose of this review was to quantify the acute and longitudinal metabolic, kinematic and/or kinetic changes that occur with WRT during walking, running, sprint running or jumping movements.
PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and MEDLINE (EBSCO) were searched using the Boolean phrases (limb OR vest OR trunk) AND (walk* OR run* OR sprint* OR jump* OR bound*) AND (metabolic OR kinetic OR kinematic) AND (load*).
A systematic approach was used to evaluate 1185 articles. Articles with injury-free subjects of any age, sex or activity level were included.
Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. Acute trunk loading reduced velocity during treadmill sprint running, but only significantly when loads of 11 % body mass (BM) or greater were used, while over-the-ground sprint running times were significantly reduced with all loads (8–20 %BM). Longitudinal trunk loading significantly increased jump performance with all loads (7–30 %BM), but did not significantly improve sprint running performance. Acute limb loading significantly increased maximum oxygen consumption and energy cost with all loads (0.3–8.5 %BM) in walking and running, while significantly reducing velocity during sprint running.
The variation in load magnitude, load orientation, subjects, testing methods and study duration no doubt impact the changes in the variables examined and hence make definitive conclusions problematic.
WRT provides a novel training method with potential to improve sporting performance; however, research in this area is still clearly in its infancy, with future research required into the optimum load placement, orientation and magnitude required for adaptation.
KeywordsStride Length Stride Frequency Jump Performance Vertical Ground Reaction Force Squat Jump
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Kim Simperingham has received funding from Sportboleh Sdh Bdh for research quantifying the effects of Exogen exoskeleton suits during various sporting movements. Paul Macadam and John Cronin declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.
- 3.McCafferty WB, Horvath SM. Specificity of exercise and specificity of training: a subcellular review. Res Quart Am Allian Health Phys Ed Rec. 1977;48(2):358–71.Google Scholar
- 4.Häkkinen K, Komi P. Changes in electrical and mechanical behavior of leg extensor muscles during heavy resistance strength training. Scand J Sports Sci. 1985;7(2):55–64.Google Scholar
- 5.Harris GR, Stone MH, O’Bryant HS, et al. Short-term performance effects of high power, high force, or combined eight-training methods. J Strength Cond Res. 2000;14(1):14–20.Google Scholar
- 13.Hay JG. The biomechanics of sports techniques. Prentice Hall, USA; 1985.Google Scholar
- 18.Bompa TO, Haff G. Periodization: theory and methodology of training. 5th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2009.Google Scholar
- 21.Sands WA, Poole RC, Ford HR, et al. Hypergravity training: women’s track and field. J Strength Cond Res. 1996;10(1):30–4.Google Scholar
- 22.Lamb DR. Effective sports conditioning programs. IDEA Health & Fitness Association; 1998.Google Scholar
- 26.Janssen I, Sheppard JM, Dingley AA, et al. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics when landing from unloaded and loaded jumps. J Biomech. 2012;28:687–93.Google Scholar
- 44.Konstantinos Z, Athanasia S, Polyxeni A, et al. Acute effects of loading using a weighted vest on running performance. Biol Exerc. 2014;10(1):53–65.Google Scholar
- 46.Simperingham K, Cronin J. Changes in sprint kinematics and kinetics with upper body loading and lower body loading using exogen exoskeletons: a pilot study. J Aust Strength Cond. 2014;22(5):69–72.Google Scholar
- 48.Krupenevich R, Rider P, Domire Z, et al. Males and females respond similarly to walking with et al. a standardized, heavy load. Mil Med. 2015;180(9):994–1000Google Scholar