Sports Medicine

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 469–478 | Cite as

Accelerometers for the Assessment of Concussion in Male Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • James H. Brennan
  • Biswadev Mitra
  • Anneliese Synnot
  • Joanne McKenzie
  • Catherine Willmott
  • Andrew S. McIntosh
  • Jerome J. Maller
  • Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Concussion is common in the sporting arena and is often challenging to diagnose. The development of wearable head impact measurement systems has enabled measurement of head kinematics in contact sports.

Objectives

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the characteristics of head kinematics measured by an accelerometer system among male athletes diagnosed with concussion.

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in July 2015. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies published after 1990 with a study population of male athletes, in any sport, where objectively measured biomechanical forces were reported in the setting of a concussive event. The random effects meta-analysis model was used to combine estimates of biomechanical force measurements in concussed athletes.

Results

Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria, the majority of which were conducted with high school and college football teams in the US. Included studies measured a combination of linear and rotational acceleration. The meta-analysed mean peak linear head acceleration associated with a concussive episode was 98.68 g (95 % CI 82.36–115.00) and mean peak rotational head acceleration was 5776.60 rads/s2 (95 % CI 4583.53–6969.67). The estimates of the biomechanical forces were consistent across studies, with I2 values of 0 % for both meta-analyses.

Conclusions

Head impact monitoring through accelerometery has been shown to be useful with regard to characterising the kinematic load to the head associated with concussion. Future research with improved clinical outcome measures and head kinematic data may improve accuracy when evaluating concussion, and may assist with both interpretation of biomechanical data and the development and utilisation of implementation strategies for the technology.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • James H. Brennan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Biswadev Mitra
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anneliese Synnot
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Joanne McKenzie
    • 6
  • Catherine Willmott
    • 7
    • 8
  • Andrew S. McIntosh
    • 9
    • 10
  • Jerome J. Maller
    • 11
  • Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld
    • 12
    • 13
    • 14
  1. 1.National Trauma Research InstituteMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Emergency and Trauma Centre, The Alfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive MedicineMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre (ANZIC-RC), Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group, Centre for Health Communication and ParticipationLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.School of Public Health and Preventive MedicineMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  7. 7.Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research CentreMelbourneAustralia
  8. 8.School of Psychological Sciences and Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical NeurosciencesMelbourneAustralia
  9. 9.Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention, Federation UniversityBallaratAustralia
  10. 10.Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  11. 11.Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research CentreMelbourneAustralia
  12. 12.Department of NeurosurgeryThe Alfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  13. 13.Department of SurgeryMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  14. 14.Department of Surgery, F. Edward Hébert School of MedicineUniformed Services University of The Health Sciences (USUHS)BethesdaUSA

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