Sports Medicine

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 1095–1109 | Cite as

What are the Physiological Mechanisms for Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion in the Recovery from Prolonged Endurance and Intermittent Exercise?

Review Article


Intense training results in numerous physiological perturbations such as muscle damage, hyperthermia, dehydration and glycogen depletion. Insufficient/untimely restoration of these physiological alterations might result in sub-optimal performance during subsequent training sessions, while chronic imbalance between training stress and recovery might lead to overreaching or overtraining syndrome. The use of post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) is gaining considerable popularity among athletes to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. CWI, through its primary ability to decrease tissue temperature and blood flow, is purported to facilitate recovery by ameliorating hyperthermia and subsequent alterations to the central nervous system (CNS), reducing cardiovascular strain, removing accumulated muscle metabolic by-products, attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and improving autonomic nervous system function. The current review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed examination of the mechanisms underpinning acute and longer term recovery of exercise performance following post-exercise CWI. Understanding the mechanisms will aid practitioners in the application and optimisation of CWI strategies to suit specific recovery needs and consequently improve athletic performance. Much of the literature indicates that the dominant mechanism by which CWI facilitates short term recovery is via ameliorating hyperthermia and consequently CNS mediated fatigue and by reducing cardiovascular strain. In contrast, there is limited evidence to support that CWI might improve acute recovery by facilitating the removal of muscle metabolites. CWI has been shown to augment parasympathetic reactivation following exercise. While CWI-mediated parasympathetic reactivation seems detrimental to high-intensity exercise performance when performed shortly after, it has been shown to be associated with improved longer term physiological recovery and day to day training performances. The efficacy of CWI for attenuating the secondary effects of EIMD seems dependent on the mode of exercise utilised. For instance, CWI application seems to demonstrate limited recovery benefits when EIMD was induced by single-joint eccentrically biased contractions. In contrast, CWI seems more effective in ameliorating effects of EIMD induced by whole body prolonged endurance/intermittent based exercise modalities.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


At the time this manuscript was prepared, Mohammed Ihsan was supported by the International Postgraduate Research Scholarship and Edith Cowan University. No other sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Conflicts of interest

Mohammed Ihsan, Greig Watson and Chris Abbiss declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this of this review.


  1. 1.
    Saltin B, Blomqvist G, Mitchell JH, et al. Response to exercise after bed rest and after training. Circulation. 1968;38(5 Suppl):VII1–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saltin B, Rowell LB. Functional adaptations to physical activity and inactivity. Fed Proc. 1980;39(5):1506–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ehsani AA, Hagberg JM, Hickson RC. Rapid changes in left ventricular dimensions and mass in response to physical conditioning and deconditioning. Am J Cardiol. 1978;42(1):52–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blomqvist CG, Saltin B. Cardiovascular adaptations to physical training. Annu Rev Physiol. 1983;45:169–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Convertino VA. Blood volume: its adaptation to endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(12):1338–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weight LM, Alexander D, Elliot T, et al. Erythropoietic adaptations to endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;64(5):444–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mier CM, Turner MJ, Ehsani AA, et al. Cardiovascular adaptations to 10 days of cycle exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;83(6):1900–6.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoppeler H, Luthi P, Claassen H, et al. The ultrastructure of the normal human skeletal muscle. A morphometric analysis on untrained men, women and well-trained orienteers. Pflugers Arch. 1973;344(3):217–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gollnick PD, Saltin B. Significance of skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme enhancement with endurance training. Clin Physiol. 1982;2(1):1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Daussin FN, Zoll J, Dufour SP, et al. Effect of interval versus continuous training on cardiorespiratory and mitochondrial functions: relationship to aerobic performance improvements in sedentary subjects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295(1):R264–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Inbar O, Kaiser P, Tesch P. Relationships between leg muscle fiber type distribution and leg exercise performance. Int J Sports Med. 1981;2(3):154–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lash JM, Bohlen HG. Functional adaptations of rat skeletal muscle arterioles to aerobic exercise training. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992;72(6):2052–62.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rakobowchuk M, Tanguay S, Burgomaster KA, et al. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training induce similar improvements in peripheral arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295(1):R236–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hickson RC, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, et al. Time course of the adaptive responses of aerobic power and heart rate to training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1981;13(1):17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Billat V, Lepretre PM, Heugas AM, et al. Training and bioenergetic characteristics in elite male and female Kenyan runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(2):297–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Billat VL, Demarle A, Slawinski J, et al. Physical and training characteristics of top-class marathon runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(12):2089–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reilly T, Ekblom B. The use of recovery methods post-exercise. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):619–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barnett A. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help? Sports Med. 2006;36(9):781–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Budgett R. Fatigue and underperformance in athletes: the overtraining syndrome. Br J Sports Med. 1998;32(2):107–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peiffer JJ, Abbiss CR, Watson G, et al. Effect of a 5-min cold-water immersion recovery on exercise performance in the heat. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(6):461–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peiffer JJ, Abbiss CR, Watson G, et al. Effect of cold-water immersion duration on body temperature and muscle function. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(10):987–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vaile J, Halson S, Gill N, et al. Effect of hydrotherapy on the signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;102(4):447–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ingram J, Dawson B, Goodman C, et al. Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(3):417–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Minett GM, Duffield R, Billaut F, et al. Cold-water immersion decreases cerebral oxygenation but improves recovery after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(4):656–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dunne A, Crampton D, Egana M. Effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy water temperature on subsequent exhaustive running performance in normothermic conditions. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(5):466–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vaile J, Halson S, Gill N, et al. Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29(7):539–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stanley J, Peake JM, Buchheit M. Consecutive days of cold water immersion: effects on cycling performance and heart rate variability. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(2):371–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pointon M, Duffield R, Cannon J, et al. Cold application for neuromuscular recovery following intense lower-body exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(12):2977–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Poppendieck W, Faude O, Wegmann M, et al. Cooling and performance recovery of trained athletes: a meta-analytical review. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(3):227–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Versey NG, Halson SL, Dawson BT. Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations. Sports Med. 2013;43(11):1101–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leeder J, Gissane C, van Someren K, et al. Cold water immersion and recovery from strenuous exercise: a meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2011;46(4):233–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Halson SL. Does the time frame between exercise influence the effectiveness of hydrotherapy for recovery? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6(2):147–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bleakley C, McDonough S, Gardner E, et al. Cold-water immersion for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2:CD008262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ihsan M, Markworth JF, Watson G, et al. Regular post-exercise cooling enhances mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK and p38 MAPK in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015;309(3):R286–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ihsan M, Watson G, Choo HC, et al. Postexercise muscle cooling enhances gene expression of PGC-1alpha. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(10):1900–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ihsan M, Watson G, Abbiss C. PGC-1α mediated muscle aerobic adaptations to exercise, heat and cold exposure. Cell Mol Exerc Physiol. 2014;3(1):e7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frohlich M, Faude O, Klein M, et al. Strength training adaptations after cold water immersion. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2628–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roberts LA, Raastad T, Markworth JF, et al. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training. J Physiol. 2015;593(18):4285–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Taylor JL, Todd G, Gandevia SC. Evidence for a supraspinal contribution to human muscle fatigue. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33(4):400–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nybo L, Nielsen B. Hyperthermia and central fatigue during prolonged exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91(3):1055–60.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morrison S, Sleivert G, Cheung S. Passive hyperthermia reduces voluntary activation and isometric force production. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;91(5):729–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cheung SS, Sleivert GG. Multiple triggers for hyperthermic fatigue and exhaustion. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2004;32(3):100–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nybo L. Brain temperature and exercise performance. Exp Physiol. 2012;97(3):333–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wakabayashi H, Kaneda K, Sato D, et al. Effect of non-uniform skin temperature on thermoregulatory response during water immersion. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;104(2):175–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peiffer JJ, Abbiss CR, Nosaka K, et al. Effect of cold water immersion after exercise in the heat on muscle function, body temperatures, and vessel diameter. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(1):91–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yeargin SW, Casa DJ, McClung JM, et al. Body cooling between two bouts of exercise in the heat enhances subsequent performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):383–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pointon M, Duffield R, Cannon J, et al. Cold water immersion recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(7):2483–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nielsen B, Hyldig T, Bidstrup F, et al. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat. Pflugers Arch. 2001;442(1):41–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nybo L, Nielsen B. Perceived exertion is associated with an altered brain activity during exercise with progressive hyperthermia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91(5):2017–23.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Meeusen R, Watson P, Hasegawa H, et al. Central fatigue: the serotonin hypothesis and beyond. Sports Med. 2006;36(10):881–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Davis JM, Bailey SP. Possible mechanisms of central nervous system fatigue during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(1):45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nybo L, Rasmussen P. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007;35(3):110–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nybo L, Moller K, Pedersen BK, et al. Association between fatigue and failure to preserve cerebral energy turnover during prolonged exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 2003;179(1):67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vaile J, Halson S, Gill N, et al. Effect of cold water immersion on repeat cycling performance and thermoregulation in the heat. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(5):431–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    De Pauw K, Roelands B, Marušič U, et al. Brain mapping after prolonged cycling and during recovery in the heat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;115(9):1324–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stocks JM, Patterson MJ, Hyde DE, et al. Effects of immersion water temperature on whole-body fluid distribution in humans. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;182(1):3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Newsholme E, Acworth I, Blomstrand E. Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. Adv Myochem. 1987;1987:127–38.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Roelands B, Hasegawa H, Watson P, et al. The effects of acute dopamine reuptake inhibition on performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(5):879–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bailey SP, Davis JM, Ahlborn EN. Serotonergic agonists and antagonists affect endurance performance in the rat. Int J Sports Med. 1993;14(6):330–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Roelands B, Goekint M, Buyse L, et al. Time trial performance in normal and high ambient temperature: is there a role for 5-HT? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(1):119–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mundel T, Bunn SJ, Hooper PL, et al. The effects of face cooling during hyperthermic exercise in man: evidence for an integrated thermal, neuroendocrine and behavioural response. Exp Physiol. 2007;92(1):187–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mundel T, Hooper PL, Bunn SJ, et al. The effects of face cooling on the prolactin response and subjective comfort during moderate passive heating in humans. Exp Physiol. 2006;91(6):1007–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rowell LB. Human cardiovascular adjustments to exercise and thermal stress. Physiol Rev. 1974;54(1):75–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    González-Alonso J, Calbet JAL. Reductions in systemic and skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery limit maximal aerobic capacity in humans. Circulation. 2003;107(6):824–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Périard JD, Cramer MN, Chapman PG, et al. Cardiovascular strain impairs prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat. Exp Physiol. 2011;96(2):134–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hayashi K, Honda Y, Ogawa T, et al. Effects of brief leg cooling after moderate exercise on cardiorespiratory responses to subsequent exercise in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;92(4–5):414–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vaile J, O’Hagan C, Stefanovic B, et al. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated cycling performance and limb blood flow. Br J Sports Med. 2010;45(10):825–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mawhinney C, Jones H, Joo CH, et al. Influence of cold-water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(12):2277–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ihsan M, Watson G, Lipski M, et al. Influence of postexercise cooling on muscle oxygenation and blood volume changes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(5):876–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Allen DG, Lamb GD, Westerblad H. Skeletal muscle fatigue: cellular mechanisms. Physiol Rev. 2008;88(1):287–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Abbiss CR, Laursen PB. Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling. Sports Med. 2005;35(10):865–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Halson SL, Quod MJ, Martin DT, et al. Physiological responses to cold water immersion following cycling in the heat. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008;3(3):331–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hausswirth C, Duffield R, Pournot H, et al. Postexercise cooling interventions and the effects on exercise-induced heat stress in a temperate environment. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012;37(5):965–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Johansen LB, Bie P, Warberg J, et al. Role of hemodilution on renal responses to water immersion in humans. Am J Physiol. 1995;269(5 Pt 2):R1068–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johansen LB, Jensen TUS, Pump B, et al. Contribution of abdomen and legs to central blood volume expansion in humans during immersion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;83(3):695–9.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Park KS, Choi JK, Park YS. Cardiovascular regulation during water immersion. Appl Hum Sci. 1999;18(6):233–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gabrielsen A, Johansen LB, Norsk P. Central cardiovascular pressures during graded water immersion in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1993;75(2):581–5.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Parouty J, Al Haddad H, Quod M, et al. Effect of cold water immersion on 100-m sprint performance in well-trained swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(3):483–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Crowe MJ, O’Connor D, Rudd D. Cold water recovery reduces anaerobic performance. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(12):994–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bergh U, Ekblom B. Influence of muscle temperature on maximal muscle strength and power output in human skeletal muscles. Acta Physiol Scand. 1979;107(1):33–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stanley J, Peake JM, Buchheit M. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription. Sports Med. 2013;43(12):1259–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hautala AJ, Kiviniemi AM, Tulppo MP. Individual responses to aerobic exercise: the role of the autonomic nervous system. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;33(2):107–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Perini R, Orizio C, Comande A, et al. Plasma norepinephrine and heart rate dynamics during recovery from submaximal exercise in man. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1989;58(8):879–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Buchheit M, Al Haddad H, Mendez-Villanueva A, et al. Effect of maturation on hemodynamic and autonomic control recovery following maximal running exercise in highly trained young soccer players. Front Physiol. 2011;2:69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Buchheit M, Duche P, Laursen PB, et al. Postexercise heart rate recovery in children: relationship with power output, blood pH, and lactate. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010;35(2):142–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ba A, Delliaux S, Bregeon F, et al. Post-exercise heart rate recovery in healthy, obeses, and COPD subjects: relationships with blood lactic acid and PaO2 levels. Clin Res Cardiol. 2009;98(1):52–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mourot L, Bouhaddi M, Gandelin E, et al. Cardiovascular autonomic control during short-term thermoneutral and cool head-out immersion. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008;79(1):14–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pump B, Shiraishi M, Gabrielsen A, et al. Cardiovascular effects of static carotid baroreceptor stimulation during water immersion in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280(6):H2607–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Buchheit M, Peiffer JJ, Abbiss CR, et al. Effect of cold water immersion on postexercise parasympathetic reactivation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296(2):H421–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Stanley J, Buchheit M, Peake JM. The effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy on subsequent exercise performance and heart rate variability. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(3):951–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Al Haddad H, Parouty J, Buchheit M. Effect of daily cold water immersion on heart rate variability and subjective ratings of well-being in highly trained swimmers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012;7(1):33–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bastos FN, Vanderlei LC, Nakamura FY, et al. Effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on post-exercise heart rate variability. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33(11):873–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Richter EA, Ruderman NB, Galbo H. Alpha and beta adrenergic effects on metabolism in contracting, perfused muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 1982;116(3):215–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Costill DL, Hargreaves M. Carbohydrate nutrition and fatigue. Sports Med. 1992;13(2):86–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rauch HG, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV, et al. A signalling role for muscle glycogen in the regulation of pace during prolonged exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(1):34–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rauch LH, Rodger I, Wilson GR, et al. The effects of carbohydrate loading on muscle glycogen content and cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1995;5(1):25–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Beelen M, Burke LM, Gibala MJ, et al. Nutritional strategies to promote postexercise recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20(6):515–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gregson W, Allan R, Holden S, et al. Postexercise cold-water immersion does not attenuate muscle glycogen resynthesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(6):1174–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Slivka D, Heesch M, Dumke C, et al. Effects of post-exercise recovery in a cold environment on muscle glycogen, PGC-1alpha, and downstream transcription factors. Cryobiology. 2013;66(3):250–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Slivka DR, Dumke CL, Tucker TJ, et al. Human mRNA response to exercise and temperature. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33(2):94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tucker TJ, Slivka DR, Cuddy JS, et al. Effect of local cold application on glycogen recovery. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012;52(2):158–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kennedy JW, Hirshman MF, Gervino EV, et al. Acute exercise induces GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle of normal human subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1999;48(5):1192–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Swenson C, Sward L, Karlsson J. Cryotherapy in sports medicine. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1996;6(4):193–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wilcock IM, Cronin JB, Hing WA. Physiological response to water immersion: a method for sport recovery? Sports Med. 2006;36(9):747–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yanagisawa O, Kudo H, Takahashi N, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of cooling on blood flow and oedema in skeletal muscles after exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;91(5):737–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Crenshaw AG, Karlsson S, Gerdle B, et al. Differential responses in intramuscular pressure and EMG fatigue indicators during low- vs. high-level isometric contractions to fatigue. Acta Physiol Scand. 1997;160(4):353–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gregson W, Black MA, Jones H, et al. Influence of cold water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow at rest. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(6):1316–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Merrick MA, Rankin JM, Andres FA, et al. A preliminary examination of cryotherapy and secondary injury in skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(11):1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Carvalho N, Puntel G, Correa P, et al. Protective effects of therapeutic cold and heat against the oxidative damage induced by a muscle strain injury in rats. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(9):923–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cheung K, Hume PA, Maxwell L. Delayed onset muscle soreness. Sports Med. 2003;33(2):145–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ebbeling CB, Clarkson PM. Exercise-induced muscle damage and adaptation. Sports Med. 1989;7(4):207–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Proudfoot CJ, Garry EM, Cottrell DF, et al. Analgesia mediated by the TRPM8 cold receptor in chronic neuropathic pain. Curr Biol. 2006;16(16):1591–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Knowlton WM, Palkar R, Lippoldt EK, et al. A sensory-labeled line for cold: TRPM8-expressing sensory neurons define the cellular basis for cold, cold pain, and cooling-mediated analgesia. J Neurosci. 2013;33(7):2837–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Graven-Nielsen T, Lund H, Arendt-Nielsen L, et al. Inhibition of maximal voluntary contraction force by experimental muscle pain: a centrally mediated mechanism. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26(5):708–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Minett GM, Duffield R. Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise. Front Physiol. 2014;5:24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ascensao A, Leite M, Rebelo AN, et al. Effects of cold water immersion on the recovery of physical performance and muscle damage following a one-off soccer match. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(3):217–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Goodall S, Howatson G. The effects of multiple cold water immersions on indices of muscle damage. J Sports Sci Med. 2008;7(2):235–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jakeman JR, Macrae R, Eston R. A single 10-min bout of cold-water immersion therapy after strenuous plyometric exercise has no beneficial effect on recovery from the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. Ergonomics. 2009;52(4):456–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sellwood KL, Brukner P, Williams D, et al. Ice-water immersion and delayed-onset muscle soreness: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(6):392–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Paddon-Jones DJ, Quigley BM. Effect of cryotherapy on muscle soreness and strength following eccentric exercise. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18(8):588–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kuligowski LA, Lephart SM, Giannantonio FP, et al. Effect of whirlpool therapy on the signs and symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness. J Athl Train. 1998;33(3):222–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Eston R, Peters D. Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. J Sports Sci. 1999;17(3):231–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rowsell GJ, Coutts AJ, Reaburn P, et al. Effect of post-match cold-water immersion on subsequent match running performance in junior soccer players during tournament play. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(1):1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Brophy-Williams N, Landers G, Wallman K. Effect of immediate and delayed cold water immersion after a high intensity exercise session on subsequent run performance. J Sports Sci Med. 2011;10:665–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bailey DM, Erith SJ, Griffin PJ, et al. Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(11):1163–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pournot H, Bieuzen F, Duffield R, et al. Short term effects of various water immersions on recovery from exhaustive intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(7):1287–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    King M, Duffield R. The effects of recovery interventions on consecutive days of intermittent sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(6):1795–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Corbett J, Barwood MJ, Lunt HC, et al. Water immersion as a recovery aid from intermittent shuttle running exercise. Eur J Sport Sci. 2012;12(6):509–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Warren GL, Lowe DA, Armstrong RB. Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Med. 1999;27(1):43–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Ihsan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Greig Watson
    • 3
  • Chris R. Abbiss
    • 2
  1. 1.Sports Physiology DepartmentSingapore Sports InstituteSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Centre for Exercise and Sport Science Research, School of Exercise and Health SciencesEdith Cowan UniversityPerthAustralia
  3. 3.School of Human Life SciencesUniversity of TasmaniaLauncestonAustralia

Personalised recommendations