Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 49–65 | Cite as

Sports Injury Surveillance Systems: A Review of Methods and Data Quality

  • Christina L. Ekegren
  • Belinda J. Gabbe
  • Caroline F. Finch
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background and Aims

Data from sports injury surveillance systems are a prerequisite to the development and evaluation of injury prevention strategies. This review aimed to identify ongoing sports injury surveillance systems and determine whether there are gaps in our understanding of injuries in certain sport settings. A secondary aim was to determine which of the included surveillance systems have evaluated the quality of their data, a key factor in determining their usefulness.

Methods

A systematic search was carried out to identify (1) publications presenting methodological details of sports injury surveillance systems within clubs and organisations; and (2) publications describing quality evaluations and the quality of data from these systems. Data extracted included methodological details of the surveillance systems, methods used to evaluate data quality, and results of these evaluations.

Results

Following literature search and review, a total of 15 sports injury surveillance systems were identified. Data relevant to each aim were summarised descriptively. Most systems were found to exist within professional and elite sports. Publications concerning data quality were identified for seven (47 %) systems. Validation of system data through comparison with alternate sources has been undertaken for only four systems (27 %).

Conclusions

This review identified a shortage of ongoing injury surveillance data from amateur and community sport settings and limited information about the quality of data in professional and elite settings. More surveillance systems are needed across a range of sport settings, as are standards for data quality reporting. These efforts will enable better monitoring of sports injury trends and the development of sports safety strategies.

Keywords

Sport Injury Athletic Trainer National Football League National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

Christina Ekegren was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Public Health postgraduate scholarship (1055445) and, prior to 2013, was supported by a departmental scholarship funded through an NHMRC Partnership Project Grant (565907). Belinda Gabbe was supported by an NHMRC Career Development Fellowship (1048731). Caroline Finch was supported through an NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship (1058737).

Conflicts of interest

Christina Ekegren, Belinda Gabbe and Caroline Finch declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Steffen K, Myklebust G, Olsen O, et al. Preventing injuries in female youth football—a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(5):605–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gilchrist J, Mandelbaum BR, Melancon H, et al. A randomized controlled trial to prevent noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female collegiate soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(8):1476–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH. The effectiveness of a neuromuscular prevention strategy to reduce injuries in youth soccer: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(8):555–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gabbett T. Reductions in pre-season training loads reduce training injury rates in rugby league players. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(6):743–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Quarrie KL, Gianotti SM, Hopkins WG, et al. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study. Br Med J. 2007;334(7604):1150–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Emery CA, Rose MS, McAllister JR, et al. A prevention strategy to reduce the incidence of injury in high school basketball: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17(1):17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Olsen O, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, et al. Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomised controlled trial. Br Med J. 2005;330(7489):449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holder Y, Peden M, Krug E, et al., editors. Injury surveillance guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Finch CF. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(1):70–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mummery W, Schofield G, Spence J. The epidemiology of medically attended sport and recreational injuries in Queensland. J Sci Med Sport. 2002;5(4):307–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mitchell R, Finch C, Boufous S. Counting organised sport injury cases: evidence of incomplete capture from routine hospital collections. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(3):304–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kerr ZY, Dompier TP, Snook EM, et al. National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System: review of methods for 2004–2005 through 2013–2014 data collection. J Athl Train. 2014;49(3):552–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yard EE, Collins CL, Comstock RD. A comparison of high school sports injury surveillance data reporting by certified athletic trainers and coaches. J Athl Train. 2009;44(6):645–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Orchard JW, Orchard JJ, Seward H. Results of 2 decades of injury surveillance and public release of data in the Australian Football League. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(4):734–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bengtsson H, Ekstrand J, Hägglund M. Muscle injury rates in professional football increase with fixture congestion: an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(12):743–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ahmad CS, Dick RW, Snell E, et al. Major and minor league baseball hamstring injuries: epidemiologic findings from the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(6):1464–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems: recommendations from the guidelines working group. MMWR. 2001;50(RR-13):1–36.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kucera KL, Marshall SW, Bell DR, et al. Validity of soccer injury data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s Injury Surveillance System. J Athl Train. 2011;46(5):489–99.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    ICECI Coordination and Maintenance Group. International classification of external causes of injuries (ICECI) version 1.2. Amsterdam: Consumer Safety Institute and Adelaide: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, National Injury Surveillance Unit. 2004. AIHW Cat No: INJCAT 63.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elliott MCCW, Zarins B, Powell JW, et al. Hamstring muscle strains in professional football players. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(4):843–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henderson L. Injury surveillance system kickoff. Applied Clinical Trials Online. 2012. http://www.appliedclinicaltrialsonline.com/appliedclinicaltrials/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=792940. Accessed 20 Jun 2014.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Lincoln AE, Caswell SV, Almquist JL, et al. Trends in concussion incidence in high school sports: a prospective 11-year study. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(5):958–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hinton RY, Lincoln AE, Almquist JL, et al. Epidemiology of lacrosse injuries in high school-aged girls and boys: a 3-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(9):1305–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Junge A, Dvorak J, Graf-Baumann T, et al. Football injuries during FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games, 1998–2001: development and implementation of an injury-reporting system. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(1 Suppl):80S–9S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Orchard JW, James T, Portus MR. Injuries to elite male cricketers in Australia over a 10-year period. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(6):459–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Orchard J, Newman D, Stretch R, et al. Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket. J Sci Med Sport. 2005;8(1):1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hagglund M, Walden M, Bahr R, et al. Methods for epidemiological study of injuries to professional football players: developing the UEFA model. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(6):340–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Football Research Group, Linkoping. 2015. http://www.footballresearchgroup.eu/. Accessed 13 Feb 2015.
  30. 30.
    Bjorneboe J, Florenes TW, Bahr R, et al. Injury surveillance in male professional football; is medical staff reporting complete and accurate? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(5):713–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brooks JH, Fuller CW, Kemp SP, et al. Epidemiology of injuries in English professional rugby union: part 1 match injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):757–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    England Professional Rugby Injury Surveillance Project Steering Group. England Professional Rugby Injury Surveillance Project. 2012–2013 Season Report. Rugby Football Union, Twickenham, UK. 2014. http://www.rfu.com/takingpart/~/media/files/2014/takingpart/injury_audit_report_2014_.ashx. Accessed 14 Jun 2014.
  33. 33.
    Comstock RD, Currie DW, Pierpoint LA. Summary report: National High School Sports-related Injury Surveillance Study 2013–2014 school year. Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO. 2014. http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/PublicHealth/research/ResearchProjects/piper/projects/RIO/Documents/2013-14%20Original%20Report.pdf. Accessed 18 Sept 2014.
  34. 34.
    Flørenes TW, Nordsletten L, Heir S, et al. Recording injuries among World Cup skiers and snowboarders: a methodological study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(2):196–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bere T, Steenstrup S, Bahr R. FIS Injury Surveillance System 2006–2013. Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre and FIS, Oslo. 2013. http://www.fis-ski.com/mm/Document/documentlibrary/Medical/04/18/32/FISreport2013-1_Neutral.pdf. Accessed 14 Jun 2014.
  36. 36.
    International Ski Federation (FIS). FIS Injury Surveillance System. FIS, Switzerland. 2008. http://www.fis-ski.com/mm/Document/documentlibrary/Medical/03/31/94/fis-iss-brochure-081_Neutral.pdf. Accessed 2 Jun 2014.
  37. 37.
    Alonso JM, Junge A, Renström P, et al. Sports injuries surveillance during the 2007 IAAF World Athletics Championships. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19(1):26–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Junge A, Engebretsen L, Alonso JM, et al. Injury surveillance in multi-sport events: the International Olympic Committee approach. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(6):413–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    International Olympic Committee. London 2012 Olympic Summer Games Injury and Illness Surveillance Study. IOC, Lausanne. 2012. http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Commissions_PDFfiles/Medical_commission/Injury_and_Illness_Surveillance_Study-London_2012.pdf. Accessed 14 Jun 2014.
  40. 40.
    Engebretsen L, Soligard T, Steffen K, et al. Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(7):407–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McLeod TCV, Lam KC, Bay RC, et al. Practice-based research networks, part II: a descriptive analysis of the athletic training practice-based research network in the secondary school setting. J Athl Train. 2012;47(5):557–66.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR, Valovich McLeod TC. Injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained in interscholastic athletics: a report from the athletic training practice-based research network. Sports Health. 2015;7(1):67–74.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Orchard J, Hoskins W, Chiro M. For debate: consensus injury definitions in team sports should focus on missed playing time. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17(3):192–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Booher MA, Wisniewski J, Smith BW, et al. Comparison of reporting systems to determine concussion incidence in NCAA Division I collegiate football. Clin J Sport Med. 2003;13(2):93–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dick R, Agel J, Marshall SW. National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System commentaries: introduction and methods. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):173–82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dick RW. NCAA Injury Surveillance System: a tool for health and safety risk management. Athl Ther Today. 2006;11(1):42–4.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics. 1977;33(1):159–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yard E. Using surveillance for sports injury epidemiology [dissertation]. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University; 2009 91 p.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Orchard JW. Injury surveillance in cricket. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(10):605–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ekstrand J, Dvorak J, D’Hooghe M. Sport medicine research needs funding: the International football federations are leading the way. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(12):726–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nicholson M, Hoye R, Houlihan B, editors. Participation in sport., International policy persepectives. New York: Routledge; 2011.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Clarsen B, Bahr R. Matching the choice of injury/illness definition to study setting, purpose and design: one size does not fit all! Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(7):510–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fuller CW, Ekstrand J, Junge A, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(3):193–201.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fuller CW, Molloy MG, Bagate C, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in Rugby Union. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17(3):177–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ekegren CL, Donaldson A, Gabbe BJ, et al. Implementing injury surveillance systems alongside injury prevention programs: evaluation of an online surveillance system in a community setting. Inj Epidemiol. 2014;1(1):1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jacobsson J, Timpka T, Ekberg J, et al. The Swedish athletics study: design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(4):354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Timpka T, Alonso JM, Jacobsson J, et al. Injury and illness definitions and data collection procedures for use in epidemiological studies in Athletics (track and field): consensus statement. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(7):483–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Clarke KS. Premises and pitfalls of athletic injury surveillance. Am J Sports Med. 1975;3(6):292–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Clarsen B, Rønsen O, Myklebust G et al. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center questionnaire on health problems: a new approach to prospective monitoring of illness and injury in elite athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2013;48(9):754–60.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Timpka T, Jacobsson J, Bickenbach J, et al. What is a sports injury? Sports Med. 2014;44(4):423–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive MedicineMonash University, Alfred CentreMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its PreventionFederation University AustraliaBallaratAustralia

Personalised recommendations