Sports Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 9, pp 1273–1284 | Cite as

Motor Competence and its Effect on Positive Developmental Trajectories of Health

  • Leah E. Robinson
  • David F. Stodden
  • Lisa M. Barnett
  • Vitor P. Lopes
  • Samuel W. Logan
  • Luis Paulo Rodrigues
  • Eva D’Hondt
Review Article

Abstract

In 2008, Stodden and colleagues took a unique developmental approach toward addressing the potential role of motor competence in promoting positive or negative trajectories of physical activity, health-related fitness, and weight status. The conceptual model proposed synergistic relationships among physical activity, motor competence, perceived motor competence, health-related physical fitness, and obesity with associations hypothesized to strengthen over time. At the time the model was proposed, limited evidence was available to support or refute the model hypotheses. Over the past 6 years, the number of investigations exploring these relationships has increased significantly. Thus, it is an appropriate time to examine published data that directly or indirectly relate to specific pathways noted in the conceptual model. Evidence indicates that motor competence is positively associated with perceived competence and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and a healthy weight status). However, questions related to the increased strength of associations across time and antecedent/consequent mechanisms remain. An individual’s physical and psychological development is a complex and multifaceted process that synergistically evolves across time. Understanding the most salient factors that influence health and well-being and how relationships among these factors change across time is a critical need for future research in this area. This knowledge could aid in addressing the declining levels of physical activity and fitness along with the increasing rates of obesity across childhood and adolescence.

References

  1. 1.
    Birch LL, Parker L, Burns A. Early childhood obesity prevention policies. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kohl HW III, Cook HD. Educating the student body: taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glickman D, Parker L, Sim LJ, et al. Accelerating progress in obesity prevention: solving the weight of the nation. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robinson LE, Webster EK, Whitt-Glover MC, et al. Effectiveness of pre-school and school-based interventions to impact weight related behaviours in African American children and youth: a literature review. Obes Rev. 2014;15:5–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, et al. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Quest. 2008;60:290–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seefeldt V. Developmental motor patterns: implications for elementary school physical fitness. In: Nadeau CH, Halliwell WR, Newell KC, Roberts GC, editors. Psychology of motor behavior and sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1980. p. 314–23.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stodden D, Langendorfer S, Roberton MA. The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009;80:223–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemp Educ Psychol. 2000;25:54–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nicholls John G. The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ajzen I. From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In: Kuhl J, Beckman J, editors. Action-control: from cognition to behaviors. Berlin: Springer; 1985. p. 11–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Procheska JO, Diclemante CC. Stage of processes of self change of smoking: toward an integrative model. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1983;56:520–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall; 1986.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reunamo J, Hakala L, Saros L, et al. Children’s physical activity in day care and preschool. Early Years. 2014;34:32–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Markowitz S, Friedman MA, Arent SM. Understanding the relation between obesity and depression: causal mechanisms and implications for treatment. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2008;15:1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson SE, Cohen P, Naumova EN, et al. Adolescent obesity and risk for subsequent major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder: prospective evidence. Psychosom Med. 2007;69:740–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsiros MD, Olds T, Buckley JD, et al. Health-related quality of life in obese children and adolescents. Int J Obes. 2009;33:387–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shoup JA, Gattshall M, Dandamudi P, et al. Physical activity, quality of life, and weight status in overweight children. Qual Life Res. 2008;17:407–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whitehead M. The concept of physical literacy. Eur J Phys Ed. 2001;6:127–38.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Castelli DM, Centeio EE, Beighle AE, et al. Physical literacy and comprehensive school physical activity programs. Prev Med. 2014;66:95–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clark JE. Motor development. In: Ramachandran VS, editor. Encyclopedia of human behavior. New York: Academic Press; 1994. p. 245–55.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clark JE, Metcalfe JS. The mountain of motor development: a metaphor. Mot Dev Res Rev. 2002;2:163–90.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gabbard CA. A developmental systems approach to the study of motor development. In: Pelligrino JT, editor. Handbook of motor skills: development, impairment, and therapy. New York: Nova Scotia Publishers; 2009. p. 170–85.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bronfenbrenner U. Ecological systems theory. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 1992.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gibson EJ, Pick AD. An ecological approach to perceptual learning and development. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Newell KM. Constraints on the development of coordination. Mot Dev Child Asp Coord Control. 1986;34:341–60.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, et al. Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44:252–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lai SK, Costigan SA, Morgan PJ, et al. Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies. Sports Med. 2014;44:67–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zask A, Barnett LM, Rose L, et al. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robinson LE, Goodway JD. Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. part I: object-control skill development. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009;80:533–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Logan SW, Robinson LE, Wilson AE, et al. Getting the fundamentals of movement: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children. Child Care Health Dev. 2012;38:305–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Riethmuller AM, Jones RA, Okely AD. Efficacy of interventions to improve motor development in young children: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2009;124:782–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morgan PJ, Barnett LM, Cliff DP, et al. Fundamental movement skill interventions in youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2013;132:1361–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Robinson LE, Wadsworth DD, Peoples CM. Correlates of school-day physical activity in preschool students. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2012;83:20–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robinson LE. The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children. Child Care Health Dev. 2011;37:589–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Robinson LE, Webster EK, Logan SW, et al. Teaching practices that promote motor skills in early childhood settings. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2012;83:20–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Cliff DP, et al. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents. Sports Med. 2010;40:1019–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Holfelder B, Schott N. Relationship of fundamental movement skills and physical activity in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2014;15:382–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Babic MJ, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, et al. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;40:1589–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cattuzzo MT, dos Santos HR, Ré AHN, et al. Motor competence and health related physical fitness in youth: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillside: Erlbaum; 1988.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Logan SW, Webster EK, Robinson LE, et al. The relationship between motor competence and physical activity engagement during childhood: a systematic review. Kinesiol Rev. 2015 (in press).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lopes VP, Stodden DF, Bianchi MM, et al. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15:38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cohen KE, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, et al. Physical activity and skills intervention: SCORES cluster randomized controlled trial. Med Sci Sports. 2015;47:765–74.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Foweather L, Knowles Z, Ridgers ND, et al. Fundamental movement skills in relation to weekday and weekend physical activity in preschool children. J Sci Med Sport. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.09.014.
  45. 45.
    Barnett LM, Zask A, Rose L, et al. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: what about physical activity and weight status? J Phys Act Health. 2015;12(3):319–21.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liu KC, Liu CT, Chen CW, et al. Accelerometry-based motion pattern analysis for physical activity recognition and activity level assessment. Appl Mech Mater. 2014;479:818–22.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pate RR, Oria M, Pillsbury L. Fitness measures and health outcomes in youth. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stodden DF, Gao Z, Goodway JD, et al. Dynamic relationships between motor skill competence and health-related fitness in youth. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2014;26:231–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stodden DF, True LK, Langendorfer SJ, et al. Associations among selected motor skills and health-related fitness: indirect evidence for Seefeldt’s proficiency barrier in young adults? Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013;84:397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Matvienko O, Ahrabi-Fard I. The effects of a 4-week after-school program on motor skills and fitness of kindergarten and first-grade students. Am J Health Promot. 2010;24:299–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hands B. Changes in motor skill and fitness measures among children with high and low motor competence: a five-year longitudinal study. J Sci Med Sport. 2008;11:155–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vlahov E, Baghurst TM, Mwavita M. Preschool motor development predicting high school health-related physical fitness: a prospective study. Percept Mot Skills. 2014;119:279–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, et al. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:2137–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Malina RM. Top 10 research questions related to growth and maturation of relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2014;85:157–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Malina RM, Bouchard C. Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Champaign: Human Kinetics Academic; 1991.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Freitas DL, Lausen B, Maia JA, et al. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7–10 years. J Sports Sci. 2015;33:924–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harter S. The construction of the self: a developmental perspective. New York: Guilford Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wrotniak BH, Epstein LH, Dorn JM, et al. The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e1758–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Southall JE, Okely AD, Steele JR. Actual and perceived physical competence in overweight and nonoverweight children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2004;16:15–24.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Seabra AC, Seabra AF, Mendonça DM, et al. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8–10 years. Eur J Public Health. 2013;23:794–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    LeGear M, Greyling L, Sloan E, et al. A window of opportunity?: motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in kindergarten. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Toftegaard-Stoeckel J, Groenfeldt V, Andersen LB. Children’s self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers’ evaluations, and parents’ concerns. J Sports Sci. 2010;28:1369–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Spessato BC, Gabbard C, Robinson L, et al. Body mass index, perceived and actual physical competence: the relationship among young children. Child Care Health Dev. 2013;39:845–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Barnett LM, Ridgers ND, Zask A, Salmon J. Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(1):98–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Harter S. Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver: University of Denver; 1985.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Marsh HW, Richards GE, Johnson S, et al. Physical self-description questionnaire: psychometric properties and a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations to existing instruments. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1994;16:270–305.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ulrich DA. Test of gross motor development-2. Austin: Prod-Ed; 2000.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Barnett LM, Ridgers ND, Salmon J. Associations between young children’s perceived and actual ball skill competence and physical activity. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18:167–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Liong GH, Ridgers ND, Barnett LM. Associations between skill perceptions and young children’s actual fundamental movement skills. Percept Mot Skills. 2015;120:591–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, van Beurden E, et al. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, Van Beurden E, et al. A reverse pathway?: actual and perceived skill proficiency and physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Crane JR, Naylor PJ, Cook R, et al. Do perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between fundamental motor skill proficiency and physical activity levels of children in kindergarten? J Phys Act Health. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Okely AD, Booth ML, Chey T. Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills among children and adolescents. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2004;75:238–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Relationship between motor skill and body mass index in 5-to 10-year-old children. Adapt Phys Act Q. 2009;26:21–37.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, Vaeyens R, et al. Gross motor coordination in relation to weight status and age in 5- to 12-year-old boys and girls: A cross-sectional study. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6:e556–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Logan SW, Scrabis-Fletcher K, Modlesky C, et al. The relationship between motor skill proficiency and body mass index in preschool children. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011;82:442–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Deforche B, Lefevre J, Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Physical fitness and physical activity in obese and nonobese Flemish youth. Obes Res. 2003;11:434–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gentier I, D’Hondt E, Shultz S, et al. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:4043–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Saraiva L, Rodrigues LP, Cordovil R, et al. Influence of age, sex and somatic variables on the motor performance of pre-school children. Ann Hum Biol. 2013;40:444–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nervik D, Martin K, Rundquist P, et al. The relationship between body mass index and gross motor development in children aged 3 to 5 years. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2011;23:144–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chivers P, Larkin D, Rose E, et al. Low motor performance scores among overweight children: poor coordination or morphological constraints? Hum Mov Sci. 2013;32:1127–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hume C, Okely A, Bagley S, et al. Does weight status influence associations between children’s fundamental movement skills and physical activity? Res Q Exerc Sport. 2008;79:158–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Morgan PJ, Okely AD, Cliff DP, et al. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in obese children. Obesity. 2008;16:2634–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Morrison KM, Bugge A, El-Naaman BE, et al. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6-to 8-year-old Danish children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2012;24:199–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, Gentier I, et al. A longitudinal study of gross motor coordination and weight status in children. Obesity. 2014;22:1505–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Slining M, Adair LS, Goldman BD, et al. Infant overweight is associated with delayed motor development. J Pediatr. 2010;157:20–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    D’Hondt E, Deforche B, Gentier I, et al. A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers. Int J Obes. 2013;37:61–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Martins D, Maia J, Seabra A, et al. Correlates of changes in BMI of children from the Azores islands. Int J Obes. 2010;34:1487–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lopes L, Santos R, Pereira B, et al. Associations between sedentary behavior and motor coordination in children. Am J Hum Biol. 2012;24:746–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rodrigues LP, Leitão R, Lopes VP. Physical fitness predicts adiposity longitudinal changes over childhood and adolescence. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16:118–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lopes VP, Maia JA, Rodrigues LP, et al. Motor coordination, physical activity and fitness as predictors of longitudinal change in adiposity during childhood. Eur J Sport Sci. 2012;12:384–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rodrigues LP, Stodden D, Lopes VP. Developmental pathways of change in fitness and motor competence are related to overweight and obesity status at the end primary school. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.01.002.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cohen KE, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, et al. Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:49–58.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cliff DP, Okely AD, Smith L, McKeen K. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in pre-school children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2009;21:436–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chaddock L, Hillman CH, Pontifex MB, et al. Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later. J Sports Sci. 2012;30:421–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chomitz VR, Slining MM, McGowan RJ, et al. Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive results from public school children in the northeastern United States. J Sch Health. 2009;79:30–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hillman CH, Pontifex MB, Raine LB, et al. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience. 2009;159:1044–54.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hillman CH, Kamijo K, Scudder M. A review of chronic and acute physical activity participation on neuroelectric measures of brain health and cognition during childhood. Prev Med. 2011;52:S21–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    London RA, Castrechini S. A longitudinal examination of the link between youth physical fitness and academic achievement. J Sch Health. 2011;81:400–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hillman CH, Snook EM, Jerome GJ. Acute cardiovascular exercise and executive control function. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003;48:307–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sibley BA, Etnier JL. The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2003;15:243–56.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pontifex MB, Scudder MR, Drollette ES, et al. Fit and vigilant: the relationship between poorer aerobic fitness and failures in sustained attention during preadolescence. Neuropsychology. 2012;26:407–13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pontifex M, Hillman C, Fernhall B, et al. The effect of acute aerobic and resistance exercise on working memory. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:927–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Palmer KK, Miller MW, Robinson LE. Acute exercise enhances preschoolers’ ability to sustain attention. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2013;35:433–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jaakkola T, Hillman C, Kalaja S, et al. The associations among fundamental movement skills, self-reported physical activity and academic performance during junior high school in Finland. J Sports Sci. 2015:1–11 (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Haapala EA. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children–a review. J Hum Kinet. 2013;36:55–68.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cameron CE, Brock LL, Murrah WM, et al. Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement. Child Dev. 2012;83:1229–44.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Piek JP, Dawson L, Smith LM, et al. The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor and cognitive ability. Hum Mov Sci. 2008;27:668–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Smits-Engelsman B, Hill EL. The relationship between motor coordination and intelligence across the IQ range. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e950–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kantomaa MT, Stamatakis E, Kankaanpää A, et al. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2013;110:1917–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lopes VP, Rodrigues LP, Maia JA, et al. Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:663–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Haapala EA, Lintu N, Väistö J, et al. Associations of physical performance and adiposity with cognition in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ericsson I. Motor skills attention and academic achievements. An intervention study in school years 1–3. Br Educ Res J. 2008;34:301–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ericsson I, Karlsson MK. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school–a 9-year intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2012;24:273–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pesce C, Crova C, Marchetti R, et al. Searching for cognitively optimal challenge point in physical activity for children with typical and atypical motor development. Ment Health Phys Act. 2013;6:172–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Skriver K, Roig M, Lundbye-Jensen J, et al. Acute exercise improves motor memory: exploring potential biomarkers. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014;16:46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Swain RA, Harris AB, Wiener EC, et al. Prolonged exercise induces angiogenesis and increases cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat. Neuroscience. 2003;117:1037–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kleim JA, Lussnig E, Schwarz ER, Comery TA, Greenough WT. Synaptogenesis and Fos expression in the motor cortex of the adult rat after motor skill learning. J Neurosci. 1996;16:4529–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leah E. Robinson
    • 1
  • David F. Stodden
    • 2
  • Lisa M. Barnett
    • 3
  • Vitor P. Lopes
    • 4
  • Samuel W. Logan
    • 5
  • Luis Paulo Rodrigues
    • 6
  • Eva D’Hondt
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.School of KinesiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Education and Athletic TrainingUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.School of Health and Social Development, Faculty of HealthDeakin UniversityBurwood, MelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Research Center in Sports SciencesHealth Sciences and Human Development (CIDESD) and Polytechnic Institute of BragançaBragançaPortugal
  5. 5.School of Biological and Population SciencesOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  6. 6.Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer de MelgaçoInstituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, and CIDESDViana do CasteloPortugal
  7. 7.Department of Movement and Sports SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  8. 8.Faculty of Physical Education and PhysiotherapyVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselBelgium

Personalised recommendations