Sports Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 939–955 | Cite as

Impact of Dietary Antioxidants on Sport Performance: A Review

  • Andrea J. BraakhuisEmail author
  • Will G. Hopkins
Review Article


Many athletes supplement with antioxidants in the belief this will reduce muscle damage, immune dysfunction and fatigue, and will thus improve performance, while some evidence suggests it impairs training adaptations. Here we review the effect of a range of dietary antioxidants and their effects on sport performance, including vitamin E, quercetin, resveratrol, beetroot juice, other food-derived polyphenols, spirulina and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Older studies suggest vitamin E improves performance at altitude, with possible harmful effects on sea-level performance. Acute intake of vitamin E is worthy of further consideration, if plasma levels can be elevated sufficiently. Quercetin has a small beneficial effect for exercise of longer duration (>100 min), but it is unclear whether this benefits athletes. Resveratrol benefits trained rodents; more research is needed in athletes. Meta-analysis of beetroot juice studies has revealed that the nitrate component of beetroot juice had a substantial but unclear effect on performance when averaged across athletes, non-athletes and modes of exercise (single dose 1.4 ± 2.0 %, double dose 0.5 ± 1.9 %). The effect of addition of polyphenols and other components to beetroot juice was trivial but unclear (single dose 0.4 ± 3.2 %, double dose −0.5 ± 3.3 %). Other food-derived polyphenols indicate a range of performance outcomes from a large improvement to moderate impairment. Limited evidence suggests spirulina enhances endurance performance. Intravenous NAC improved endurance cycling performance and reduced muscle fatigue. On the basis of vitamin E and NAC studies, acute intake of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial. However, chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on performance.


Quercetin Polyphenol Resveratrol Spirulina Dietary Antioxidant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of the review.


  1. 1.
    Alessio HM. Exercise-induced oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(2):218–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sakellariou GK, Jackson MJ, Vasilaki A. Redefining the major contributors to superoxide production in contracting skeletal muscle: the role of NAD(P)H oxidases. Free Rad Res. 2014;48(1):12–29.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Finaud J, Lac G, Filaire E. Oxidative stress: relationship with exercise and training. Sports Med. 2006;36(4):327–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richardson RS, Donato AJ, Uberoi A, et al. Exercise-induced brachial artery vasodilation: role of free radicals. Am J Appl Physiol. 2007;292(3):H1516–22.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hurst RD, Wells RW, Hurst SM, et al. Blueberry polyphenolic suppress oxidative stress-induced skeletal muscle cell damage in vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:1–11.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gliemann L, Schmidt JF, Olesen J, et al. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men. J Physiol. 2013;591(20):5047–59.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gomez-Cabrera MC, Domenech E, Romagnoli M, et al. Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:147–9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paulsen G, Cumming KT, Holden G, et al. Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Physiol. 2014;. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.267419.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ristow M, Zarse K, Oberbach A, et al. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans. PNAS. 2009;106(21):8665–70.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Margonis K, Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, et al. Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagnosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43(6):901–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Devasagayam TPA, Tilak JC, Bollor KK, et al. Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: currant status and future prospects. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:794–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Avery NG, Kaiser JL, Sharman MJ, et al. Effects of Vitamin E supplementation on recovery from repeated bouts of resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(4):801–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shafat A, Butler P, Jensen RL, Donnelly AE. Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E on muscle function during and after eccentric contractions in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;93(1–2):196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dekkers JC, van Doornen LJP, Kemper HCG. The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med. 1996;21(3):213–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sousa M, Teixeira VH, Soares J. Dietary strategies to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014;65(2):151–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Powers SK, Jackson MJ. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol Rev. 2008;88(4):1243–76.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Urso ML, Clarkson PM. Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology. 2003;189(1–2):41–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cobley JN, McGlory C, Morton JP, et al. N-acetylcysteine’s attenuation of fatigue after repeated bouts of intermittent exercise: practical implications for tournamant situations. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21(6):451–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braakhuis AJ. Effect of vitamin C supplements on physical performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11(4):180–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Simon-Schnass I, Pabst H. Influence of vitamin E on physical performance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1988;58(1):49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nogueira L, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Perkins GA, et al. (−)-Epicatechin enhances fatigue resistance and oxidative capacity in mouse muscle. J Physiol. 2011;589(18):4616–31. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.209924.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stevenson D. Polyphenols as adaptogens—the real mechanism of the antioxidant effect? In: Rasooli PI, editor. Bioactive compounds in phyto medicine. Croatia: Intech Com. Ltd; 2012.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wadley GD, McConell GK. Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on mitochondrial biogenesis in rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(1):314–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Casuso R, Martínez-Amat A, Martínez-López E, et al. Ergogenic effects of quercetin supplementation in trained rats. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):1–7.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hart N, Sarga L, Csende Z, et al. Resveratrol enhances exercise training responses in rats selectively bred for high running performance. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;61:53–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Myburgh KH. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress? Sports Med. 2014;44(Suppl 1):57–70.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bailey SJ, Winyard P, Vanhatalo A, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(4):1144–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Medved I, Brown MJ, Bjorksten AR, et al. N-acetylcysteine enhances muscle cysteine and glutathione availability and attenuates fatigue during prolonged exercise in endurance-trained individuals. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97(4):1477–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sen CK, Atalay M, Hanninenn O. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: glutathione supplementation and deficiency. J Appl Physiol. 1994;77(5):2177–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Essentials of exercise physiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006. p. 453.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, et al. Montmorency cherries reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to repeated days high-intensity stochastic cycling. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):829–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pinna M, Roberto S, Milia R, et al. Effect of beetroot juice supplementation on aerobic response during swimming. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):605–15.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davison GW, Hughes CM, Bell RA. Exercise and mononuclear cell DNA damage: the effects of antioxidant supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(5):480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mastaloudis A, Traber MG, Carstensen K, et al. Antioxidants did not prevent muscle damage in response to an ultramarathon run. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(1):72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nieman DC, Henson DA, Maxwell KR, et al. Effects of quercetin and EGCG on mitochondrial biogenesis and immunity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(7):1467–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Utter AC, Nieman DC. Quercetin does not affect rating of perceived exertion in athletes during the Western States endurance run. Res Sports Med. 2009;17:71–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Watson T, Callister R, Taylor RD, et al. Antioxidant restriction and oxidative stress in short-duration exhaustive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(1):63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Senturk UK, Yalcin O, Gunduz F, et al. Effect of antioxidant vitamin treatment on the time course of hematological and hemorheological alterations after an exhausting exercise episode in human subjects. Am J Physiol. 2005;98(4):1272–9.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Davis MJ, Murphy AE, Carmichael MD, et al. Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance. Am J Physiol. 2009;296(4):R1071–7.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liping L, Li-an Q, Yiquan W, et al. Spirulina platensis extract supplementation attenuates oxidative stress in acute exhaustive exercise: a pilot study. Int J Phys Sci. 2011;6(12):2901–6.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wu R-E, Huang W-C, Liao C-C, et al. Resveratrol protects against physical fatigue and improves exercise performance in mice. Molecules. 2013;18(4):4689–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dolinsky VW, Jones KE, Sidhu RS, et al. Improvements in skeletal muscle strength and cardiac function induced by resveratrol during exercise training contribute to enhanced exercise performance in rats. J Physiol. 2012;590(11):2783–99.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Murase T, Haramizu S, Ota N, et al. Suppression of the aging-associated decline in physical performance by a combination of resveratrol intake and habitual exercise in senescence-accelerated mice. Biogerontology. 2009;10(4):423–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, et al. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Carr AJ, Hopkins WG, Gore CJ. Effects of acute alkolosis and acidosis on performance. Sports Med. 2011;41(10):801–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hoon MW, Johnson NA, Phillip GC, Burke LB. The effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2013;23(5):522–32.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cermak NM, Res P, Stikens R, et al. No improvement in endurance performance following a single dose of beetroot juice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012;22(6):470–8.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Novelli GP, Bracciotti G, Falsini S. Spin-trappers and vitamin E prolong endurance to muscle fatigue in mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 1990;8(1):9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Romano-Ely BC, Todd MK, Saunders MJ, et al. Effect of an isocaloric carbohydrate–protein–antioxidant drink on cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(9):1608–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brigelius-Flohe R, Traber MG. Vitamin E: function and metabolism. FASEB J. 1999;13(10):1145–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yfanti C, Akerström T, Nielsen S, et al. Antioxidant supplementation does not alter endurance training adaptation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(7):1388–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Devi SA, Prathima S. Subramanyam MVV. Dietary vitamin E and physical exercise: I. Altered endurance capacity and plasma lipid profile in ageing rats. Exp Gerontol. 2003;38(3):285–90.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Snider IP, Bazzarre TL, Murdoch SD, et al. Effects of coenzyme athletic performance system as an ergogenic aid on endurance performance to exhaustion. Int J Sports Nutr. 1992;2(3):272–86.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Keong CC, Singh HJ, Singh R. Effects of palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress and endurance performance in the heat. J Sports Sci Med. 2006;5(4):629–39.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Oostenbrug GS, Mensink RP, Hardeman MR, et al. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E. J Appl Physiol. 1997;83(3):746–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kang SW, Hahn S, Kim J-K, et al. Oligomerized lychee fruit extract (OLFE) and a mixture of vitamin C and vitamin E for endurance capacity in a double blind randomized controlled trial. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2012;50(2):106.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lawrence J, Bower R, Riehl W, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol acetate on the swimming endurance of trained swimmers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1975;28(3):205–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Teixeira VH, Valente HF, Casal SI, et al. Antioxidants do not prevent postexercise peroxidation and may delay muscle recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(9):1752–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Larcombe SD, Tregaskes CA, Coffey JS, et al. The effects of short-term antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress and flight performance in adult budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus. J Exp Biol. 2008;211(17):2859–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kobayashi Y. Effect of vitamin E on aerobic work performance in man during exposure to hypoxic hypoxia [dissertation]. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico; 1974.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Magalhães J, Ascensão A, Marques F, et al. Effect of a high-altitude expedition to a Himalayan peak (Pumori, 7,161 m) on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant profile. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005;93(5–6):726–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ilavazhagan G, Bansal A, Prasad D, et al. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on hypoxia-induced oxidative damage in male albino rats. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001;72(10):899–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bhagwat S, Haytowitz DB, Holden JM. USDA database for the flavonoid content of selected foods—release 3. Maryland: US Department of Agriculture; 2011. p. 1–156.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kressler J, Millard-Stafford M, Warren GL. Quercetin and endurance capacity: a systematic approach and meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(12):2396–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Goulet EDB, Asselin A, Lacerte G. A meta-analysis of the effect of quercetin supplementation on endurance performance and maximal oxygen consumption. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(5):S294.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pelletier DM, Lacerte GB. Effects of quercetin supplementation on endurance performance and maximal oxygen consumption: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2013;23(1):73–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Askari G, Ghiasvand R, Paknahad Z, et al. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(1):21–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Casuso RA, Martinez-Amat A, Martnez-Lopez EJ, et al. Ergogenic effects of quercetin supplementation in trained rats. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(3):1–7.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Daneshvar P, Hariri M, Ghiasvand R, et al. Effect of eight weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance, muscle damage and body muscle in male badminton players. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(Suppl 1):S53.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Darvishi L, Ghiasvand R, Hariri M, et al. Quercetin supplementation does not attenuate exercise performance and body composition in young female swimmers. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(Suppl 1):S43–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    MacRae HSE, Mefford KM. Dietary antioxidant supplementation with quercetin improves cycling time trial performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16(4):405–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cureton KJ, Tomporowski PD, Singhal A, et al. Dietary quercetin supplementation is not ergogenic in untrained men. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(4):1095–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nieman DC, Williams AS, Shanely RA, et al. Quercetin’s influence on exercise performance and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(2):338–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Davis JM, Carlstedt CJ, Chen S, et al. The dietary flavonoid quercetin increases VO2 max and endurance capacity. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20(1):56–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ganio MS, Armstrong LE, Johnson EJ, et al. Effect of quercetin supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;28(2):201–8.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bigelman KA, Chapman DP, Freese EC, et al. Effects of six weeks of quercetin supplementation on physical performance in ROTC cadets. Mil Med. 2010;175(10):791–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hart N, Sarga L, Csende Z, Koch LG, et al. Resveratrol attenuates exercise-induced adaptive responses in rats selectively bred for low running performance. Dose–Response. 2014;12(1):57–71.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wootton-Beard PC, Moran A, Ryan L. Stability of the total antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of 23 commercially available vegetable juices before and after in vitro digestion measured by FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and Folin–Ciocalteu methods. Food Res Int. 2011;44(1):217–24.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wylie LJ, Kelly J, Bailey SJ, et al. Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose–response relationships. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115(3):325–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lafay S, Jan C, Nardon K, et al. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 2009;8(3):468–80.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Oh J-K, Shin Y-O, Yoon J-H, et al. Effect of supplementation with Ecklonia cava polyphenol on endurance performance of college students. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20(1):72–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Trinity JD, Pahnke MD, Trombold JR, et al. Impact of polyphenol antioxidants on cycling performance and cardiovascular function. Nutrients. 2014;6(3):1273–92.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Labonté K, Couillard C, Motard-Bélanger A, et al. Acute effects of polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds on endothelial function and performance in elite athletes. Sports. 2013;1(3):55–68.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dartsch PC. Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations. Phytother Res. 2008;22(5):627–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kalafati M, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al. Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(1):142–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hsueh-Kuan L, Chin-Cheng H, Jen-Jung H, et al. Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;98(2):220–6.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Matuszczak Y, Farid M, Jones J, et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on glutathione oxidation and fatigue during handgrip exercise. Muscle Nerve. 2005;32(5):633–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Borgstrom L, Kagedal B, Paulsen O. Pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;31(2):217–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cobley J, McGlory C, Morton J, et al. N-acetylcysteine’s attenuation of fatigue after repeated bouts of intermittent exercise: practical implications for tournament situations. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21(6):451–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McKenna MJ, Medved I, Goodman CA, et al. N-acetylcysteine attenuates the decline in muscle. Na+, K+-pump activity and delays fatigue during prolonged exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2006;576(1):279–88.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Corn SD, Barstow TJ. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on fatigue, critical power, and W′ in exercising humans. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;178(2):261–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Trewin AJ, Petersen AC, Billaut F, et al. N-acetylcysteine alters substrate metabolism during high-intensity cycle exercise in well-trained humans. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013;38(12):1217–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Holdiness MR. Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1991;20(2):123–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lagouge M, Argmann C, Gerhat-Hines Z, et al. Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha. Cell. 2006;127(6):1109–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mayers JR, Iliff BW, Swoap SJ. Resveratrol treatment in mice does not elicit the bradycardia and hypothermia associated with calorie restriction. FASEB J. 2009;23(4):1032–40.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lansley KE, Winyard PG, Bailey SJ, et al. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(6):1125–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wilkerson DP, Hayward GM, Bailey SJ, et al. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on 50 mile time trial performance in well-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:4127–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wylie LJ, Mohr M, Krustrup P, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(7):1673–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cermak NM, Gibala MJ, van Loon LJC. Nitrate supplementation’s improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metabol. 2012;22(1):64–71.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hoon MW, Jones AM, Johnson NA, et al. The effect of variable doses of inorganic nitrate-rich beetroot juice on simulated 2,000 m rowing performance in trained athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(4):615–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hoon MW, Hopkins WG, Jones AM, et al. Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39(9):1043–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Boorsma RK, Whitfield J, Spriet LL. Beetroot juice supplementation does not improve performance in elite 1500-m runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000364.
  103. 103.
    Glaister M, Pattison JR, Muniz-Pumares D, et al. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20 km cycling time-trial performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;46(12):2326–34.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Martin K, Smee D, Thompson KG, et al. Dietary nitrate does not improve repeated sprint performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2013-0384.
  105. 105.
    Sheets AJ, Snyder BS. Effects of acute dietary nitrate consumption on running performance in ‘real-world’ environment. Int J Exerc Sci Conf Proc. 2014. (p. Article 20).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bailey SJ, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(1):135–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Masschelein E, Van Thienen R, Wang X, et al. Dietary nitrate improves muscle but not cerebral oxygenation status during exercise in hypoxia. J Appl Physiol. 2012;13(5):736–45.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Murphy M, Eliot K, Heuertz RM, et al. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(4):548–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vanhatalo A, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, et al. Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. Am J Physiol. 2010;299(4):R1121–31.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bond H, Morton L, Braakhuis AJ. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves rowing performance in well-trained rowers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012;22(4):251–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Muggeridge DJ, Howe CCF, Spendiff O, et al. The effects of a single dose of concentrated beetroot juice on performance in trained flatwater kayakers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2013;23(5):498–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sadowska-Krepa E, Klapcinska B, Kimsa E, et al. Effects of supplementation with red grape skin polyphenolic extract and interval swimming test on the bllod antioxidant status in healthy men. Med Sport. 2008;12(1):1–7.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Eichenberger P, Mettler S, Arnold M, et al. No effects of three-week consumption of a green tea extract on time trial performance in endurance-trained men. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010;80(1):54–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Skarpanska-Stejnborn A, Basta P, Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L. The influence of supplementation with the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) extract on selected prooxidative balance parameters in rowers. Stud Phys Cult Tour. 2006;13(2):51–8.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Braakhuis AJ, Hopkins WG, Lowe TE. Effects of dietary antioxidants on training and performance in female runners. Euro J Sport Sci. 2013;14(2):1–9.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dean S, Braakhuis AJ, Paton C. The effects of EGCG on fat oxidation and endurance performance in male cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(6):624–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sandhu J, Shenoy S. Efficacy of spirulina supplementation on isometric strength and isometric endurance of quadriceps in trained and untrained individuals—a comparative study. Ibnosina J Med Biomed Sci. 2009;2(2):79–83.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Matsumoto H, Takenami E, Iwasaki-Kurashige K, et al. Effects of blackcurrant anthocyanin intake on peripheral muscle circulation during typing work in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005;94(1):36–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bailey SJ, Winyard PG, Blackwell JR, et al. Influence of N-acetylcysteine administration on pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics and exercise tolerance in humans. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;175(1):121–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Reid MB, Stokić DS, Koch SM, et al. N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. J Clin Invest. 1994;94(6):2468–74.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Medved I, Brown MJ, Bjorksten AR, et al. N-acetylcysteine infusion alters blood redox status but not time to fatigue during intense exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(4):1572–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.College of Sport and Exercise ScienceVictoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations