Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 809–822 | Cite as

Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Characteristics of Male Athletes: Implications for the Development of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Programs

  • Dai Sugimoto
  • Eduard Alentorn-Geli
  • Jurdan Mendiguchía
  • Kristian Samuelsson
  • Jon Karlsson
  • Gregory D. Myer
Review Article

Abstract

Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

Keywords

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Ground Reaction Force Female Athlete Male Athlete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Agel J, Evans TA, Dick R, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s soccer injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2002–2003. J Athl Train. 2007;42:270–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmad CS, Clark AM, Heilmann N, et al. Effect of gender and maturity on quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio and anterior cruciate ligament laxity. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(3):370–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alentorn-Geli E, Mendiguchia J, Samuelsson K, et al. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. Part I: systematic review of risk factors in male athletes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:3–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alentorn-Geli E, Mendiguchia J, Samuelsson K, et al. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. Part II: systematic review of prevention programs in male athletes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:16–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ali N, Robertson GE, Rouhi G. Sagittal plane body kinematics and kinetics during single-leg landing from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances: implications for risk of non-contact ACL injury. Knee. 2014;21:38–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alkjaer T, Simonsen EB, Jorgensen U, et al. Evaluation of the walking pattern in two types of patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: copers and non-copers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:301–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amis AA, Dawkins GP. Functional anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament. Fibre bundle actions related to ligament replacements and injuries. J Bone Jt Surg Br. 1991;73(2):260–7.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Behrens M, Mau-Moeller A, Wassermann F, et al. Effect of fatigue on hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation in men and women. PLos One. 2013;8:e56988.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bell DR, Myrick MP, Blackburn JT, et al. The effect of menstrual-cycle phase on hamstring extensibility and muscle stiffness. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18(4):553–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bencke J, Naesborg H, Simonsen EB, et al. Motor pattern of the knee joint muscles during side-step cutting in European team handball. Influence on muscular co-ordination after an intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000;10(2):68–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Ackland TR. Muscle activation strategies at the knee during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:119–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Ackland TR, et al. Anticipatory effects on knee joint loading during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1176–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Cochrane JL, et al. External loading of the knee joint during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(7):1168–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brent J, Myer GD, Ford KR, et al. The effect of sex and age on isokinetic hip abduction torques. J Sport Rehabil. 2013;22:41–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buchanan PA, Vardaxis VG. Sex-related and age-related differences in knee strength of basketball players ages 11–17 years. J Athl Train. 2003;38:231–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burgess-Limerick R, Abernethy B, Neal RJ. Relative phase quantifies interjoint coordination. J Biomech. 1993;26:91–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chappell JD, Creighton RA, Giuliani C, et al. Kinematics and electromyography of landing preparation in vertical stop-jump: risks for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(2):235–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chappell JD, Herman DC, Knight BS, et al. Effect of fatigue on knee kinetics and kinematics in stop-jump tasks. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(7):1022–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chappell JD, Yu B, Kirkendall DT, et al. A comparison of knee kinetics between male and female recreational athletes in stop-jump tasks. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(2):261–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cochrane JL, Lloyd DG, Besier TF, et al. Training affects knee kinematics and kinetics in cutting maneuvers in sport. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1535–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cross MJ, Gibbs NJ, Bryant GJ. An analysis of the sidestep cutting manoeuvre. Am J Sports Med. 1989;17(3):363–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dai B, Herman D, Liu C, et al. Prevention of ACL injury, Part I: injury characteristics, risk factors, and loading mechanism. Res Sports Med. 2012;20:180–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dai B, Herman D, Liu H, et al. Prevention of ACL injury, Part II: effects of ACL injury prevention programs on neuromuscular risk factors and injury rate. Res Sports Med. 2012;20:198–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Delince P, Ghafil D. Anterior cruciate ligament tears: conservative or surgical treatment? A critical review of the literature. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20(1):48–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dempsey AR, Elliott BC, Munro BJ, et al. Whole body kinematics and knee moments that occur during an overhead catch and landing task in sport. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2012;27(5):466–74.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dempsey AR, Lloyd DG, Elliott BC, et al. Changing sidestep cutting technique reduces knee valgus loading. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(11):2194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dempsey AR, Lloyd DG, Elliott BC, et al. The effect of technique change on knee loads during sidestep cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1765–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dierks TA, Manal KT, Hamill J, et al. Proximal and distal influences on hip and knee kinematics in runners with patellofemoral pain during a prolonged run. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(8):448–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Donnelly CJ, Elliott BC, Doyle TL, et al. Changes in knee joint biomechanics following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(13):917–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Donnelly CJ, Elliott BC, Doyle TL, et al. Changes in muscle activation following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football. J Sci Med Sport. 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2014.04.012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Duthon VB, Barea C, Abrassart S, et al. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006;14(3):204–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Edwards A, Bull AM, Amis AA. The attachments of the anteromedial and posterolateral fibre bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament: Part 1: tibial attachment. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15(12):1414–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Edwards A, Bull AM, Amis AA. The attachments of the anteromedial and posterolateral fibre bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament. Part 2: femoral attachment. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(1):29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eils E, Streyl M, Linnenbecker S, et al. Characteristic plantar pressure distribution patterns during soccer-specific movements. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:140–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ergun N, Islegen C, Taskiran E. A cross-sectional analysis of sagittal knee laxity and isokinetic muscle strength in soccer players. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25:594–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Zheng N, et al. Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during the squat and leg press. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(9):1552–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ficek K, Cieszczyk P, Kaczmarczyk M, et al. Gene variants within the COL1A1 gene are associated with reduced anterior cruciate ligament injury in professional soccer players. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16:396–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ford KR, Manson NA, Evans BJ, et al. Comparison of in-shoe foot loading patterns on natural grass and synthetic turf. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9:433–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Longitudinal effects of maturation on lower extremity joint stiffness in adolescent athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(9):1829–37.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ford KR, Shapiro R, Myer GD, et al. Longitudinal sex differences during landing in knee abduction in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(10):1923–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Friemert B, Bumann-Melnyk M, Faist M, et al. Differentiation of hamstring short latency versus medium latency responsed after tibia translation. Exp Brain Res. 2005;160:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Friemert B, Faist M, Spengler C, et al. Intraoperative direct mechanical stimulation of the anterior cruciate ligament elicits short- and medium-latency hamstring reflexes. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:3996–4001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gomes JL, de Castro JV, Becker R. Decreased hip range of motion and noncontact injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. Arthroscopy. 2008;24(9):1034–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gottlob CA, Baker CL. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: socioeconomic issues and cost effectiveness. Am J Orthop (Belle.Mead NJ). 2000;29:472–6.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Griffin LY, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA, et al. Understanding and preventing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a review of the Hunt Valley II Meeting, January 2005. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(9):1512–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Heinert BL, Kernozek TW, Greany JF, et al. Hip abductor weakness and lower extremity kinematics during running. J Sport Rehabil. 2008;17(3):243–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR, et al. Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(4):492–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hewett TE, Torg JS, Boden BP. Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(6):417–22.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hootman JM, Dick R, Agel J. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):311–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huston LJ, Wojtys EM. Neuromuscular performance characteristics in elite female athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(4):427–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Iida Y, Kanehisa H, Inaba Y, et al. Activity modulations of trunk and lower limb muscles during impact-absorbing landing. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2011;21:602–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ingersoll CD, Grindstaff TL, Pietrosimone BG, et al. Neuromuscular consequences of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Clin Sports Med. 2008;27:383–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jamison ST, McNeilan RJ, Young GS, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of a trunk stabilization program on trunk control and knee loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1924–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kernozek TW, Torry MR, Iwasaki M. Gender differences in lower extremity landing mechanics caused by neuromuscular fatigue. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(3):554–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Knoll Z, Kiss RM, Kocsis L. Gait adaptation in ACL deficient patients before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2004;14:287–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Knoll Z, Kocsis L, Kiss RM. Gait patterns before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2004;12:7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Landry SC, McKean KA, Hubley-Kozey CL, et al. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated run and crosscut maneuver. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(11):1901–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Landry SC, McKean KA, Hubley-Kozey CL, et al. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(11):1888–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lee MC, Lloyd DG, Lay BS, et al. Effects of different visual stimuli on postures and knee moments during sidestepping. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:1740–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lohmander LS, Englund PM, Dahl LL, et al. The long-term consequence of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injuries: osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(10):1756–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lohmander LS, Ostenberg A, Englund M, et al. High prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, pain, and functional limitations in female soccer players twelve years after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50(10):3145–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lorentzon R, Elmqvist LG, Sjöström M, et al. Thigh musculature in relation to chronic anterior cruciate ligament tear: muscle size, morphology, and mechanical output before reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 1989;17:423–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mache MA, Hoffman MA, Hannigan K, et al. Effects of decision making on landing mechanics as a function of task and sex. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2013;28:104–9.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mather RC, Koenig L, Kocher L, et al. Societal and economic impact of anterior cruciate ligament tears. J Bone Jt Surg Am. 2013;95:1751–9.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    McLean SG, Felin RE, Suedekum N, et al. Impact of fatigue on gender-based high-risk landing strategies. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(3):502–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McLean SG, Huang X, Bogert AJ. Association between lower extremity posture at contact and peak knee valgus moment during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2005;20:863–70.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    McLean SG, Myers PT, Neal RJ, et al. A quantitative analysis of knee joint kinematics during the sidestep cutting maneuver. Implications for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 1998;57(1):30–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mokhtarzadeh H, Yeow CH, Hong-Goh JC, et al. Contributions of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles to the anterior cruciate ligament loading during single-leg landing. J Biomech. 2013;46:1913–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Muaidi QI, Nicholson LL, Refshauge KM. Do elite athletes exhibit enhanced proprioceptive acuity, range and strength of knee rotation compared with non-athletes? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19:103–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Myer GD, Ford KR, Barber Foss KD, et al. The relationship of hamstrings and quadriceps strength to anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19(1):3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    O’Malley MP, Milewski MD, Solomito MJ, et al. The association of tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament rupture in skeletally immature patients. Arthroscopy. 2015;31:77–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Orchard J, Seward H, McGivern J, et al. Rainfall, evaporation and the risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in the Australian Football League. Med J Aust. 1999;170(7):304–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Orchard JW, Chivers I, Aldous D, et al. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):704–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Orchard JW, Powell JW. Risk of knee and ankle sprains under various weather conditions in American football. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(7):1118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Petersen W, Zantop T. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament with regard to its two bundles. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;454:35–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Podraza JT, White SC. Effect of knee flexion angle on ground reaction forces, knee moments and muscle co-contraction during an impact-like deceleration landing: implications for non-contact mechanism of ACL injury. Knee. 2010;17:291–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Portes EM, Portes LA, Botelho VG, et al. Isokinetic torque peak and hamstrings/quadriceps ratios in endurance athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2007;62(2):127–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Posthumus M, Collins M, September AV, et al. The intrinsic risk factors for ACL ruptures: an evidence-based review. Phys Sportsmed. 2011;39:62–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rahim M, Gibbon A, Hobbs H, et al. The association of genes involved in the angiogenesis-associated signaling pathway with risk of anterior cruciate ligament rupture. J Orthop Res. 2014;32(12):1612–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rishiraj N, Taunton JE, Lloyd-Smith R, et al. Functional knee brace use effect on peak vertical ground reaction forces during drop jump landing. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012. doi: 10.1007/s00167-012-1911-z.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ristic V, Maljanovic MC, Pericin B, et al. The relationship between posterior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Med Pregl. 2014;67:216–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Serpell BG, Scarvell JM, Ball NB, et al. Mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injury in age mature athletes who engage in field or court sports: a summary of literature since 1980. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:3160–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sheehan FT, Sipprell WH 3rd, Boden BP. Dynamic sagittal plane trunk control during anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(5):1068–74.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shultz SJ, Sander TC, Kirk SE, et al. Sex differences in knee joint laxity change across the female menstrual cycle. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2005;45(4):594–603.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    St-Onge N, Duval N, Yahia L, et al. Interjoint coordination in lower limbs in patients with a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2004;12(3):203–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stepien-Slodkowska M, Ficek K, Eider J, et al. The +1245 g/t polymorphisms in the collagen type I alpha 1 (col1a1) gene in polish skiers with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Biol Sport. 2013;30(1):57–60.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stoffel KK, Nicholls RL, Winata AR, et al. Effect of ankle taping on knee and ankle joint biomechanics in sporting tasks. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(11):2089–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sturnick DR, Argentieri EC, Vacek PM, et al. A decreased volume of the medial tibial spine is associated with an increased risk of suffering an anterior cruciate ligament injury for males but not females. J Orthop Res. 2014;32(11):1451–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sturnick DR, Van Gorder R, Vacek PM, et al. Tibial articular cartilage and meniscus geometries combine to influence female risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Orthop Res. 2014;32(11):1487–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Takahashi M, Doi M, Abe M, et al. Anatomical study of the femoral and tibial insertions of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of human anterior cruciate ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(5):787–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tecco S, Salini V, Calvisi V, et al. Effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on postural control and muscle activity of head, neck, and trunk muscles. J Oral Rehabil. 2006;33:576–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Torry MR, Shelbourne KD, Peterson DS, et al. Knee kinematic profiles during drop landings: a biplane fluoroscopy study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:533–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tsepis E, Vagenas G, Giakas G, et al. Hamstring weakness as an indicator of poor knee function in ACL-deficient patients. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2004;12(1):22–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tsepis E, Vagenas G, Ristanis S, et al. Thigh muscle weakness in ACL-deficient knees persists without structured rehabilitation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;450:211–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Uhorchak JM, Scoville CR, Williams GN, et al. Risk factors associated with noncontact injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: a prospective four-year evaluation of 859 West Point cadets. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(6):831–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Urbach D, Awiszus F. Impaired ability of voluntary quadriceps activation bilaterally interferes with function testing after knee injuries. A twitch interpolation study. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23:231–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Urbach D, Nebelung W, Becker R, et al. Effects of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament on voluntary activation of quadriceps femoris. J Bone Jt Surg Br. 2001;83:1104–10.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Urbach D, Nebelung W, Weiler HT, et al. Bilateral deficit of voluntary quadriceps muscle activation after unilateral ACL tear. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1691–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Utturkar GM, Irribarra LA, Taylor KA, et al. The effects of a valgus collapse knee position on in vivo ACL elongation. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:123–30.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Walden M, Hagglund M, Orchard J, et al. Regional differences in injury incidence in European professional football. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23:424–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Walden M, Hagglund M, Werner J, et al. The epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injury in football (soccer): a review of the literature from a gender-related perspective. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(1):3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wideman L, Montgomery MM, Levine BJ, et al. Accuracy of calendar-based methods for assigning menstrual cycle phase in women. Sports Health. 2013;5(2):143–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wojtys EM, Huston LJ, Schock HJ, et al. Gender differences in muscular protection of the knee in torsion in size-matched athletes. J Bone Jt Surg Am. 2003;85-A(5):782–9.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yeow CH, Gan WL, Lee PV, et al. Effect of an anterior-sloped brace joint on anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation: a motion analysis study. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2010;25(10):1025–30.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yeow CH, Lee PV, Goh JC. Sagittal knee joint kinematics and energetics in response to different landing heights and techniques. Knee. 2010;17:127–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yeow CH, Lee PV, Goh JC. An investigation of lower extremity energy dissipation strategies during single-leg and double-leg landing based on sagittal and frontal plane biomechanics. Hum Mov Sci. 2011;30(3):624–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zantop T, Petersen W, Sekiya JK, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament anatomy and function relating to anatomical reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006;14(10):982–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zazulak BT, Hewett TE, Reeves NP, et al. Deficits in neuromuscular control of the trunk predict knee injury risk: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiologic study. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(7):1123–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Zazulak BT, Hewett TE, Reeves NP, et al. The effects of core proprioception on knee injury: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiological study. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(3):368–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dai Sugimoto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eduard Alentorn-Geli
    • 3
  • Jurdan Mendiguchía
    • 4
  • Kristian Samuelsson
    • 5
  • Jon Karlsson
    • 5
  • Gregory D. Myer
    • 1
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.The Micheli Center for Sports Injury PreventionWalthamUSA
  2. 2.Divison of Sports Medicine, Department of OrthopaedicsBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Duke Sports Medicine Center, Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physical TherapyZentrum Rehab and Performance CenterNavarreSpain
  5. 5.Department of OrthopaedicsInstitute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  6. 6.Division of Sports MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  7. 7.Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations