Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 353–364 | Cite as

Half-Time Strategies to Enhance Second-Half Performance in Team-Sports Players: A Review and Recommendations

  • Mark Russell
  • Daniel J. West
  • Liam D. Harper
  • Christian J. Cook
  • Liam P. Kilduff
Review Article

Abstract

A number of intermittent team sports require that two consecutive periods of play (lasting for ~30–45 min) are separated by a 10–20 min half-time break. The half-time practices employed by team-sports players generally include returning to the changing rooms, temporarily relaxing from the cognitive and physical demands of the first half, rehydration and re-fuelling strategies, addressing injury or equipment concerns, and receiving tactical instruction and coach feedback. However, the typically passive nature of these actions has been associated with physiological changes that impair performance during the second half. Both physical and cognitive performances have been found to decline in the initial stages of subsequent exercise that follows half-time. An increased risk of injury has also been observed during this period. Therefore, half-time provides sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches with an opportunity to optimise second-half performance. An overview of strategies thought to benefit team-sports athletes is presented; specifically, the efficacy of heat maintenance strategies (including passive and active methods), post-activation potentiation, hormonal priming, and modified hydro-nutritional practices are discussed. A theoretical model of applying these strategies in a manner that compliments current practice is also offered.

Keywords

Blood Glucose Concentration Soccer Player Glycaemic Index Sprint Performance Ergogenic Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Towlson C, Midgley AW, Lovell R. Warm-up strategies of professional soccer players: practitioners’ perspectives. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(13):1393–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Fatigue in soccer: a brief review. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):593–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weston M, Batterham AM, Castagna C, et al. Reduction in physical match performance at the start of the second half in elite soccer. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6(2):174–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greig M, Marchant D, Lovell R, et al. A continuous mental task decreases the physiological response to soccer-specific intermittent exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(12):908–13.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edholm P, Krustrup P, Randers MB. Half-time re-warm up increases performance capacity in male elite soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Epub 30 Apr 2014.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mohr M, Krustrup P, Nybo L, et al. Muscle temperature and sprint performance during soccer matches: beneficial effect of re-warm-up at half-time. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14(3):156–62. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2004.00349.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hawkins RD, Fuller CW. Risk assessment in professional football: an examination of accidents and incidents in the 1994 World Cup finals. Br J Sports Med. 1996;30(2):165–70.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rahnama N, Reilly T, Lees A. Injury risk associated with playing actions during competitive soccer. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36(5):354–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Walden M. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the UEFA injury study. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(7):553–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Greig M. The influence of soccer-specific fatigue on peak isokinetic torque production of the knee flexors and extensors. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(7):1403–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Russell M, Sparkes W, Northeast J et al. Changes in acceleration and deceleration capacity throughout professional soccer match-play. J Strength Cond Res. (In press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lovell R, Barrett S, Portas M, et al. Re-examination of the post half-time reduction in soccer work-rate. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(3):250–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lovell R, Midgley A, Barrett S, et al. Effects of different half-time strategies on second half soccer-specific speed, power and dynamic strength. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(1):105–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01353.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lovell RJ, Kirke I, Siegler J, et al. Soccer half-time strategy influences thermoregulation and endurance performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47(3):263–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kilduff LP, West DJ, Williams N, et al. The influence of passive heat maintenance on lower body power output and repeated sprint performance in professional rugby league players. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(5):482–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.11.889.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Russell M, West DJ, Briggs MA, et al. A passive heat maintenance strategy implemented during a simulated half-time improves lower body power output and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players. PLOS One (in press).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Russell M, Kingsley MI. Changes in acid-base balance during simulated soccer match play. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(9):2593–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kingsley M, Penas-Ruiz C, Terry C, et al. Effects of carbohydrate-hydration strategies on glucose metabolism, sprint performance and hydration during a soccer match simulation in recreational players. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17(2):239–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Russell M, Benton D, Kingsley M. Influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance during a soccer match simulation. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(4):348–54. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2011.12.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Russell M, Benton D, Kingsley M. Carbohydrate ingestion before and during soccer match play and blood glucose and lactate concentrations. J Athl Train. 2014;49(4):447–53.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krustrup P, Mohr M, Bangsbo J. Activity profile and physiological demands of top-class soccer assistant refereeing in relation to training status. J Sports Sci. 2002;20(11):861–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weston M, Drust B, Gregson W. Intensities of exercise during match-play in FA Premier League referees and players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(5):527–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Russell M, Rees G, Kingsley MI. Technical demands of soccer match play in the English championship. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(10):2869–73. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318280cc13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sugiura K, Kobayashi K. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on sprint performance following continuous and intermittent exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(11):1624–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bishop D. Warm up I: potential mechanisms and the effects of passive warm up on exercise performance. Sports Med. 2003;33(6):439–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bishop D. Warm up II: performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up. Sports Med. 2003;33(7):483–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sargeant AJ. Effect of muscle temperature on leg extension force and short-term power output in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1987;56(6):693–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    West DJ, Dietzig BM, Bracken RM, et al. Influence of post-warm-up recovery time on swim performance in international swimmers. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(2):172–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.06.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cook C, Holdcroft D, Drawer S, et al. Designing a warm-up protocol for elite bob-skeleton athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(2):213–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zois J, Bishop D, Fairweather I, et al. High-intensity re-warm-ups enhance soccer performance. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(9):800–5. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1331197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kilduff LP, Owen N, Bevan H, et al. Influence of recovery time on post-activation potentiation in professional rugby players. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(8):795–802. doi: 10.1080/02640410701784517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tillin NA, Bishop D. Factors modulating post-activation potentiation and its effect on performance of subsequent explosive activities. Sports Med. 2009;39(2):147–66. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200939020-00004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gouvea AL, Fernandes IA, Cesar EP, et al. The effects of rest intervals on jumping performance: a meta-analysis on post-activation potentiation studies. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(5):459–67. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.738924.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hamada T, Sale DG, MacDougall JD, et al. Interaction of fibre type, potentiation and fatigue in human knee extensor muscles. Acta Physiol Scand. 2003;178(2):165–73. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.2003.01121.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Desmedt JE, Godaux E. Ballistic contractions in man: characteristic recruitment pattern of single motor units of the tibialis anterior muscle. J Physiol. 1977;264(3):673–93.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Turner AP, Bellhouse S, Kilduff L et al. Post-activation potentiation of sprint acceleration performance using plyometric exercise. J Strength Cond Res. Epub 2 Sep 2014.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Faigenbaum AD, McFarland JE, Schwerdtman JA, et al. Dynamic warm-up protocols, with and without a weighted vest, and fitness performance in high school female athletes. J Athl Train. 2006;41(4):357–63.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chen ZR, Wang YH, Peng HT, et al. The acute effect of drop jump protocols with different volumes and recovery time on countermovement jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(1):154–8. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182518407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goto K, Ishii N, Kurokawa K, et al. Attenuated growth hormone response to resistance exercise with prior sprint exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(1):108–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Crewther BT, Cook CJ, Lowe TE, et al. The effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):32–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hansen S, Kvorning T, Kjaer M, et al. The effect of short-term strength training on human skeletal muscle: the importance of physiologically elevated hormone levels. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11(6):347–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cook CJ, Crewther BT. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance following the presentation of short video clips. Horm Behav. 2012;61(1):17–22. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.09.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cook CJ, Crewther BT. The effects of different pre-game motivational interventions on athlete free hormonal state and subsequent performance in professional rugby union matches. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(5):683–8. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.05.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gaviglio CM, Crewther BT, Kilduff LP, et al. Relationship between pregame concentrations of free testosterone and outcome in rugby union. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(2):324–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Randers MB, et al. The Copenhagen Soccer Test: physiological response and fatigue development. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(8):1595–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, et al. Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(6):1165–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Williams C, Serratosa L. Nutrition on match day. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(7):687–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coyle EF. Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(1):39–55. doi: 10.1080/0264041031000140545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Coyle EF, Montain SJ. Carbohydrate and fluid ingestion during exercise: are there trade-offs? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(6):671–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Astrand P-O, Rodahl K. Textbook of work physiology: physiological bases of exercise. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1986.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. Metabolic response and fatigue in soccer. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2007;2(2):111–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boyle PJ, Nagy RJ, O’Connor AM, et al. Adaptation in brain glucose uptake following recurrent hypoglycemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91(20):9352–6.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stevens AB, McKane WR, Bell PM, et al. Psychomotor performance and counterregulatory responses during mild hypoglycemia in healthy volunteers. Diabetes Care. 1989;12(1):12–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Costill D, Coyle E, Dalsky G, et al. Effects of elevated plasma FFA and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1977;43:695–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Maran A, Crepaldi C, Trupiani S, et al. Brain function rescue effect of lactate following hypoglycaemia is not an adaptation process in both normal and type I diabetic subjects. Diabetologia. 2000;43(6):733–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Maran A, Lomas J, Macdonald IA, et al. Lack of preservation of higher brain function during hypoglycaemia in patients with intensively-treated IDDM. Diabetologia. 1995;38(12):1412–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fanelli C, Pampanelli S, Epifano L, et al. Relative roles of insulin and hypoglycaemia on induction of neuroendocrine responses to, symptoms of, and deterioration of cognitive function in hypoglycaemia in male and female humans. Diabetologia. 1994;37(8):797–807.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fanelli C, Pampanelli S, Epifano L, et al. Long-term recovery from unawareness, deficient counterregulation and lack of cognitive dysfunction during hypoglycaemia, following institution of rational, intensive insulin therapy in IDDM. Diabetologia. 1994;37(12):1265–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Widom B, Simonson DC. Glycemic control and neuropsychologic function during hypoglycemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112(12):904–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fanelli CG, Epifano L, Rambotti AM, et al. Meticulous prevention of hypoglycemia normalizes the glycemic thresholds and magnitude of most of neuroendocrine responses to, symptoms of, and cognitive function during hypoglycemia in intensively treated patients with short-term IDDM. Diabetes. 1993;42(11):1683–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Veneman T, Mitrakou A, Mokan M, et al. Effect of hyperketonemia and hyperlacticacidemia on symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, and counterregulatory hormone responses during hypoglycemia in normal humans. Diabetes. 1994;43(11):1311–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Holmes CS, Koepke KM, Thompson RG, et al. Verbal fluency and naming performance in type I diabetes at different blood glucose concentrations. Diabetes Care. 1984;7(5):454–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ekblom B. Applied physiology of soccer. Sports Med. 1986;3(1):50–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Russell M, Kingsley M. The efficacy of acute nutritional interventions on soccer skill performance. Sports Med. 2014;44(7):957–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chryssanthopoulos C, Hennessy LC, Williams C. The influence of pre-exercise glucose ingestion on endurance running capacity. Br J Sports Med. 1994;28(2):105–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Russell M, Kingsley M. Influence of exercise on skill proficiency in soccer. Sports Med. 2011;41(7):523–39. doi: 10.2165/11589130-000000000-00000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Achten J, Jentjens RL, Brouns F, et al. Exogenous oxidation of isomaltulose is lower than that of sucrose during exercise in men. J Nutr. 2007;137(5):1143–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Moseley L, Lancaster GI, Jeukendrup AE. Effects of timing of pre-exercise ingestion of carbohydrate on subsequent metabolism and cycling performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;88(4–5):453–8. doi: 10.1007/s00421-002-0728-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schedl HP, Maughan RJ, Gisolfi CV. Intestinal absorption during rest and exercise: implications for formulating an oral rehydration solution (ORS). Proceedings of a roundtable discussion. April 21–22, 1993. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994;26(3):267–80.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Skinner TL, Jenkins DG, Folling J, et al. Influence of carbohydrate on serum caffeine concentrations following caffeine ingestion. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(4):343–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.08.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Messier C, Pierre J, Desrochers A, et al. Dose-dependent action of glucose on memory processes in women: effect on serial position and recall priority. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 1998;7(2):221–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Short KR, Sheffield-Moore M, Costill DL. Glycemic and insulinemic responses to multiple preexercise carbohydrate feedings. Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7(2):128–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Galbo H, Christensen NJ, Holst JJ. Catecholamines and pancreatic hormones during autonomic blockade in exercising man. Acta Physiol Scand. 1977;101(4):428–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rollo I, Williams C. Effect of mouth-rinsing carbohydrate solutions on endurance performance. Sports Med. 2011;41(6):449–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Beaven CM, Maulder P, Pooley A, et al. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013;38(6):633–7. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chambers ES, Bridge MW, Jones DA. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. J Physiol. 2009;587(Pt 8):1779–94.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gant N, Stinear CM, Byblow WD. Carbohydrate in the mouth immediately facilitates motor output. Brain Res. 2010;1350:151–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Foskett A, Ali A, Gant N. Caffeine enhances cognitive function and skill performance during simulated soccer activity. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(4):410–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stuart GR, Hopkins WG, Cook C, et al. Multiple effects of caffeine on simulated high-intensity team-sport performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(11):1998–2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ryan EJ, Kim CH, Fickes EJ, et al. Caffeine gum and cycling performance: a timing study. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(1):259–64. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182541d03.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kalmar JM. The influence of caffeine on voluntary muscle activation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(12):2113–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kamimori GH, Karyekar CS, Otterstetter R, et al. The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers. Int J Pharm. 2002;234(1–2):159–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Russell
    • 4
  • Daniel J. West
    • 1
  • Liam D. Harper
    • 1
  • Christian J. Cook
    • 2
  • Liam P. Kilduff
    • 3
  1. 1.Health and Life SciencesNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle-upon-TyneUK
  2. 2.School of Sport, Health and Exercise SciencesBangor UniversityBangorUK
  3. 3.Applied Sports Technology Exercise and Medicine Research Centre (A-STEM)Swansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  4. 4.Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Health and Life SciencesNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle-upon-TyneUK

Personalised recommendations