Predictors of Physical Activity Change Among Adults Using Observational Designs
- 858 Downloads
Regular physical activity (PA) is foundational to human health, yet most people are inactive. A sound understanding of the determinants of PA may be instructive for building interventions and/or identifying critical target groups to promote PA. Most research on PA correlates has been biased by cross-sectional or passive prospective designs that fail to examine within-person analysis of PA change.
The purpose of this review was to collect and appraise the available literature on the predictors of PA change conceived broadly in terms of increases/decreases from baseline assessment as well as specifically in terms of adoption and maintenance.
Eligible studies were from English, peer-reviewed published articles that examined predictors of natural change of PA over 3 months + using observational (non-experimental) data in adult samples. Searches were performed from June 2012 to January 2014 in eight databases.
Sixty-seven independent data-sets, from 12 countries, primarily of medium quality/risk of bias, were identified with 26 correlates spanning demographic, behavioral, intra-individual, inter-individual, and environmental categories. Only intention and the onset of motherhood could reliably predict overall PA change. Among datasets configured to predict PA adoption, affective judgments and behavioral processes of change were the only reliable predictors, although both only have a small number of available studies. There were no reliable predictors of maintenance when compared to PA relapse.
The results underscore the importance of individual-level motivation and behavioral regulation in PA change, but also denote critical social variables. These findings, however, are constrained by PA measurement bias and limited studies that employed time-varying covariation between predictor variables and PA.
KeywordsPhysical Activity Total Physical Activity Null Finding Meaningful Relationship Physical Activity Change
RER is supported by a Canadian Cancer Society Senior Scientist Award and the Right to Give Foundation with additional funds from the Canadian Cancer Society, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research. No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.
- 2.Colley RC, Garriguet D, Janssen I, et al. Physical activity of Canadian adults: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian health measures survey. Health Rep. 2011;22(1):7–14.Google Scholar
- 4.World Health Organization. Physical inactivity: a global public health problem. 2008. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_inactivity/en/. Accessed 24 Sep 2014.
- 11.Rhodes RE, Pfaeffli LA. Mediators of physical activity behaviour change among adult non-clinical populations: a review update. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7(37):1–11.Google Scholar
- 13.Foster C, Hillsdon M, Thorogood M. Interventions for promoting physical activity. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2009;1:1–86.Google Scholar
- 20.Sallis JF, Owen N. Ecological models. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1997. p. 403–24.Google Scholar
- 28.Field AP. Dread returns to mega-silly one. Health Psychol Rev. doi: 10.1080/17437199.2013.879198.
- 42.Perkins KA, Rohay J, Meilahn EN, et al. Diet, alcohol, and physical activity as a function of smoking status in middle-aged women. Health Psychol. 1993;12:410–5.Google Scholar
- 64.Ranchod YK, Diez Roux AV, Evenson KR, et al. Longitudinal associations between neighborhood recreational facilities and change in recreational physical activity in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis, 2000–2007. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;179(3):335–43. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt263.
- 66.Sugiyama T, Giles-Corti B, Jacqui Summers, et al. Initiating and maintaining recreational walking: a longitudinal study on the influence of neighborhood green space. Prev Med. 2013;57:178–82.Google Scholar
- 72.Ingledew DK, Markland D, Medley AR. Exercise motives and stages of change. J Health Psychol. 1998;3:477–89.Google Scholar
- 79.Boone-Heinonen J, Diez Roux AV, Kiefe CI, et al. Neighborhood socioeconomic status predictors of physical activity through young to middle adulthood: the CARDIA study. Soc Sci Med. 2011;72(5):641–9.Google Scholar
- 111.Lewis BA, Forsyth LH, Pinto B, et al. Psychosocial mediators of physical activity in a randomized controlled intervention trial. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2006;28:193–204.Google Scholar
- 112.Rogers RW. Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: a revised theory of protection motivation. In: Cacioppo JT, Petty RE, editors. Social psychophysiology. New York: Guilford Press; 1983. p. 153–76.Google Scholar
- 115.Rhodes RE, Symons Downs D, Bellows Riecken KH. Delivering inactivity: a review of physical activity and the transition to motherhood. In: Allerton LT, Rutherfode GP, editors. Exercise and women’s health research. Hauppauge: Earthlink Science Press; 2008. p. 105–27.Google Scholar
- 116.Rhodes RE, Quinlan A. The family as a context for physical activity promotion. In: Beauchamp MR, Eys MA, editors. Group dynamics in exercise and sport psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge; 2014.Google Scholar
- 119.Rothman AJ, Baldwin AS, Hertel AW. Self-regulation and behavior change: disentangling behavioral initiation and behavioral maintenance. In: Baumeister RF, Vohs KD, editors. Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory, and applications. New York: Guilford Press; 2004. p. 130–48.Google Scholar
- 120.Schwarzer R. Modeling health behavior change: how to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. App Psychol. 2008;57:1–29.Google Scholar
- 126.Prince SA, Adamo KB, Hamel ME, et al. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:56. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-56.
- 128.McCormack GR, Shiell A. In search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:125.1–11.Google Scholar
- 133.Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009; 6(7):e1000097.Google Scholar