Increases in Lower-Body Strength Transfer Positively to Sprint Performance: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
- 2.7k Downloads
Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear.
This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement.
A computerized search was conducted in ADONIS, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. The analysis comprised 510 subjects and 85 effect sizes (ESs), nested with 26 experimental and 11 control groups and 15 studies.
There is a transfer between increases in lower-body strength and sprint performance as indicated by a very large significant correlation (r = −0.77; p = 0.0001) between squat strength ES and sprint ES. Additionally, the magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by the level of practice (p = 0.03) and body mass (r = 0.35; p = 0.011) of the subject, the frequency of resistance-training sessions per week (r = 0.50; p = 0.001) and the rest interval between sets of resistance-training exercises (r = −0.47; p ≤ 0.001). Conversely, the magnitude of sprint improvement is not affected by the athlete’s age (p = 0.86) and height (p = 0.08), the resistance-training methods used through the training intervention, (p = 0.06), average load intensity [% of 1 repetition maximum (RM)] used during the resistance-training sessions (p = 0.34), training program duration (p = 0.16), number of exercises per session (p = 0.16), number of sets per exercise (p = 0.06) and number of repetitions per set (p = 0.48).
Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance. The magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by numerous subject characteristics and resistance-training variables, but the large difference in number of ESs available should be taken into consideration. Overall, the reported improvement in sprint performance (sprint ES = −0.87, mean sprint improvement = 3.11 %) resulting from resistance training is of practical relevance for coaches and athletes in sport activities requiring high levels of speed.
KeywordsResistance Training Repetition Maximum Sprint Performance Sprint Time Plyometric Training
Laurent B. Seitz and G. Gregory Haff contributed to the conception and design of the study, and writing of the manuscript. Laurent B. Seitz, Tai T. Tran and Eduardo Saez de Villarreal contributed to the development of the search strategy analysis and to the acquisition of data. Laurent B. Seitz and Alvaro Reyes contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data. All authors contributed to drafting the article or revising it critically. All authors approved the final version to be submitted. The authors declare no conflicts and financial competing interest.
- 2.Fry AC, Kraemer WJ. Physical performance characteristics of American collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res. 1991;5(3):126–38.Google Scholar
- 5.Baker D, Nance S. The relation between running speed and measures of strength and power in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 1999;13(3):230–5.Google Scholar
- 15.Harris GR, Stone MH, O’Bryant HS, et al. Short-term performance effects of high power, high force, or combined weight-training methods. J Strength Cond Res. 2000;14(1):14–20.Google Scholar
- 18.Häkkinen K, Mero A, Kauhanen H. Specificity of endurance, sprint, and strength training on physical performance capacity in young athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1989;29(1):27–35.Google Scholar
- 19.Campbell DT, Stanley JC. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally; 1966.Google Scholar
- 25.Juarez D, Gonzalez-Rave JM, Navarro F. Effects of complex vs non complex training programs on lower body maximum strength and power. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2009;17(4):233–41.Google Scholar
- 35.Hedges LV, Olkin I. Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic; 1985.Google Scholar
- 37.Rosenthal R. Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Beverly Hills: Sage; 1984.Google Scholar
- 38.Glass GV. Integrating findings: the meta-analysis of research. Rev Res Educ. 1977;5:351–79.Google Scholar
- 39.Hopkins WG. Linear models and effect magnitudes for research, clinical and practical applications. Sportscience. 2010;14:49–57.Google Scholar
- 40.Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Routledge; 1988.Google Scholar
- 43.Hopkins WG. Competitive performance of elite track-and-field athletes: variability and smallest worthwhile enhancements. Sportscience. 2005;9:17–20.Google Scholar
- 44.Bompa TO, Haff GG. Periodization: theory and methodology of training. 5th ed. IL: Hum Kinet Champaign; 2009.Google Scholar
- 47.Adams K, O’Shea JP, O’Shea KL, et al. The effect of six weeks of squat, plyometric and squat-plyometric training on power production. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1992;6(1):36–41.Google Scholar
- 48.Verkhoshansky YV, Verkhoshansky N. Special strength training: manual for coaches. Rome: Verkhoshansky SSTM; 2011.Google Scholar
- 49.Stone M, Keith R, Kearney J, et al. Overtraining: a review of the signs, symptoms and possible causes. J Strength Cond Res. 1991;5(1):35–50.Google Scholar
- 50.Robinson JM, Stone MH, Johnson RL, et al. Effects of different weight training exercise/rest intervals on strength, power, and high intensity exercise endurance. J Strength Cond Res. 1995;9(4):216–21.Google Scholar
- 51.Smirniotou A, Katsikas C, Paradisis G, et al. Strength-power parameters as predictors of sprinting performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2008;48(4):447–54.Google Scholar