Sports Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 12, pp 1693–1702 | Cite as

Increases in Lower-Body Strength Transfer Positively to Sprint Performance: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

  • Laurent B. Seitz
  • Alvaro Reyes
  • Tai T. Tran
  • Eduardo Saez de Villarreal
  • G. Gregory Haff
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear.

Objectives

This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement.

Methods

A computerized search was conducted in ADONIS, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. The analysis comprised 510 subjects and 85 effect sizes (ESs), nested with 26 experimental and 11 control groups and 15 studies.

Results

There is a transfer between increases in lower-body strength and sprint performance as indicated by a very large significant correlation (r = −0.77; p = 0.0001) between squat strength ES and sprint ES. Additionally, the magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by the level of practice (p = 0.03) and body mass (r = 0.35; p = 0.011) of the subject, the frequency of resistance-training sessions per week (r = 0.50; p = 0.001) and the rest interval between sets of resistance-training exercises (r = −0.47; p ≤ 0.001). Conversely, the magnitude of sprint improvement is not affected by the athlete’s age (p = 0.86) and height (p = 0.08), the resistance-training methods used through the training intervention, (p = 0.06), average load intensity [% of 1 repetition maximum (RM)] used during the resistance-training sessions (p = 0.34), training program duration (p = 0.16), number of exercises per session (p = 0.16), number of sets per exercise (p = 0.06) and number of repetitions per set (p = 0.48).

Conclusions

Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance. The magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by numerous subject characteristics and resistance-training variables, but the large difference in number of ESs available should be taken into consideration. Overall, the reported improvement in sprint performance (sprint ES = −0.87, mean sprint improvement = 3.11 %) resulting from resistance training is of practical relevance for coaches and athletes in sport activities requiring high levels of speed.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Laurent B. Seitz and G. Gregory Haff contributed to the conception and design of the study, and writing of the manuscript. Laurent B. Seitz, Tai T. Tran and Eduardo Saez de Villarreal contributed to the development of the search strategy analysis and to the acquisition of data. Laurent B. Seitz and Alvaro Reyes contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data. All authors contributed to drafting the article or revising it critically. All authors approved the final version to be submitted. The authors declare no conflicts and financial competing interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Gravina L, Gil SM, Ruiz F, et al. Anthropometric and physiological differences between first team and reserve soccer players aged 10–14 years at the beginning and end of the season. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1308–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fry AC, Kraemer WJ. Physical performance characteristics of American collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res. 1991;5(3):126–38.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gabbett TJ, Kelly J, Ralph S, et al. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of junior elite and sub-elite rugby league players, with special reference to starters and non-starters. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(1):215–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Young WB, Newton RU, Doyle T, et al. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of starters and non-starters and playing positions in elite Australian Rules football: a case study. J Sci Med Sport. 2005;8(3):333–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker D, Nance S. The relation between running speed and measures of strength and power in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 1999;13(3):230–5.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Comfort P, Bullock N, Pearson SJ. A comparison of maximal squat strength and 5-, 10-, and 20-meter sprint times, in athletes and recreationally trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(4):937–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McBride JM, Blow D, Kirby TJ, et al. Relationship between maximal squat strength and five, ten, and forty yard sprint times. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(6):1633–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Seitz LB, Trajano GS, Haff GG. The back squat and the power clean: elicitation of different degrees of potentiation. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(4):643–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wisløff U, Castagna C, Helgerud J, et al. Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(3):285–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ. Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration. J Appl Biomech. 2005;21(1):31–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Comfort P, Haigh A, Matthews MJ. Are changes in maximal squat strength during preseason training reflected in changes in sprint performance in rugby league players? J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(3):772–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoffman JR, Cooper J, Wendell M, et al. Comparison of Olympic vs. traditional power lifting training programs in football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(1):129–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Cooper JJ, et al. Comparison of loaded and unloaded jump squat training on strength/power performance in college football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(4):810–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1582–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harris GR, Stone MH, O’Bryant HS, et al. Short-term performance effects of high power, high force, or combined weight-training methods. J Strength Cond Res. 2000;14(1):14–20.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McBride JM, Triplett-McBride T, Davie A, et al. The effect of heavy- vs. light-load jump squats on the development of strength, power, and speed. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(1):75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Häkkinen K, Komi PV, Alén M, Kauhanen H. EMG, muscle fibre and force production characteristics during a 1 year training period in elite weight-lifters. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1987;56(4):419–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Häkkinen K, Mero A, Kauhanen H. Specificity of endurance, sprint, and strength training on physical performance capacity in young athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1989;29(1):27–35.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Campbell DT, Stanley JC. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally; 1966.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Balsalobre-Fernández C, Tejero-González CM, Campo-Vecino JD, et al. The effects of a maximal power training cycle on the strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration of high-level 400-meter hurdlers. J Hum Kinet. 2013;36(1):119–26.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chelly MS, Fathloun M, Cherif N, et al. Effects of a back squat training program on leg power, jump, and sprint performances in junior soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(8):2241–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Coutts AJ, Murphy AJ, Dascombe BJ. Effect of direct supervision of a strength coach on measures of muscular strength and power in young rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(2):316–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Helgerud J, Rodas G, Kemi O, et al. Strength and endurance in elite football players. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32(9):677–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hermassi S, Chelly MS, Tabka Z, et al. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(9):2424–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Juarez D, Gonzalez-Rave JM, Navarro F. Effects of complex vs non complex training programs on lower body maximum strength and power. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2009;17(4):233–41.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kotzamanidis C, Chatzopoulos D, Michailidis C, et al. The effect of a combined high-intensity strength and speed training program on the running and jumping ability of soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(2):369–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marques MAC, González-Badillo JJ. In-season resistance training and detraining in professional team handball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(3):563–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Murphy AJ, Wilson GJ. The ability of tests of muscular function to reflect training-induced changes in performance. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(2):191–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ronnestad BR, Kvamme NH, Sunde A, et al. Short-term effects of strength and plyometric training on sprint and jump performance in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):773–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rønnestad BR, Nymark BS, Raastad T. Effects of in-season strength maintenance training frequency in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(10):2653–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sáez de Villarreal E, Requena B, Izquierdo M, et al. Enhancing sprint and strength performance: combined versus maximal power, traditional heavy-resistance and plyometric training. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(2):146–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sander A, Keiner M, Wirth K, et al. Influence of a 2-year strength training programme on power performance in elite youth soccer players. Eur J Sport Sci. 2013;13(5):445–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tsimahidis K, Galazoulas C, Skoufas D, et al. The effect of sprinting after each set of heavy resistance training on the running speed and jumping performance of young basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(8):2102–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wong P, Chaouachi A, Chamari K, et al. Effect of preseason concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity interval training in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(3):653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hedges LV, Olkin I. Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic; 1985.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thomas JR, French KE. The use of meta-analysis in exercise and sport: a tutorial. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1986;57(3):196–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rosenthal R. Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Beverly Hills: Sage; 1984.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Glass GV. Integrating findings: the meta-analysis of research. Rev Res Educ. 1977;5:351–79.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hopkins WG. Linear models and effect magnitudes for research, clinical and practical applications. Sportscience. 2010;14:49–57.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Routledge; 1988.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hori N, Newton RU, Andrews WA, et al. Does performance of hang power clean differentiate performance of jumping, sprinting, and changing of direction? J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):412–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weyand PG, Sternlight DB, Bellizzi MJ, et al. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89(5):1991–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hopkins WG. Competitive performance of elite track-and-field athletes: variability and smallest worthwhile enhancements. Sportscience. 2005;9:17–20.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bompa TO, Haff GG. Periodization: theory and methodology of training. 5th ed. IL: Hum Kinet Champaign; 2009.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    de Villarreal ES, Requena B, Cronin JB. The effects of plyometric training on sprint performance: a meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(2):575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Haff GG, Nimphius S. Training principles for power. Strength Cond J. 2012;34(6):2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Adams K, O’Shea JP, O’Shea KL, et al. The effect of six weeks of squat, plyometric and squat-plyometric training on power production. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1992;6(1):36–41.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Verkhoshansky YV, Verkhoshansky N. Special strength training: manual for coaches. Rome: Verkhoshansky SSTM; 2011.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stone M, Keith R, Kearney J, et al. Overtraining: a review of the signs, symptoms and possible causes. J Strength Cond Res. 1991;5(1):35–50.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Robinson JM, Stone MH, Johnson RL, et al. Effects of different weight training exercise/rest intervals on strength, power, and high intensity exercise endurance. J Strength Cond Res. 1995;9(4):216–21.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smirniotou A, Katsikas C, Paradisis G, et al. Strength-power parameters as predictors of sprinting performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2008;48(4):447–54.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sleivert G, Taingahue M. The relationship between maximal jump-squat power and sprint acceleration in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;91(1):46–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Young W, Benton D, John Pryor M. Resistance training for short sprints and maximum-speed sprints. Strength Cond J. 2001;23(2):7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurent B. Seitz
    • 1
  • Alvaro Reyes
    • 2
  • Tai T. Tran
    • 4
  • Eduardo Saez de Villarreal
    • 3
  • G. Gregory Haff
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Exercise and Sports Sciences Research (CESSR), School of Exercise and Health SciencesEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  2. 2.School of Medical SciencesEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Human Performance, Faculty of SportUniversity Pablo de OlavideSevilleSpain
  4. 4.Hurley Surfing Australia High Performance CentreCasuarina BeachAustralia

Personalised recommendations