Sports Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 9, pp 1225–1240 | Cite as

Applied Physiology of Female Soccer: An Update

  • Naomi Datson
  • Andrew Hulton
  • Helena Andersson
  • Tracy Lewis
  • Matthew Weston
  • Barry Drust
  • Warren Gregson
Review Article

Abstract

The popularity and professionalism of female soccer has increased markedly in recent years, with elite players now employed on either a professional or semi-professional basis. The previous review of the physiological demands of female soccer was undertaken two decades ago when the sport was in its relative infancy. Increased research coupled with greater training and competition demands warrants an updated review to consider the effect on physical performance and injury patterns. The physical demands of match-play along with the influence of factors such as the standard of competition, playing position and fatigue have been explored. Total distance covered for elite female players is approximately 10 km, with 1.7 km completed at high-speed (>18 km·h−1). Elite players complete 28 % more high-speed running and 24 % more sprinting than moderate-level players. Decrements in high-speed running distance have been reported between and within halves, which may indicate an inability to maintain high-intensity activity. Although the physical capacity of female players is the most thoroughly researched area, comparisons are difficult due to differing protocols. Elite players exhibit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 49.4–57.6 mL·kg−1·min−1, Yo Yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2 (YYIE2) scores of 1,774 ± 532 m [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and 20 m sprint times of 3.17 ± 0.03 s (mean ± SD). Reasons for the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females (2–6 times greater than males) are discussed, with anatomical, biomechanical loading and neuromuscular activation differences being cited in the literature. This review presents an in-depth contemporary examination of the applied physiology of the female soccer player.

References

  1. 1.
    Davis JA, Brewer J. Applied physiology of female soccer players. Sports Med. 1993;16(3):180–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fahmy M. Increase participation and competitions. In: 5th FIFA women’s football symposium. FIFA. 2011. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/footballdevelopment/women/01/51/51/64/presentation_increaseparticipation_e.pdf. Accessed 19 Aug 2013.
  3. 3.
    Reilly T. An ergonomics model of the soccer training process. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):561–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Randers M, Mujika I, Hewitt A, et al. Application of four different match analysis systems: a comparative study. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(2):171–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Di Salvo V, Gregson W, Atkinson G, et al. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:205–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harley JA, Lovell RJ, Barnes CA, et al. The interchangeability of global positioning system and semiautomated video-based performance data during elite soccer match play. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(8):2334–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bradley PS, Sheldon W, Wooster B, et al. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(2):159–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Di Salvo V, Baron R, González-Haro C, et al. Sprinting analysis of elite soccer players during European Champions League and UEFA cup matches. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(14):1489–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vescovi JD. Sprint profile of professional female soccer players during competitive matches: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) study. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(12):1259–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andersson HÅ, Randers MB, Heiner-Møller A, et al. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(4):912–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gabbett TJ, Mulvey MJ. Time-motion analysis of small-sided training games and competition in elite women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):543–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krustrup P, Andersson H, Mohr M, et al. Match activities and fatigue development of elite female soccer players at different levels of competition. In: Reilly T, Korkusuz F, editors. Science and football VI. New York: Routledge; 2008. p. 205–11.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hewitt A, Withers R, Lyons K. Match analyses of Australian international female soccer players using an athlete tracking device. In: Reilly T, Korkusuz F, editors. Science and football VI. New York: Routledge; 2008. p. 224–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohr M, Krustrup P, Andersson H, et al. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):341–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gabbett TJ, Wig H, Spencer M. Repeated high-intensity running and sprinting in elite women’s soccer competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(2):130–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sports Sci. 2003;21(7):519–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, Andersson H, et al. Physical demands in high-level female soccer—applications of fitness tests to evaluate match performance. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(6):552–3.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krustrup P, Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, et al. Physical demands during an elite female soccer game: importance of training status. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(7):1242–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gregson W, Drust B, Atkinson G, et al. Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(04):237–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Andersson H, Raastad T, Nilsson J, et al. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(2):372–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krustrup P, Zebis M, Jensen JM, et al. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(2):437–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, et al. Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities: specific to field-based team sports. Sports Med. 2005;35(12):1025–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abt G, Lovell R. The use of individualized speed and intensity thresholds for determining the distance run at high-intensity in professional soccer. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(9):893–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vescovi JD. Sprint speed characteristics of high-level American female soccer players: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) study. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(5):474–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Helgerud J, Engen LC, Wisloff U, et al. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(11):1925–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reilly T. Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(3):257–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Andersson H, Karlsen A, Blomhoff R, et al. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(4):600–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stolen T, Chamari K, Castagna C, et al. Physiology of soccer: an update. Sports Med. 2005;35(6):501–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hoare DG, Warr CR. Talent identification and women’s soccer: an Australian experience. J Sports Sci. 2000;18(9):751–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bunc V, Psotta R. Functional characteristics of elite Czech female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(6):528.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gravina L, Ruiz F, Lekue JA, et al. Metabolic impact of a soccer match on female players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(12):1345–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mujika I, Santisteban J, Impellizzeri FM, et al. Fitness determinants of success in men’s and women’s football. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(2):107–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ingebrigtsen J, Dillern T, Shalfawi SAI. Aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(12):3352–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Can F, Yilmaz I, Erden Z. Morphological characteristics and performance variables of women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):480–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sedano S, Vaeyens R, Philippaerts RM, et al. Anthropometric and anaerobic fitness profile of elite and non-elite female soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2009;49(4):387–94.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Castagna C, Castellini E. Vertical jump performance in Italian male and female national teams soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(4):1156–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vescovi JD, Brown TD, Murray TM. Positional characteristics of physical performance in division I college female soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2006;46(2):221–6.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Todd MK, Scott D, Chisnall PJ. Fitness characteristics of English female soccer players: an analysis by position and playing standard. In: Spinks W, Reilly T, Murphy A, editors. Science and football IV. New York: Routledge; 2002. p. 374–81.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wells C, Reilly T. Influence of playing position on fitness and performance measures in female soccer players. In: Spinks W, Reilly T, Murphy A, editors. New York: Routledge; 2002. pp. 369–73.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Siegler J, Gaskill S, Ruby B. Changes evaluated in soccer-specific power endurance either with or without a 10-week, in-season, intermittent, high-intensity training protocol. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(2):379–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McCurdy KW, Walker JL, Langford GA, et al. The relationship between kinematic determinants of jump and sprint performance in division I women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3200–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sjökvist J, Laurent MC, Richardson M, et al. Recovery from high-intensity training sessions in female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(6):1726–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tumilty D, Darby S. Physiological characteristics of Australian female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:145.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Polman R, Walsh D, Bloomfield J, et al. Effective conditioning of female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(2):191–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ramsbottom R, Brewer J, Williams C. A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Br J Sports Med. 1988;22(4):141–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Manzi V, et al. The assessment of maximal aerobic power with the multistage fitness test in young women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(6):1488–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rhodes E, Mosher R. Aerobic and anaerobic characteristics of elite female university soccer players. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:143–4.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davis JA, Brewer J. Physiological characteristics of an international female soccer squad. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:142–3.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jensen K, Larsson B. Variations in physical capacity among the Danish national soccer team for women during a period of supplemental training. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:144.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Castagna C, Abt G, D’Ottavio S. Competitive-level differences in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and twelve minute run test performance in soccer referees. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(4):805–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training. J Sports Sci. 2001;19(11):881–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Belardinelli R, et al. Cardiorespiratory responses to Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test in nonelite youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):326–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bradley PS, Bendiksen M, Dellal A, et al. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(1):43–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Scott D, Andersson H. Women soccer. In: Williams M, editor. Science and soccer: developing elite players. London: Routledge; 2012. p. 237–57.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vescovi JD, Mcguigan MR. Relationships between sprinting, agility, and jump ability in female athletes. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(1):97–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tumilty D. Protocols for the physiological assessment of male and female soccer players. In: Gore CJ, editor. Physiological tests for elite athletes. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2000. p. 356–62.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gabbett TJ. The development of a test of repeated-sprint ability for elite women’s soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(5):1191–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer-with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1994;619:1–155.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Arnason A, Sigurdsson SB, Gudmundsson A, et al. Physical fitness, injuries and team performance in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;36(2):278–85.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vescovi JD, Rupf R, Brown TD, et al. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12–21 years of age. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(5):670–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rhea MR, Lavinge DM, Robbins P, et al. Metabolic conditioning among soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(3):800–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Little T, Williams AG. Suitability of soccer training drills for endurance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):316–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Clark JE. The use of an 8-week mixed-intensity interval endurance-training program improves the aerobic fitness of female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(7):1773–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Upton DE. The effect of assisted and resisted sprint training on acceleration and velocity in division I female soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(10):2645–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bartolini JA, Brown LE, Coburn JW, et al. Optimal elastic cord assistance for sprinting in collegiate women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1263–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Campo SS, Vaeyens R, Philippaerts RM, et al. Effects of lower-limb plyometric training on body composition, explosive strength and kicking speed in female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(6):1714–22.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Grieco CR, Cortes N, Greska EK, et al. Effects of a combined resistance-plyometric training program on muscular strength, running economy, and VO2 peak in division 1 female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(9):2570–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chimera NJ, Swanik KA, Swanik CB, et al. Effects of plyometric training on muscle-activation strategies and performance in female athletes. J Athl Train. 2004;39(1):24–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Oosthuyse T, Bosch AN. The effect of the menstrual cycle on exercise metabolism: implications for exercise performance in eumenorrhoeic women. Sports Med. 2010;40(3):207–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Burrows M, Peters CE. The influence of oral contraceptives on athletic performance in female athletes. Sports Med. 2007;37(7):557–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Janse de Jonge XAK. Effects of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance. Sports Med. 2003;33(11):833–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, et al. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17(7):705–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Renstrom P, Ljungqvist A, Arendt E, et al. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(6):394–412.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vescovi JD. The menstrual cycle and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk: implications of menstrual cycle variability. Sports Med. 2011;41(2):91–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Reilly T. The menstrual cycle and human performance: an overview. Biol Rhythm Res. 2000;31(1):29–40.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Loucks AB. Effects of exercise training on the menstrual cycle: existence and mechanisms. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(3):275–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Warren MP, Perlroth NE. The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system. J Endocrinol. 2001;170(1):3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    De Souza MJ, Maguire MS, Rubin KR, et al. Effects of menstrual phase and amenorrhea on exercise performance in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(5):575–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Beidleman BA, Rock PB, Muza SR, et al. Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86(5):1519–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stachenfeld NS, Silva C, Keefe DL. Estrogen modifies the temperature effects of progesterone. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(5):1643–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Williams TJ, Krahenbuhl GS. Menstrual cycle phase and running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(12):1609–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    JansedeJonge XAK, Thompson MW, Chuter VH, et al. Exercise performance over the menstrual cycle in temperate and hot, humid conditions. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(11):2190–8.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pivarnik JM, Marichal CJ, Spillman T, et al. Menstrual cycle phase affects temperature regulation during endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992;72(2):543–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hessemer V, Bruck K. Influence of menstrual cycle on thermoregulatory, metabolic, and heart rate responses to exercise at night. J Appl Physiol. 1985;59(6):1911–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Smekal G, von Duvillard SP, Frigo P, et al. Menstrual cycle: no effect on exercise cardiorespiratory variables or blood lactate concentration. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(7):1098–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dean TM, Perreault L, Mazzeo RS, et al. No effect of menstrual cycle phase on lactate threshold. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(6):2537–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zderic TW, Coggan AR, Ruby BC. Glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during exercise in the follicular and luteal phases. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90(2):447–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tsampoukos A, Peckham EA, James R, et al. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on sprinting performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(4):659–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sunderland C, Nevill M. Effect of the menstrual cycle on performance of intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running in a hot environment. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;88(4–5):345–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maia H Jr, Casoy J. Non-contraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptives. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2008;13(1):17–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rechichi C, Dawson B, Goodman C. Athletic performance and the oral contraceptive. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4(2):151–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rechichi C, Dawson B. Effect of oral contraceptive cycle phase on performance in team sport players. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(1):190–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Casazza GA, Suh S-H, Miller BF, et al. Effects of oral contraceptives on peak exercise capacity. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93(5):1698–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lebrun CM, Petit MA, McKenzie DC, et al. Decreased maximal aerobic capacity with use of a triphasic oral contraceptive in highly active women: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(4):315–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Brooks JHM, Fuller CW. The influence of methodological issues on the results and conclusions from epidemiological studies of sports injuries: illustrative examples. Sports Med. 2006;36(6):459–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ostenberg A, Roos H. Injury risk factors in female European football. A prospective study of 123 players during one season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000;10(5):279–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Söderman K, Pietilä T, Alfredson H, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young females playing soccer at senior levels. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002;12(2):65–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Soligard T, Grindem H, Bahr R, et al. Are skilled players at greater risk of injury in female youth football? Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(15):1118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Junge A, Dvorak J. Soccer injuries. Sports Med. 2004;34(13):929–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Junge A, Dvorak J. Injuries in female football players in top-level international tournaments. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(Suppl 1):i3–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jacobson I, Tegner Y. Injuries among Swedish female elite football players: a prospective population study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17(1):84–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tegnander A, Olsen OE, Moholdt TT, et al. Injuries in Norwegian female elite soccer: a prospective one-season cohort study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(2):194–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Le Gall F, Carling C, Reilly T. Injuries in young elite female soccer players: an 8-season prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(2):276–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Faude O. Injuries in female soccer players: a prospective study in the German national league. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(11):1694–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Giza E, Mithöfer K, Farrell L, et al. Injuries in women’s professional soccer. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(4):212–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hägglund M, Waldén M, Ekstrand J. UEFA injury study—an injury audit of European Championships 2006 to 2008. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(7):483–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Engström B, Johansson C, Törnkvist H. Soccer injuries among elite female players. Am J Sports Med. 1991;19(4):372–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Söderman K, Adolphson J, Lorentzon R, et al. Injuries in adolescent female players in European football: a prospective study over one outdoor soccer season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11(5):299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hawkins RD, Fuller CW. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs. Br J Sports Med. 1999;33(3):196–203.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hägglund M, Waldén M, Bahr R, et al. Methods for epidemiological study of injuries to professional football players: developing the UEFA model. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(6):340–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ekstrand J, Hilding J. The incidence and differential diagnosis of acute groin injuries in male soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;9(2):98–103.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hägglund M, Waldén M, Atroshi I. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players—design of a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10(1):75.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Waldén M, Hägglund M, Magnusson H, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football: a prospective three-cohort study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(1):11–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wild CY, Steele JR, Munro BJ. Why do girls sustain more anterior cruciate ligament injuries than boys? Sports Med. 2012;42(9):733–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gottlob CA, Baker CL. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: socioeconomic issues and cost effectiveness. Am J Orthop. 2000;29(6):472–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hewett TE. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 1, mechanisms and risk factors. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(2):299–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Steffen K, Andersen TE, Krosshaug T, et al. ECSS position statement 2009: prevention of acute sports injuries. Eur J Sport Sci. 2010;10(4):223–36.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Myer GD, Ford KR, Paterno MV, et al. The effects of generalized joint laxity on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in young female athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(6):1073–80.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Shambaugh JP, Klein A, Herbert JH. Structural measures as predictors of injury in basketball players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(5):522–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Silvers HJ, Mandelbaum BR. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(Suppl 1):i52–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Malinzak RA, Colby SM, Kirkendall DT, et al. A comparison of knee joint motion patterns between men and women in selected athletic tasks. Clin Biomech. 2001;16(5):438–45.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yu B, McClure SB, Onate JA, et al. Age and gender effects on lower extremity kinematics of youth soccer players in a stop-jump task. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(9):1356–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ryder SH, Johnson RJ. Prevention of ACL injuries. J Sport Rehabil. 1997;6(2):80–96.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Faunø P, Wulff Jakobsen B. Mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(1):75–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hewett TE, Zazulak BT, Myer GD. Effects of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(4):659–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hewett TE. Neuromuscular and hormonal factors associated with knee injuries in female athletes. Strategies for intervention. Sports Med. 2000;29(5):313–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nielsen JM, Hammar M. Sports injuries and oral contraceptive use. Sports Med. 1991;12(3):152–60.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Martineau PA, Al-Jassir F, Lenczner E, et al. Effect of the oral contraceptive pill on ligamentous laxity. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14(5):281–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bennell K, White S, Crossley K. The oral contraceptive pill: a revolution for sportswomen? Br J Sports Med. 1999;33(4):231–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Möller-Nielsen J, Hammar M. Women’s soccer injuries in relation to the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive use. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989;21(2):126–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Andersson H, Ekblom B, Krustrup P. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(2):113–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tamer K, Gunay M, Tiryaki G, et al. Physiological characteristics of Turkish female soccer players. In: Reilly T, Bangsbo J, Hughes M, editors. Science and football III. London: E and FN Spon; 1997. p. 37–9.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Evangelista M, Pandolfi O, Fanton F, et al. A functional model of female soccer players: analysis of functional characteristics. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:165.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naomi Datson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrew Hulton
    • 2
  • Helena Andersson
    • 3
  • Tracy Lewis
    • 1
  • Matthew Weston
    • 4
  • Barry Drust
    • 2
  • Warren Gregson
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.The English Football AssociationBurton Upon TrentUK
  2. 2.Research Institute of Sport SciencesLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  3. 3.The Swedish Football AssociationStockholmSweden
  4. 4.School of Social Sciences and LawTeesside UniversityMiddlesbroughUK
  5. 5.ASPIRE, Academy for Sports ExcellenceDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations