Sports Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 123–140 | Cite as

The Incidence and Prevalence of Ankle Sprain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Epidemiological Studies

  • Cailbhe DohertyEmail author
  • Eamonn Delahunt
  • Brian Caulfield
  • Jay Hertel
  • John Ryan
  • Chris Bleakley
Systematic Review



Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, yet a contemporary review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies investigating ankle sprain does not exist.


Our aim is to provide an up-to-date account of the incidence rate and prevalence period of ankle sprain injury unlimited by timeframe or context activity.


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of English articles using relevant computerised databases. Search terms included Medical Search Headings for the ankle joint, injury and epidemiology. The following inclusion criteria were used: the study must report epidemiology findings of injuries sustained in an observed sample; the study must report ankle sprain injury with either incidence rate or prevalence period among the surveyed sample, or provide sufficient data from which these figures could be calculated; the study design must be prospective. Independent extraction of articles was performed by two authors using pre-determined data fields.


One-hundred and eighty-one prospective epidemiology studies from 144 separate papers were included. The average rating of all the included studies was 6.67/11, based on an adapted version of the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for rating observational studies. 116 studies were considered high quality and 65 were considered low quality. The main findings of the meta-analysis demonstrated a higher incidence of ankle sprain in females compared with males (13.6 vs 6.94 per 1,000 exposures), in children compared with adolescents (2.85 vs 1.94 per 1,000 exposures) and adolescents compared with adults (1.94 vs 0.72 per 1,000 exposures). The sport category with the highest incidence of ankle sprain was indoor/court sports, with a cumulative incidence rate of 7 per 1,000 exposures or 1.37 per 1,000 athlete exposures and 4.9 per 1,000 h. Low-quality studies tended to underestimate the incidence of ankle sprain when compared with high-quality studies (0.54 vs 11.55 per 1,000 exposures). Ankle sprain prevalence period estimates were similar across sub-groups. Lateral ankle sprain was the most commonly observed type of ankle sprain.


Females were at a higher risk of sustaining an ankle sprain compared with males and children compared with adolescents and adults, with indoor and court sports the highest risk activity. Studies at a greater risk of bias were more likely to underestimate the risk of ankle sprain. Participants were at a significantly higher risk of sustaining a lateral ankle sprain compared with syndesmotic and medial ankle sprains.


Ankle Sprain Prevalence Period Military Population Cumulative Incidence Rate Incidence Rate Estimate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported by the Health Research Board (HRA_POR/2011/46) as follows: PI—Eamonn Delahunt; Co-investigators—Chris Bleakley and Jay Hertel; PhD student—Cailbhe Doherty. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this study.


  1. 1.
    Cooke MW, Lamb SE, Marsh J, Dale J. A survey of current consultant practice of treatment of severe ankle sprains in emergency departments in the United Kingdom. Emerg Med J. 2003;20(6):505–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braun BL. Effects of ankle sprain in a general clinic population 6 to 18 months after medical evaluation. Arch Fam Med. 1999;8(2):143–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kerkhoffs GM, Rowe BH, Assendelft WJ, Kelly K, Struijs PA, van Dijk CN. Immobilisation and functional treatment for acute lateral ankle ligament injuries in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(3):CD003762. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd003762.
  4. 4.
    Birrer RB, Fani-Salek MH, Totten VY, Herman LM, Politi V. Managing ankle injuries in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 1999;17(4):651–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilkerson GB, Horn-Kingery HM. Treatment of the inversion ankle sprain: comparison of different modes of compression and cryotherapy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1993;17(5):240–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McGowan RW, Pierce EF, Williams M, Eastman NW. Athletic injury and self diminution. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1994;34(3):299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith RW, Reischl SF. Treatment of ankle sprains in young athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14(6):465–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gerber JP, Williams GN, Scoville CR, Arciero RA, Taylor DC. Persistent disability associated with ankle sprains: a prospective examination of an athletic population. Foot Ankle Int. 1998;19(10):653–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Verhagen RA, de Keizer G, van Dijk CN. Long-term follow-up of inversion trauma of the ankle. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1995;114(2):92–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    van Rijn RM, van Os AG, Bernsen RM, Luijsterburg PA, Koes BW, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. What is the clinical course of acute ankle sprains? A systematic literature review. Am J Med. 2008;121(4):324–31 e6. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.11.018.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hertel J. Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability. J Athl Train. 2002;37(4):364–75.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delahunt E, Coughlan GF, Caulfield B, Nightingale EJ, Lin CW, Hiller CE. Inclusion criteria when investigating insufficiencies in chronic ankle instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(11):2106–21. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181de7a8a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    de Bie RA, de Vet HC, van den Wildenberg FA, Lenssen T, Knipschild PG. The prognosis of ankle sprains. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18(4):285–9. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-972635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verhagen EA, van Tulder M, van der Beek AJ, Bouter LM, van Mechelen W. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(2):111–5. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.011031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lauder TD, Baker SP, Smith GS, Lincoln AE. Sports and physical training injury hospitalizations in the army. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18(3 Suppl):118–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Songer TJ, LaPorte RE. Disabilities due to injury in the military. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18(3 Suppl):33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sell TC, Abt JP, Crawford K, Lovalekar M, Nagai T, Deluzio JB, et al. Warrior model for human performance and injury prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part I. J Spec Oper Med. 2010;10(4):2–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bar-Dayan Y. Parachuting injuries: a retrospective study of 43,542 military jumps. Mil Med. 1998;163(1):1–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Billings CE. Epidemiology of injuries and illnesses during the United States Air Force Academy 2002 Basic Cadet Training program: documenting the need for prevention. Mil Med. 2004;169(8):664–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Milgrom C, Shlamkovitch N, Finestone A, Eldad A, Laor A, Danon YL, et al. Risk factors for lateral ankle sprain: a prospective study among military recruits. Foot Ankle Int. 1991;12(1):26–30.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lillywhite LP. Analysis of extrinsic factor associated with 379 injuries occurring during 34,236 military parachute descents. J R Army Med Corps. 1991;137(3):115–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kragh JF Jr, Taylor DC. Parachuting injuries: a medical analysis of an airborne operation. Mil Med. 1996;161(2):67–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hiller CE, Nightingale EJ, Raymond J, Kilbreath SL, Burns J, Black DA, et al. Prevalence and impact of chronic musculoskeletal ankle disorders in the community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(10):1801–7. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.04.023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Valderrabano V, Hintermann B, Horisberger M, Fung TS. Ligamentous posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(4):612–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hirose K, Murakami G, Minowa T, Kura H, Yamashita T. Lateral ligament injury of the ankle and associated articular cartilage degeneration in the talocrural joint: anatomic study using elderly cadavers. J Orthop Sci. 2004;9(1):37–43. doi: 10.1007/s00776-003-0732-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Croy T, Saliba SA, Saliba E, Anderson MW, Hertel J. Differences in lateral ankle laxity measured via stress ultrasonography in individuals with chronic ankle instability, ankle sprain copers, and healthy individuals. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(7):593–600. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2012.3923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hass CJ, Bishop MD, Doidge D, Wikstrom EA. Chronic ankle instability alters central organization of movement. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(4):829–34. doi: 10.1177/0363546509351562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wikstrom EA, Bishop MD, Inamdar AD, Hass CJ. Gait termination control strategies are altered in chronic ankle instability subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(1):197–205. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ad1e2f.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    LA Moher D, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Br Med J. 2009;339:332–6.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61(4):344–9.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Neyeloff JL, Fuchs SC, Moreira LB. Meta-analyses and Forest plots using a microsoft excel spreadsheet: step-by-step guide focusing on descriptive data analysis. BMC Res Notes. 2012;20(5):52–8.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):557–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Agel J, Dick R, Nelson B, Marshall SW, Dompier TP. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s ice hockey injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 2000–2001 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):249–54.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Agel J, Dompier TP, Dick R, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s ice hockey injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):241–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Agel J, Evans TA, Dick R, Putukian M, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s soccer injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2002–2003. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):270–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Agel J, Olson DE, Dick R, Arendt EA, Marshall SW, Sikka RS. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s basketball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):202–10.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Agel J, Palmieri-Smith RM, Dick R, Woitys EM, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s volleyball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):295–302.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Agel J, Ransone J, Dick R, Oppliger R, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s wrestling injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):303–10.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Albright JP, Powell JW, Martindale A, Black R, Crowley E, Schmidt P, et al. Injury patterns in big ten conference football. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(6):1394–404. doi: 10.1177/0363546504264159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Almeida SA, Trone DW, Leone DM, Shaffer RA, Patheal SL, Long K. Gender differences in musculoskeletal injury rates: a function of symptom reporting? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(12):1807–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alonso JM, Tscholl PM, Engebretsen L, Mountjoy M, Dvorak J, Junge A. Occurrence of injuries and illnesses during the 2009 IAAF World Athletics Championships. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(15):1100–5. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.078030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Amako M, Oda T, Masuoka K, Yokoi H, Campisi P. Effect of static stretching on prevention of injuries for military recruits. Mil Med. 2003;168(6):442–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Amamilo SC, Samuel AW, Hesketh KT, Moynihan FJ. A prospective study of parachute injuries in civilians. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1987;69(1):17–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Amoroso PJ, Ryan JB, Bickley B, Leitschuh P, Taylor DC, Jones BH. Braced for impact: reducing military paratroopers’ ankle sprains using outside-the-boot braces. J Trauma. 1998;45(3):575–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Andersen TE, Floerenes TW, Arnason A, Bahr R. Video analysis of the mechanisms for ankle injuries in football. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(1 Suppl):69S–79S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aoki H, O’Hata N, Kohno T, Morikawa T, Seki J. A 15-year prospective epidemiological account of acute traumatic injuries during official professional soccer league matches in Japan. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(5):1006–14. doi: 10.1177/0363546512438695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arnason A, Tenga A, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. A prospective video-based analysis of injury situations in elite male football—football incident analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(6):1459–65. doi: 10.1177/0363546504262973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Junge A, Dvorak J. Injury risk of playing football in Futsal World Cups. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(15):1089–92. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.076752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Backous DD, Friedl KE, Smith NJ, Parr TJ, Carpine WD Jr. Soccer injuries and their relation to physical maturity. Am J Dis Child. 1988;142(8):839–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bahr R, Bahr IA. Incidence of acute volleyball injuries: a prospective cohort study of injury mechanisms and risk factors. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1997;7(3):166–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Baumhauer JF, Alosa DM, Renstrom FH, Trevino S, Beynnon B. A prospective study of ankle injury risk factors. Am J Sports Med. 1995;23(5):564–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beneka A, Malliou P, Gioftsidou A, Tsigganos G, Zetou H, Godolias G. Injury incidence rate, severity and diagnosis in male volleyball players. Sport Sci Health. 2010;5(3):93–9.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bennell K. Neuromuscular training reduces the risk of leg injuries in female floorball players. Aust J Physiother. 2008;54(4):282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beynnon BD, Renstrom PA, Alosa DM, Baumhauer JF, Vacek PM. Ankle ligament injury risk factors: a prospective study of college athletes. J Orthop Res. 2001;19(2):213–20. doi: 10.1016/s0736-0266(00)90004-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Beynnon BD, Vacek PM, Murphy D, Alosa D, Paller D. First-time inversion ankle ligament trauma: the effects of sex, level of competition, and sport on the incidence of injury. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(10):1485–91. doi: 10.1177/0363546505275490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bird YN, Waller AE, Marshall SW, Alsop JC, Chalmers DJ, Gerrard DF. The New Zealand Rugby Injury and Performance Project: V. Epidemiology of a season of rugby injury. Br J Sports Med. 1998;32(4):319–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bottini E, Poggi EJT, Luzuriaga F, Secin FP. Incidence and nature of the most common rugby injuries sustained in Argentina (1991–1997). Br J Sports Med. 2000;34(2):94–7. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.34.2.94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brito J, Rebelo A, Soares JM, Seabra A, Krustrup P, Malina RM. Injuries in youth soccer during the preseason. Clin J Sport Med. 2011;21(3):259–60. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31821a6025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brooks JH, Fuller CW, Kemp SP, Reddin DB. Epidemiology of injuries in English professional rugby union: part 2 training Injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):767–75. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.018408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brooks JH, Fuller CW, Kemp SP, Reddin DB. Epidemiology of injuries in English professional rugby union: part 1 match injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):757–66. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.018135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brudvik C. Injuries caused by small wheel devices. Prev Sci. 2006;7(3):313–20. doi: 10.1007/s11121-006-0031-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cloke DJ, Ansell P, Avery P, Deehan D. Ankle injuries in football academies: a three-centre prospective study. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(9):702–8. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2009.067900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cumps E, Verhagen E, Meeusen R. Efficacy of a sports specific balance training programme on the incidence of ankle sprains in basketball. J Sports Sci Med. 2007;6(2):212–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dick R, Ferrara MS, Agel J, Courson R, Marshall SW, Hanley MJ, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s football injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):221–33.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dick R, Hertel J, Agel J, Grossman J, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s basketball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):194–201.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dick R, Hootman JM, Agel J, Vela L, Marshall SW, Messina R. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s field hockey injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2002–2003. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):211–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dick R, Lincoln AE, Agel J, Carter EA, Marshall SW, Hinton RY. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s lacrosse injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):262–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dick R, Putukian M, Agel J, Evans TA, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s soccer injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2002–2003. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):278–85.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dick R, Romani WA, Agel J, Case JG, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s lacrosse injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):255–61.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dick R, Sauers EL, Agel J, Keuter G, Marshall SW, McCarty K, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men’s baseball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):183–93.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dompier TP, Powell JW, Barron MJ, Moore MT. Time-loss and non-time-loss injuries in youth football players. J Athl Train. 2007;42(3):395–402.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Doyle C, George K. Injuries associated with elite participation in women’s rugby over a competitive season: an initial investigation. Phys Ther Sport. 2004;5(1):44–50. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2003.11.001.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dvorak J, Junge A, Derman W, Schwellnus M. Injuries and illnesses of football players during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(8):626–30. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.079905.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dvorak J, Junge A, Grimm K, Kirkendall D. Medical report from the 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(9):578–81 (discussion 81). doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.034579.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dyson R, Buchanan M, Hale T. Incidence of sports injuries in elite competitive and recreational windsurfers. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(4):346–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Walden M. Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(6):1226–32. doi: 10.1177/0363546510395879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ekstrand J, Walden M, Hagglund M. Risk for injury when playing in a national football team. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14(1):34–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Fuller CW. Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(6):824–32. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01118.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH, Hartmann SE. Evaluation of risk factors for injury in adolescent soccer implementation and validation of an injury surveillance system. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(12):1882–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Faude O, Junge A, Kindermann W, Dvorak J. Injuries in female soccer players—a prospective study in the German national league. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(11):1694–700. doi: 10.1177/0363546505275011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Feeley BT, Kennelly S, Barnes RP, Muller MS, Kelly BT, Rodeo SA, et al. Epidemiology of National Football League training camp injuries from 1998 to 2007. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(8):1597–603. doi: 10.1177/0363546508316021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Finestone A, Novack V, Farfel A, Berg A, Amir H, Milgrom C. A prospective study of the effect of foot orthoses composition and fabrication on comfort and the incidence of overuse injuries. Foot Ankle Int. 2004;25(7):462–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Flik K, Lyman S, Marx RG. American collegiate men’s ice hockey: an analysis of injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(2):183–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fourchet F, Horobeanu C, Loepelt H, Taiar R, Millet GP. Foot, ankle, and lower leg injuries in young male track and field athletes. Int J Athl Ther Train. 2011;16(3):19–23.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Frey C, Feder KS, Sleight J. Prophylactic ankle brace use in high school volleyball players: a prospective study. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31(4):296–300. doi: 10.3113/fai.2010.0296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fuller CW, Taylor A, Molloy MG. Epidemiological study of injuries in international rugby sevens. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(3):179–84. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181df1eea.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gabbe BJ, Finch CF, Wajswelner H, Bennell KL. Predictors of lower extremity injuries at the community level of Australian football. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14(2):56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Garrick JG, Requa RK. Injury patterns in children and adolescent skiers. Am J Sports Med. 1979;7(4):245–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gaulrapp H, Becker A, Walther M, Hess H. Injuries in women’s soccer: a 1-year all players prospective field study of the women’s Bundesliga (German premier league). Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(4):264–71. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181e78e33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gibbs N. Injuries in professional rugby league. A three-year prospective study of the South Sydney Professional Rugby League Football Club. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21(5):696–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Giza E, Fuller C, Junge A, Dvorak J. Mechanisms of foot and ankle injuries in soccer. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(4):550–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hagglund M, Walden M, Ekstrand J. Previous injury as a risk factor for injury in elite football: a prospective study over two consecutive seasons. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(9):767–72. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.026609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harringe ML, Renström P, Werner S. Injury incidence, mechanism and diagnosis in top-level teamgym: a prospective study conducted over one season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17(2):115–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hjelm N, Werner S, Renstrom P. Injury profile in junior tennis players: a prospective two year study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18(6):845–50. doi: 10.1007/s00167-010-1094-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hosea TM, Carey CC, Harrer MF. The gender issue: epidemiology of ankle injuries in athletes who participate in basketball. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000;372:45–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wadley GH, Albright JP. Women’s intercollegiate gymnastics. Injury patterns and “permanent” medical disability. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21(2):314–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Johansson C. Injuries in elite orienteers. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14(5):410–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Johansson C. Training, injury and disease in senior and junior elite orienteers. Sci J Orienteering. 1988;4(1):3–13.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Johnson RJ, Ettlinger CF, Campbell RJ, Pope MH. Trends in skiing injuries. Analysis of a 6-year study (1972 to 1978). Am J Sports Med. 1980;8(2):106–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jones BH, Cowan DN, Tomlinson JP, Robinson JR, Polly DW, Frykman PN. Epidemiology of injuries associated with physical training among young men in the army. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(2):197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Junge A, Chomiak J, Dvorak J. Incidence of football injuries in youth players. Comparison of players from two European regions. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(5 Suppl):S47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Junge A, Dvorak J. Injuries in female football players in top-level international tournaments. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(Suppl 1):i3–7. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.036020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Junge A, Dvorak J, Graf-Baumann T. Football injuries during the World Cup 2002. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(1 Suppl):23S–7S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Junge A, Engebretsen L, Alonso JM, Renstrom P, Mountjoy M, Aubry M, et al. Injury surveillance in multi-sport events: the International Olympic Committee approach. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(6):413–21. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.046631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Junge A, Engebretsen L, Mountjoy ML, Alonso JM, Renstrom P, Aubry MJ, et al. Sports injuries during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(11):2165–72. doi: 10.1177/0363546509339357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Junge A, Lamprecht M, Stamm H, Hasler H, Bizzini M, Tschopp M, et al. Countrywide campaign to prevent soccer injuries in swiss amateur players. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(1):57–63. doi: 10.1177/0363546510377424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Junge A, Langevoort G, Pipe A, Peytavin A, Wong F, Mountjoy M, et al. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(4):565–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Junge A, Rosch D, Peterson L, Graf-Baumann T, Dvorak J. Prevention of soccer injuries: a prospective intervention study in youth amateur players. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(5):652–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kirkpatrick DP, Hunter RE, Janes PC, Mastrangelo J, Nicholas RA. The snowboarder’s foot and ankle. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(2):271–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kofotolis N, Kellis E. Ankle sprain injuries: a 2-year prospective cohort study in female Greek professional basketball players. J Athl Train. 2007;42(3):388–94.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kostopoulos N, Dimitrios P. Injuries in basketball. Biol Exerc. 2010;6(1):47–55.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kucera KL, Marshall SW, Kirkendall DT, Marchak PM, Garrett WE Jr. Injury history as a risk factor for incident injury in youth soccer. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(7):462–6. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.013672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Langevoort G, Myklebust G, Dvorak J, Junge A. Handball injuries during major international tournaments. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17(4):400–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00587.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Le Gall F, Carling C, Reilly T. Injuries in young elite female soccer players: an 8-season prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(2):276–84. doi: 10.1177/0363546507307866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Le Gall F, Carling C, Reilly T, Vandewalle H, Church J, Rochcongar P. Incidence of injuries in elite French youth soccer players: a 10-season study. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(6):928–38. doi: 10.1177/0363546505283271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Leary T, White JA. Acute injury incidence in professional county club cricket players (1985–1995). Br J Sports Med. 2000;34(2):145–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Linde F. Injuries in orienteering. Br J Sports Med. 1986;20(3):125–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Linko PE, Blomberg HK, Frilander HM. Orienteering competition injuries: injuries incurred in the Finnish Jukola and Venla relay competitions. Br J Sports Med. 1997;31(3):205–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Maehlum S, Daljord OA. Acute sports injuries in Oslo: a one-year study. Br J Sports Med. 1984;18(3):181–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Malliou P, Beneka A, Tsigganos G, Gioftsidou A, Germanou E, Michalopoulou M. Are injury rates in female volleyball players age related? Sport Sci Health. 2007;2(3):113–7.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Marchi AG, Di Bello D, Messi G, Gazzola G. Permanent sequelae in sports injuries: a population based study. Arch Dis Child. 1999;81(4):324–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Marfleet P. Ultimate injuries: a survey. Br J Sports Med. 1991;25(4):235–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Marshall SW, Covassin T, Dick R, Nassar LG, Agel J. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s gymnastics injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):234–40.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Marshall SW, Hamstra-Wright KL, Dick R, Grove KA, Agel J. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s softball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):286–94.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    McGuine TA, Brooks A, Hetzel S. The effect of lace-up ankle braces on injury rates in high school basketball players. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(9):1840–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    McGuine TA, Hetzel S, Wilson J, Brooks A. The effect of lace-up ankle braces on injury rates in high school basketball players. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(1):49–57. doi: 10.1177/0363546511422332.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    McMaster WC, Walter M. Injuries in soccer. Am J Sports Med. 1978;6(6):354–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Michelson JD, Durant DM, McFarland E. The injury risk associated with pes planus in athletes. Foot Ankle Int. 2002;23(7):629–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Nelson NG, McKenzie LB. Rock climbing injuries treated in emergency departments in the US, 1990–2007. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(3):195–200. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.04.025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nelson WE, DePalma B, Gieck JH, McCue FC, Kulund DN. Intercollegiate lacrosse injuries. Phys Sportsmed. 1981;9(10):86–92.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nickel C, Xernial O, Musahl V, Hansen U, Zantop T, Petersen W. A prospective study of kitesurfing injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(4):921–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Nysted M, Drogset JO. Trampoline injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(12):984–7. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.029009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Orchard J, Seward H. Epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League, seasons 1997–2000. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36(1):39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Orchard J, Wood T, Seward H, Broad A. Comparison of injuries in elite senior and junior Australian football. J Sci Med Sport. 1998;1(2):82–8.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pasanen K, Parkkari J, Kannus P, Rossi L, Palvanen M, Natri A, et al. Injury risk in female floorball: a prospective one-season follow-up. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(1):49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Price RJ, Hawkins RD, Hulse MA, Hodson A. The Football Association medical research programme: an audit of injuries in academy youth football. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4):466–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Purdam C. A survey of netball and basketball injuries. Excel. 1987;3(3):9–11.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Putukian M, Knowles WK, Swere S, Castle NG. Injuries in indoor soccer. The Lake Placid Dawn to Dark Soccer Tournament. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(3):317–22. doi: 10.1177/036354659602400312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ramirez M, Schaffer KB, Shen H, Kashani S, Kraus JF. Injuries to high school football athletes in California. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(7):1147–58. doi: 10.1177/0363546505284385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rebella GS, Edwards JO, Greene JJ, Husen MT, Brousseau DC. A prospective study of injury patterns in high school pole vaulters. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(5):913–20. doi: 10.1177/0363546507313571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Romiti M, Finch CF, Gabbe B. A prospective cohort study of the incidence of injuries among junior Australian football players: evidence for an effect of playing-age level. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(6):441–6. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.042721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sadat-Ali M, Sankaran-Kutty M. Soccer injuries in Saudi Arabia. Am J Sports Med. 1987;15(5):500–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sankey RA, Brooks JHM, Kemp SPT, Haddad FS. The epidemiology of ankle injuries in professional rugby union players. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(12):2415–24. doi: 10.1177/0363546508322889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Schafle MD, Requa RK, Patton WL, Garrick JG. Injuries in the 1987 national amateur volleyball tournament (Blessures dans le cadre du tournoi national amateur de volleyball). Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(6):624–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Schick DM, Meeuwisse WH. Injury rates and profiles in female ice hockey players. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(1):47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Schick DM, Molloy MG, Wiley JP. Injuries during the 2006 Women’s Rugby World Cup. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(6):447–51. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.046672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Schulz MR, Marshall SW, Yang J, Mueller FO, Weaver NL, Bowling JM. A prospective cohort study of injury incidence and risk factors in North Carolina high school competitive cheerleaders. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(2):396–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Shields BJ, Fernandez SA, Smith GA. Epidemiology of cheerleading stunt-related injuries in the United States. J Athl Train. 2009;44(6):586–94. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-44.6.586.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Shields BJ, Smith GA. Epidemiology of strain/sprain injuries among cheerleaders in the United States. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(9):1003–12. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2010.05.014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Sinha A, McGlone RG, Montgomery K. Study of aeroball injuries. Br J Sports Med. 1997;31(3):200–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Snellman K, Parkkari J, Kannus P, Leppala J, Vuori I, Jarvinen M. Sports injuries in floorball: a prospective one-year follow-up study. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(7):531–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Soderman K, Adolphson J, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H. Injuries in adolescent female players in European football: a prospective study over one outdoor soccer season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11(5):299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Solgard L, Nielsen AB, Moller-Madsen B, Jacobsen BW, Yde J, Jensen J. Volleyball injuries presenting in casualty: a prospective study. Br J Sports Med. 1995;29(3):200–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Starkey C. Injuries and illnesses in the National Basketball Association: a 10-year. J Athl Train. 2000;35(2):161–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Steffen K, Pensgaard AM, Bahr R. Self-reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(3):442–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00797.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Tegnander A, Olsen O, Moholdt T, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Injuries in Norwegian female elite soccer: a prospective one-season cohort study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(2):194–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Timpka T, Risto O, Bjormsjo M. Boys soccer league injuries: a community-based study of time-loss from sports participation and long-term sequelae. Eur J Public Health. 2008;18(1):19–24. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckm050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Turbeville SD, Cowan LD, Asal NR, Owen WL, Anderson MA. Risk factors for injury in middle school football players. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(2):276–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Tyler TF, McHugh MP, Mirabella MR, Mullaney MJ, Nicholas SJ. Risk factors for noncontact ankle sprains in high school football players—the role of previous ankle sprains and body mass index. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(3):471–5. doi: 10.1177/0363546505280429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Verhagen E, van der Beek A, Twisk J, Bouter L, Bahr R, van Mechelen W. The effect of a proprioceptive balance board training program for the prevention of ankle sprains: a prospective controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(6):1385–93. doi: 10.1177/0363546503262177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Volpi P, Pozzoni R, Galli M. The major traumas in youth football. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2003;11(6):399–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Walden M, Hagglund M, Ekstrand J. Injuries in Swedish elite football—a prospective study on injury definitions, risk for injury and injury pattern during 2001. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2005;15(2):118–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2004.00393.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Waterman BR, Owens BD, Davey S, Zacchilli MA, Belmont PJ Jr. The epidemiology of ankle sprains in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(13):2279–84. doi: 10.2106/jbjs.i.01537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Watson AW. Ankle sprains in players of the field-games Gaelic football and hurling. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1999;39(1):66–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Watson AWS. Sports injuries in the game of hurling—a one-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(3):323–8. doi: 10.1177/036354659602400313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Watson MD, DiMartino PP. Incidence of injuries in high school track and field athletes and its relation to performance ability. Am J Sports Med. 1987;15(3):251–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wedderkopp N, Kaltoft M, Holm R, Froberg K. Comparison of two intervention programmes in young female players in European handball—with and without ankle disc. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13(6):371–5. doi: 10.1046/j.1600-0838.2003.00336.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wedderkopp N, Kaltoft M, Lundgaard B, Rosendahl M, Froberg K. Injuries in young female players in European team handball. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1997;7(6):342–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Wheeler BR. Slow-pitch softball injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1984;12(3):237–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wiesler ER, Hunter M, Martin DF, Curl WW, Hoen H. Ankle flexibility and injury patterns in dancers. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(6):754–7. doi: 10.1177/036354659602400609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Wikstrom J, Andersson C. A prospective study of injuries in licensed floorball players (Une etude prospective des blessures chez les joueurs licencies de balle au sol, sport pratique en Suede). Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1997;7(1):38–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Williamson DM, Lowdon IM. Ice-skating injuries. Injury. 1986;17(3):205–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Woods C, Hawkins R, Hulse M, Hodson A. The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football: an analysis of ankle sprains. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(3):233–8. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.37.3.233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Yard EE, Shcroeder MJ, Fields SK, Collins CL, Comstock RD. The epidemiology of United States high school soccer injuries, 2005–2007. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(10):1930–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Yde J, Nielsen AB. Sports injuries in adolescents’ ball games: soccer, handball and basketball. Br J Sports Med. 1990;24(1):51–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Zillmer DA, Powell JW, Albright JP. Gender-specific injury patterns in high school varsity basketball. J Women Health. 1992;1(1):69–76.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cumps E, Verhagen E, Meeusen R. Prospective epidemiological study of basketball injuries during one competitive season: ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries. J Sports Sci Med. 2007;6(2):204–11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Junge A, Dvorak J, Graf-Baumann T, Peterson L. Football injuries during FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games, 1998–2001: development and implementation of an injury-reporting system. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(1 Suppl):80S–9S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Finch CF, Valuri G, Ozanne-Smith J. Injury surveillance during medical coverage of sporting events–development and testing of a standardised data collection form. J Sci Med Sport. 1999;2(1):42–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Peterson L, Junge A, Chomiak J, Graf-Baumann T, Dvorak J. Incidence of football injuries and complaints in different age groups and skill-level groups. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(5 Suppl):S51–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Keller CS, Noyes FR, Buncher CR. The medical aspects of soccer injury epidemiology. Am J Sports Med. 1987;15(3):230–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Levy IM. Formulation and sense of the NAIRS athletic injury surveillance system. Am J Sports Med. 1988;16(Suppl 1):S132–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Hagglund M, Walden M, Bahr R, Ekstrand J. Methods for epidemiological study of injuries to professional football players: developing the UEFA model. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(6):340–6. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.018267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Verhagen E, Van der Beek AJ, Bouter LM, Bahr RM, Van Mechelen W. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4):477–81. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.005785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ristolainen L, Heinonen A, Waller B, Kujala UM, Kettunen JA. Gender differences in sport injury risk and types of injuries: a retrospective twelve-month study on cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players. J Sports Sci Med. 2009;8(3):443–51.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Rozzi SL, Lephart SM, Gear WS, Fu FH. Knee joint laxity and neuromuscular characteristics of male and female soccer and basketball players. Am J Sports Med. 1999;27(3):312–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Quatman CE, Myer GD, Khoury J, Wall EJ, Hewett TE. Sex differences in “weightlifting” injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):2061–7. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b86cb9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Agel J, Bershadsky B, Arendt EA. Hormonal therapy: ACL and ankle injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(1):7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Hesar NGZ, Calders P, Thijs Y, Roosen P, Witvrouw E. The influence of menstrual cycle on ankle proprioception. Isokin Exerc Sci. 2008;16(2):119–23.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Beaulieu ML, Lamontagne M, Xu LY. Lower limb muscle activity and kinematics of an unanticipated cutting manoeuvre: a gender comparison. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17(8):968–76. doi: 10.1007/s00167-009-0821-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Joseph MF, Rahl M, Sheehan J, MacDougall B, Horn E, Denegar CR, et al. Timing of lower extremity frontal plane motion differs between female and male athletes during a landing task. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(7):1517–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    McLean SG, Walker KB, Van den Bogert AJ. Effect of gender on lower extremity kinematics during rapid direction changes: an integrated analysis of three sports movements. J Sci Med Sport. 2005;8(4):411–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Hewett TE, Ford KR, Myer GD. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 2, a meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(3):490–8. doi: 10.1177/0363546505282619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lohmander LS, Ostenberg A, Englund M, Roos H. High prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, pain, and functional limitations in female soccer players twelve years after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50(10):3145–52. doi: 10.1002/art.20589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Quatman-Yates CC, Quatman CE, Meszaros AJ, Paterno MV, Hewett TE. A systematic review of sensorimotor function during adolescence: a developmental stage of increased motor awkwardness? Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(9):649–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Conn JM, Annest JL, Bossarte RM, Gilchrist J. Non-fatal sports and recreational violent injuries among children and teenagers, United States, 2001–2003. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(6):479–89. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2006.03.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kelso JA. Phase transitions and critical behavior in human bimanual coordination. Am J Physiol. 1984;246(6 Pt 2):R1000–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kelso JA, Holt KG, Rubin P, Kugler PN. Patterns of human interlimb coordination emerge from the properties of non-linear, limit cycle oscillatory processes: theory and data. J Mot Behav. 1981;13(4):226–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Robertson SD, Zelaznik HN, Lantero DA, Bojczyk KG, Spencer RM, Doffin JG, Schneidt T. Correlations for timing consistency among tapping and drawing tasks: evidence against a single timing process for motor control. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1999;25(5):1316–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Davids K, Glazier P, Araújo D, Bartlett R. Movement systems as dynamical systems: the functional role of variability and its implications for sports medicine. Sports Med. 2003;33(4):245–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Davids K, Glazier P. Deconstructing neurobiological coordination: the role of the biomechanics-motor control nexus. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38(2):86–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Barrett JR, Tanji JL, Drake C, Fuller D, Kawasaki RI, Fenton RM. High- versus low-top shoes for the prevention of ankle sprains in basketball players. A prospective randomized study. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21(4):582–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Borowski LA, Yard EE, Fields SK, Comstock RD. The epidemiology of US high school basketball injuries, 2005–2007. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(12):2328–35. doi: 10.1177/0363546508322893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Chan KM, Yuan Y, Li CK, Chien P, Tsang G. Sports causing most injuries in Hong Kong. Br J Sports Med. 1993;27(4):263–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Gomez E, DeLee JC, Farney WC. Incidence of injury in Texas girls’ high school basketball. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(5):684–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Henry JH, Lareau B, Neigut D. The injury rate in professional basketball. Am J Sports Med. 1982;10(1):16–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Zelisko JA, Noble HB, Porter M. A comparison of men’s and women’s professional basketball injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1982;10(5):297–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Castro M, Janeira MA, Fernandes O, Cunha L. Biomechanical analysis of an inciting event of ankle sprain on basketball players. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(6):511–2.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Briner WW Jr, Kacmar L. Common injuries in volleyball. Mechanisms of injury, prevention and rehabilitation. Sports Med. 1997;24(1):65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gross P, Marti B. Risk of degenerative ankle joint disease in volleyball players: study of former elite athletes. Int J Sports Med. 1999;20(1):58–63. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-971094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Reeser JC. Volleyball injury epidemiology. Int J Vol Res. 2000;3(1):26–30.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Reeser JC, Verhagen E, Briner WW, Askeland TI, Bahr R. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(7):594–600 (discussion 599–600). doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.018234.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Matsumoto H. Retrospective case evaluation of gender differences in sports injuries in a Japanese sports medicine clinic. Gend Med. 2008;5(4):405–14. doi: 10.1016/j.genm.2008.10.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Zecher SB, Leach RE. Lower leg and foot injuries in tennis and other racquet sports. Clin Sports Med. 1995;14(1):223–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Jackson DS, Furman WK, Berson BL. Patterns of injuries in college athletes: a retrospective study of injuries sustained in intercollegiate athletics in two colleges over a two-year period. Mt Sinai J Med. 1980;47(4):423–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Jarret GJ, Orwin JF, Dick RW. Injuries in collegiate wrestling. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(5):674–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Strauss RH, Lanese RR. Injuries among wrestlers in school and college tournaments. JAMA. 1982;248(16):2016–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Bleakley CM, McDonough SM, MacAuley DC, Bjordal J. Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(8):700–5 (discussion 5). doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.025932.
  219. 219.
    Bleakley CM, O’Connor SR, Tully MA, Rocke LG, Macauley DC, Bradbury I, et al. Effect of accelerated rehabilitation on function after ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;340:c1964. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Boyce SH, Quigley MA, Campbell S. Management of ankle sprains: a randomised controlled trial of the treatment of inversion injuries using an elastic support bandage or an Aircast ankle brace. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(2):91–6. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.009233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Lamb SE, Marsh JL, Hutton JL, Nakash R, Cooke MW. Mechanical supports for acute, severe ankle sprain: a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9663):575–81. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60206-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH. The effectiveness of a neuromuscular prevention strategy to reduce injuries in youth soccer: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(8):555–62. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.074377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Janssen KW, van Mechelen W, Verhagen E. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt): braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12(210). doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-210.
  224. 224.
    Wedderkopp N, Kaltoft M, Lundgaard B, Rosendahl M, Froberg K. Prevention of injuries in young female players in European team handball. A prospective intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1999;9(1):41–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Waterman BR, Belmont PJ Jr, Cameron KL, Deberardino TM, Owens BD. Epidemiology of ankle sprain at the United States Military Academy. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(4):797–803. doi: 10.1177/0363546509350757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Wright IC, Neptune RR, van den Bogert AJ, Nigg BM. The influence of foot positioning on ankle sprains. J Biomech. 2000;33(5):513–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Attarian DE, McCrackin HJ, DeVito DP, McElhaney JH, Garrett WE Jr. Biomechanical characteristics of human ankle ligaments. Foot Ankle. 1985;6(2):54–8.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Fong DT, Chan YY, Mok KM, Yung PSh, Chan KM. Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol. 2009;1:14. doi: 10.1186/1758-2555-1-14.
  229. 229.
    Loudon JK, Bell SL. The foot and ankle: an overview of arthrokinematics and selected joint techniques. J Athl Train. 1996;31(2):173–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Almeida SA, Williams KM, Shaffer RA, Brodine SK. Epidemiological patterns of musculoskeletal injuries and physical training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(8):1176–82. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199908000-00015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Finestone A, Milgrom C, Evans R, Yanovich R, Constantini N, Moran DS. Overuse injuries in female infantry recruits during low-intensity basic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(11 Suppl):S630–5. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181892ff9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Jones BH, Bovee MW, Harris JM 3rd, Cowan DN. Intrinsic risk factors for exercise-related injuries among male and female army trainees. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21(5):705–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Belmont PJ Jr, Goodman GP, Waterman B, DeZee K, Burks R, Owens BD. Disease and nonbattle injuries sustained by a U.S. Army Brigade Combat Team during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Mil Med. 2010;175(7):469–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Davidson PL, Chalmers DJ, Wilson BD, McBride D. Lower limb injuries in New Zealand Defence Force personnel: descriptive epidemiology. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2008;32(2):167–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2008.00195.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Hughes CD, Weinrauch PCL. Military static line parachute injuries in an Australian commando battalion. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78(10):848–52. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04581.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Kragh JF Jr, Taylor DC. Fast-roping injuries among Army Rangers: a retrospective survey of an elite airborne battalion. Mil Med. 1995;160(6):277–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Miser WF, Doukas WC, Lillegard WA. Injuries and illnesses incurred by an army ranger unit during Operation Just Cause. Mil Med. 1995;160(8):373–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Dettori JR, Pearson BD, Basmania CJ, Lednar WM. Early ankle mobilization, part I: the immediate effect on acute, lateral ankle sprains (a randomized clinical trial). Mil Med. 1994;159(1):15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Fong DT, Hong Y, Chan LK, Yung PS, Chan KM. A systematic review on ankle injury and ankle sprain in sports. Sports Med. 2007;37(1):73–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Da J. Improving the reporting of clinical case series. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139(5):900–5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cailbhe Doherty
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eamonn Delahunt
    • 1
    • 3
  • Brian Caulfield
    • 1
  • Jay Hertel
    • 4
  • John Ryan
    • 5
  • Chris Bleakley
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population ScienceUniversity College Dublin, Health Sciences CentreDublin 4Ireland
  2. 2.Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Institute, Ulster Sports AcademyUniversity of UlsterNewtownabbeyNorthern Ireland
  3. 3.Institute for Sport and HealthUniversity College DublinDublinIreland
  4. 4.Department of Human Services, Curry School of EducationUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  5. 5.St. Vincent’s University HospitalDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations