Investigative Trends in Understanding Penalty-Kick Performance in Association Football: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective
- 442 Downloads
There have been different approaches to studying penalty-kick performance in association football and in this paper we synthesize key findings within an ecological dynamics theoretical framework. According to this theoretical perspective, information is the cornerstone for understanding the dynamics of action regulation in penalty-kick performance. Research suggests that investigators need to identify the information sources that are most relevant to penalty-kick performance. An important task is to understand how constraints can channel (i.e. change, emphasize or mask) information sources used to regulate upcoming actions and how the influence of these constraints is expressed in players’ behavioural dynamics. Due to the broad range of constraints influencing penalty-kick performance, it is recommended that future research adopts an interdisciplinary focus on performance assessment to overcome the current lack of representativeness in penalty-kick experimental designs. Such an approach would serve to capture the information-based control of action of both players as components of this dyadic system in competitive sport.
KeywordsTask Constraint Biophysical Variable Representative Design Association Football Dyadic System
This research was supported by a grant from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/60520/2009), awarded to the first author. All authors have no relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
- 4.Lopes JE, Araújo D, Duarte R, et al. Instructional constraints on movement and performance of players in the penalty kick. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2012;12(2):331–45.Google Scholar
- 16.Montagne G. Prospective control in sport. Int J Sport Psychol. 2005;36:127–50.Google Scholar
- 23.Bowtell M, King M, Pain M. Analysis of the keeper-dependent strategy in the soccer penalty kick. Int J Sports Sci Eng. 2009;3(2):93–102.Google Scholar
- 27.Navarro M, Miyamoto N, van der Kamp J, et al. The effects of high pressure on the point of no return in simulated penalty kicks. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2011;34(1):83–101.Google Scholar
- 29.Hristovski R, Davids K, Araújo D. Information for regulating action in sport: metastability and emergence of tactical solutions under ecological constraints. In: Araújo D, Ripoll H, Raab M, editors. Perspectives on cognition and action in sport. NY: Nova Science Publishers; 2009. p. 43–57.Google Scholar
- 30.Wood G, Wilson MR. Gaze behaviour and shooting strategies in football penalty kicks: implications of a keeper-dependent approach. Int J Sport Psychol. 2010;41:293–312.Google Scholar
- 31.Bakker FC, Oudejans RD, Binsch O, et al. Penalty shooting and gaze behaviour: unwanted effects of the wish not to miss. Int J Sport Psychol. 2007;37(2):265–80.Google Scholar
- 32.Turvey MT, Shaw RE. Ecological foundations of cognition. I: symmetry and specificity of animal-environment systems. J Conscious Stud. 1999;6(11–12):95–110.Google Scholar
- 39.Franks IM, Harvey T. Cues for goalkeepers: high-tech methods used to measure penalty shot response. Soccer J. 1997;42:30–8.Google Scholar
- 41.Warren WH. Optic flow. In: Chalupa L, Werner J, editors. The visual neurosciences. Cambridge: MIT Press; 2004. p. 315–58.Google Scholar