Sports Medicine

, Volume 43, Issue 11, pp 1157–1170 | Cite as

Effects of Exercise Training on Airway Hyperreactivity in Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Philipp A. Eichenberger
  • Stephanie N. Diener
  • Reto Kofmehl
  • Christina M. Spengler
Systematic Review



Although physical exercise is recommended for asthmatics, evidence on the effects of exercise on clinical key factors is still missing.


We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of exercise training (EXT) on quality of life (QoL), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), lung function and exercise capacity, plus the factors affecting changes in QoL and exercise capacity in asthmatics after a period of EXT.

Data Sources

A computerized search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (last search on 15 November 2012), without language restriction, and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies.

Study Selection

Two independent investigators screened full-text studies with asthmatic subjects undertaking EXT (defined as training for ≥7 days, ≥2 times per week, ≥5 training sessions in total) that assessed at least one of the following outcomes: QoL, airway hyperreactivity, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), inflammatory parameters, exercise capacity, or exercise endurance. Potentially relevant studies were excluded if only respiratory muscle training, breathing exercises or yoga was performed, if asthmatic subjects with co-morbidities were investigated, if only data of mixed patient groups without separate results for asthmatics were presented, if training regimens were not sufficiently specified, if no numerical outcome data were presented, and if new long-term medication was introduced in addition to physical training. Of 500 potentially relevant articles, 13.4 % (67 studies including 2,059 subjects) met the eligibility criteria and were included for further analyses.

Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods

Data extraction and risk of bias assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to determine the effect of EXT on asthma symptoms, BHR, EIB, FEV1, exercise capacity and exercise endurance compared with control training. In addition, relative pre/post changes were analysed in all RCTs and controlled trials. Finally, multiple linear regression models were used to identify effects of relative changes in airway hyperreactivity (BHR or EIB), lung function (FEV1 or PEF) and training hours on QoL and exercise performance.


In a total of 17 studies including 599 subjects, meta-analyses showed a significant improvement in days without asthma symptoms, FEV1 and exercise capacity while BHR only tended to improve. The analysis of relative within-group changes after EXT showed, however, significant improvements in QoL (17 %), BHR (53 %), EIB (9 %), and FEV1 (3 %) compared with control conditions. Multiple linear regression models revealed that changes in airway hyperreactivity and lung function significantly contributed to the change in QoL, while mainly the changes in airway hyperreactivity contributed to the change in exercise capacity.


EXT was shown to improve asthma symptoms, QoL, exercise capacity, BHR, EIB, and FEV1 in asthmatics and improvements in BHR explained part of the improvement in QoL and exercise capacity. Thus, physical activity should be recommended as a supplementary therapy to medication. However, more well controlled studies should be performed assessing the relationship of physical activity, QoL, airway hyperreactivity, lung function and especially airway inflammation as well as medication intake.

Supplementary material

40279_2013_77_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (526 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 526 kb)


  1. 1.
    The global strategy for asthma management and prevention, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2011. Accessed 2013 Jan 30.
  2. 2.
    Ahmed HM, Blaha MJ, Nasir K, et al. Effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109(2):288–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warnberg J, Cunningham K, Romeo J, et al. Physical activity, exercise and low-grade systemic inflammation. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010;69(3):400–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weiler JM, Anderson SD, Randolph C, et al. Pathogenesis, prevalence, diagnosis, and management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;105(6 Suppl.):S1–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Welsh L, Roberts RG, Kemp JG. Fitness and physical activity in children with asthma. Sports Med. 2004;34(13):861–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Godfrey S, Konig P. Inhibition of exercise-induced asthma by different pharmacological pathways. Thorax. 1976;31(2):137–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robinson DM, Egglestone DM, Hill PM, et al. Effects of a physical conditioning programme on asthmatic patients. N Z Med J. 1992;105(937):253–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freeman W, Nute MG, Williams C. The effect of endurance running training on asthmatic adults. Br J Sports Med. 1989;23(2):115–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hallstrand TS, Bates PW, Schoene RB. Aerobic conditioning in mild asthma decreases the hyperpnea of exercise and improves exercise and ventilatory capacity. Chest. 2000;118(5):1460–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chandratilleke MG, Carson KV, Picot J, et al. Physical training for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 5: CD001116.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pacheco DR, Silva MJ, Alexandrino AM, et al. Exercise-related quality of life in subjects with asthma: a systematic review. J Asthma 2012;49(5):487–95Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Atlantis E, Chow CM, Kirby A, et al. An effective exercise-based intervention for improving mental health and quality of life measures: a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med. 2004;39(2):424–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moreira A, Delgado L, Haahtela T, et al. Physical training does not increase allergic inflammation in asthmatic children. Eur Respir J. 2008;32(6):1570–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Varray AL, Mercier JG, Terral CM, et al. Individualized aerobic and high intensity training for asthmatic children in an exercise readaptation program: is training always helpful for better adaptation to exercise? Chest. 1991;99(3):579–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang JS, Hung WP. The effects of a swimming intervention for children with asthma. Respirology. 2009;14(6):838–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]: The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Accessed 2013 Jan 30.
  17. 17.
    Reddel HK, Taylor DR, Bateman ED, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: asthma control and exacerbations: standardizing endpoints for clinical asthma trials and clinical practice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180(1):59–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lawani MM, Hounkpatin S, Akplogan B. Modification of expiratory peak flow (EPF) in 14 asthmatic subjects from Benin by short duration exercise training [in French]. Dakar Med. 2006;51(3):165–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitsui J, Akimaru T, Yamazaki Y. Asthmatic children and swimming: the distinctive feature on the time of living. Jap J Phys Fitness Sports Med. 1985;34(3):158–66.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Afzelius-Frisk I, Grimby G, Lindholm N. Physical training in patients with asthma. Poumon Coeur. 1977;33(1):33–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahmaidi SB, Varray AL, Savy-Pacaux AM, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness evaluation by the shuttle test in asthmatic subjects during aerobic training. Chest. 1993;103(4):1135–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Araki H, Kano S, Nishima S, et al. Effects of physical training on children with bronchial asthma [in Japanese]. Arerugi. 1991;40(3 Pt 1):205–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Arandelovic M, Stankovic I, Nikolic M. Swimming and persons with mild persistant asthma. Scientific World Journal 2007;7:1182–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Basaran S, Guler-Uysal F, Ergen N, et al. Effects of physical exercise on quality of life, exercise capacity and pulmonary function in children with asthma. J Rehabil Med. 2006;38(2):130–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bonsignore MR, La Grutta S, Cibella F, et al. Effects of exercise training and montelukast in children with mild asthma. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(3):405–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bundgaard A, Ingemann-Hansen T, Schmidt A, et al. Effect of physical training on peak oxygen consumption rate and exercise-induced asthma in adult asthmatics. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1982;42(1):9–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cambach W, Chadwick-Straver RV, Wagenaar RC, et al. The effects of a community-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme on exercise tolerance and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(1):104–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cochrane LM, Clark CJ. Benefits and problems of a physical training programme for asthmatic patients. Thorax. 1990;45(5):345–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Counil FP, Varray A, Matecki S, et al. Training of aerobic and anaerobic fitness in children with asthma. J Pediatr. 2003;142(2):179–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dogra S, Jamnik V, Baker J. Self-directed exercise improves perceived measures of health in adults with partly controlled asthma. J Asthma. 2010;47(9):972–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Emtner M, Herala M, Stalenheim G. High-intensity physical training in adults with asthma. A 10-week rehabilitation program. Chest. 1996;109(2):323–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Emtner M, Finne M, Stalenheim G. High-intensity physical training in adults with asthma. A comparison between training on land and water. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1998;30(4):201–9.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Engstrom I, Fallstrom K, Karlberg E, et al. Psychological and respiratory physiological effects of a physical exercise programme on boys with severe asthma. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1991;80(11):1058–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fanelli A, Cabral AL, Neder JA, et al. Exercise training on disease control and quality of life in asthmatic children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(9):1474–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Farid R, Azad FJ, Atri AE, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on pulmonary function and tolerance of activity in asthmatic patients. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;4(3):133–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fesharaki M, Paknejad SMJO, Kordi R. The effects of aerobic and strength exercises on pulmonary function tests and quality of life in asthmatic patients [in Persian]. Teheran Univ Med J. 2010;68(6):348–54.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fitch KD, Morton AR, Blanksby BA. Effects of swimming training on children with asthma. Arch Dis Child. 1976;51(3):190–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fitch KD, Blitvich JD, Morton AR. The effect of running training on exercise-induced asthma. Ann Allergy. 1986;57(2):90–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Foglio K, Bianchi L, Bruletti G, et al. Long-term effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic airway obstruction. Eur Respir J. 1999;13(1):125–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goncalves RC, Nunes MPT, Cukier A, et al. Effects of an aerobic physical training program on psychosocial characteristics, quality-of-life, symptoms and exhaled nitric oxide in individuals with moderate or severe persistent asthma. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2008;12(2):127–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Graff-Lonnevig V, Bevegard S, Eriksson BO, et al. Two years’ follow-up of asthmatic boys participating in a physical activity programme. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1980;69(3):347–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haas F, Pasierski S, Levine N, et al. Effect of aerobic training on forced expiratory airflow in exercising asthmatic humans. J Appl Physiol. 1987;63(3):1230–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Henriksen JM, Nielsen TT, Dahl R. Effects of physical training on plasma citrate and exercise-induced asthma. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1981;41(3):225–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Henriksen JM, Nielsen TT. Effect of physical training on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983;72(1):31–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hildenbrand K, Nordio S, Freson T, et al. Development of an aquatic exercise training protocol for the asthmatic population. Int J Aquatic Res Educ. 2010;4:278–99.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hirt M. Physical conditioning in asthma. I. Preliminary results. Ann Allergy. 1964;22(5):229–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hirt M. Physical conditioning in asthma. II. Changes in VEBTPS, VO2, and external work. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1965;26(4):191–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Holzer FJ, Schnall R, Landau LI. The effect of a home exercise programme in children with cystic fibrosis and asthma. Aust Paediatr J. 1984;20(4):297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huang SW, Veiga R, Sila U, et al. The effect of swimming in asthmatic children—participants in a swimming program in the city of Baltimore. J Asthma. 1989;26(2):117–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    King MJ, Noakes DT, Weinberg EG. Physiological effects of a physical training program in children with exercise-induced asthma. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 1989;1(2):137–44.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leisti S, Finnila MJ, Kiuru E. Effects of physical training on hormonal responses to exercise in asthmatic children. Arch Dis Child. 1979;54(7):524–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Matsumoto I, Araki H, Tsuda K, et al. Effects of swimming training on aerobic capacity and exercise induced bronchoconstriction in children with bronchial asthma. Thorax. 1999;54(3):196–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mendes FA, Goncalves RC, Nunes MP, et al. Effects of aerobic training on psychosocial morbidity and symptoms in patients with asthma: a randomized clinical trial. Chest. 2010;138(2):331–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mendes FA, Almeida FM, Cukier A, et al. Effects of aerobic training on airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(2):197–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Millman M, Grundon WG, Kasch F, et al. Controlled exercise in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy. 1965;23(5):220–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Neder JA, Nery LE, Silva AC, et al. Short term effects of aerobic training in the clinical management of moderate to severe asthma in children. Thorax. 1999;54(3):202–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nickerson BG, Bautista DB, Namey MA, et al. Distance running improves fitness in asthmatic children without pulmonary complications or changes in exercise-induced bronchospasm. Pediatrics. 1983;71(2):147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Orenstein DM, Reed ME, Grogan FT Jr, et al. Exercise conditioning in children with asthma. J Pediatr. 1985;106(4):556–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Petersen KH, McElhenney TR. Effects of a physical fitness program upon asthmatic boys. Pediatrics. 1965;35(2):295–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rothe T, Kohl C, Mansfeld HJ. Controlled study of the effect of sports training on cardiopulmonary functions in asthmatic children and adolescents [in German]. Pneumol. 1990;44(9):1110–4.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schmidt SM, Ballke EH, Nuske F, et al. Effect of ambulatory sports therapy on bronchial asthma in children [in German]. Pneumol. 1997;51(8):835–41.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schnall R, Ford P, Gillam I, et al. Swimming and dry land exercises in children with asthma. Aust Paediatr J. 1982;18(1):23–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Scichilone N, Morici G, Zangla D, et al. Effects of exercise training on airway closure in asthmatics. J Appl Physiol. 2012;113(5):714–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shaw BS, Shaw I. Pulmonary function and abdominal and thoracic kinematic changes following aerobic and inspiratory resistive diaphragmatic breathing training in asthmatics. Lung. 2011;189(2):131–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sidiropoulou MP, Fotiadou EG, Tsimaras VK, et al. The effect of interval training in children with exercise-induced asthma competing in soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):446–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Silva CS, Torres LA, Rahal A, et al. Comparison of morning and afternoon exercise training for asthmatic children. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006;39(1):71–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sly RM, Harper RT, Rosselot I. The effect of physical conditioning upon asthmatic children. Ann Allergy. 1972;30(2):86–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Svenonius E, Kautto R, Arborelius M Jr. Improvement after training of children with exercise-induced asthma. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983;72(1):23–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Swann IL, Hanson CA. Double-blind prospective study of the effect of physical training on childhood asthma. In: Oseid A, Edwards A, editors. The asthmatic child—in play and sport. London: Pitman Books Limited; 1983. p. 318–25.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tanizaki Y, Komagoe H, Sudo M, et al. Swimming training in a hot spring pool as therapy for steroid-dependent asthma [in Japanese]. Arerugi. 1984;33(7):389–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tanizaki Y. Improvement of ventilatory function by spa therapy in patients with intractable asthma. Acta Med Okayama. 1986;40(1):55–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Turner S, Eastwood P, Cook A, et al. Improvements in symptoms and quality of life following exercise training in older adults with moderate/severe persistent asthma. Respiration. 2011;81(4):302–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    van Veldhoven NHM, Wijnroks L, Bogaard JM, et al. Effects of an exercise program (PEP) for children with asthma: results of a pilot study. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2000;12(3):244–57.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    van Veldhoven NH, Vermeer A, Bogaard JM, et al. Children with asthma and physical exercise: effects of an exercise programme. Clin Rehabil. 2001;15(4):360–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Varray AL, Mercier JG, Prefaut CG. Individualized training reduces excessive exercise hyperventilation in asthmatics. Int J Rehabil Res. 1995;18(4):297–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Weisgerber MC, Guill M, Weisgerber JM, et al. Benefits of swimming in asthma: effect of a session of swimming lessons on symptoms and PFTs with review of the literature. J Asthma. 2003;40(5):453–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Weisgerber M, Webber K, Meurer J, et al. Moderate and vigorous exercise programs in children with asthma: safety, parental satisfaction, and asthma outcomes. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43(12):1175–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wicher IB, Ribeiro MA, Marmo DB, et al. Effects of swimming on spirometric parameters and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children and adolescents with moderate persistent atopic asthma. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2010;86(5):384–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    van den Bemt L, Kooijman S, Linssen V, et al. How does asthma influence the daily life of children? Results of focus group interviews. Health Qual Life Out. 2010; 8:5.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Crapo RO, Casaburi R, Coates AL, et al. Guidelines for methacholine and exercise challenge testing–1999. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, July 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161(1):309–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Anderson SD, Silverman M, Konig P, et al. Exercise-induced asthma. Br J Dis Chest. 1975;69(1):1–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Anderson SD, Rodwell LT, Du Toit J, et al. Duration of protection by inhaled salmeterol in exercise-induced asthma. Chest. 1991;100(5):1254–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Anderson SD, Daviskas E. The mechanism of exercise-induced asthma is …. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(3):453–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Joos GF, O’Connor B, Anderson SD, et al. Indirect airway challenges. Eur Respir J. 2003;21(6):1050–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dweik RA, Boggs PB, Erzurum SC, et al. An official ATS clinical practice guideline: interpretation of exhaled nitric oxide levels (FENO) for clinical applications. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(5):602–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hewitt M, Estell K, Davis IC, et al. Repeated bouts of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduce airway reactivity in a murine asthma model. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42(2):243–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Silva RA, Vieira RP, Duarte AC, et al. Aerobic training reverses airway inflammation and remodelling in an asthma murine model. Eur Respir J. 2010;35(5):994–1002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vieira RP, Claudino RC, Duarte AC, et al. Aerobic exercise decreases chronic allergic lung inflammation and airway remodeling in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176(9):871–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vieira RP, de Andrade VF, Duarte AC, et al. Aerobic conditioning and allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice. II. Effects on lung vascular and parenchymal inflammation and remodeling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;295(4):L670–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Murray CS. Can inhaled corticosteroids influence the natural history of asthma? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8(1):77–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Durrani SR, Viswanathan RK, Busse WW. What effect does asthma treatment have on airway remodeling? Current perspectives. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(3):439–48; quiz 449–50.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Currell K, Jeukendrup AE. Validity, reliability and sensitivity of measures of sporting performance. Sports Med. 2008;38(4):297–316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp A. Eichenberger
    • 1
  • Stephanie N. Diener
    • 1
  • Reto Kofmehl
    • 2
  • Christina M. Spengler
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Exercise Physiology Lab, Institute of Human Movement SciencesETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Horten Centre for Patient-Oriented Research and Knowledge TransferUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institute of Physiology and Zurich Centre for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP)University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations