Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 43, Issue 8, pp 751–763 | Cite as

Could Targeted Exercise Programmes Prevent Lower Limb Injury in Community Australian Football?

  • Nadine Andrew
  • Belinda J. Gabbe
  • Jill Cook
  • David G. Lloyd
  • Cyril J. Donnelly
  • Clare Nash
  • Caroline F. Finch
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Australian football is a popular sport in Australia, at both the community and elite levels. It is a high-speed contact sport with a higher incidence of medically treated injuries when compared with most other organized sports. Hamstring injuries, ligament injuries to the knee or ankle, hip/groin injuries and tendinopathies are particularly common and often result in considerable time lost from sport. Consequently, the prevention of lower limb injuries is a priority for both community and elite Australian football organizations. There is considerable literature available on exercise programmes aimed at reducing lower limb injuries in Australian football and other running-related sports. The quality and outcomes of these studies have varied considerably, but indicate that exercise protocols may be an effective means of preventing lower limb injuries. Despite this, there has been limited high-quality and systematic evaluation of these data.

Objective

The aim of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the evidence about the benefits of lower limb injury prevention exercise protocols aimed at reducing the most common severe lower limb injuries in Australian football.

Methods

The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE and other electronic databases were searched, from January 1990 to December 2010. Papers reporting the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort and case-control studies were extracted. Primary outcomes were injury reduction or risk factor identification and/or modification. Secondary outcomes were adherence to any trialled interventions, injury severity and adverse effects such as secondary injuries and muscle soreness. The methodological quality of extracted manuscripts was assessed and results were collated.

Results

Forty-seven papers were identified and reviewed of which 18 related to hamstring injury, eight related to knee or ankle ligament injury, five related to tendon injury and four were hip or groin injury related. Another 12 papers targeted general lower limb injuries. Most (n = 27 [57 %]) were observational studies, investigating injury risk factors. Twenty reported the results of intervention trials. Of these, 15 were efficacy trials reporting the effects of an intervention in reducing injury rates, four were biomechanical interventions in which the impact of the intervention on a known injury risk factor was assessed and one reported changes in injury risk factors as well as injury rates. The strength of the evidence base for exercise programmes for lower limb injury prevention was found to be limited, primarily due to the research methods employed, low adherence to interventions by the study participants and a lack of statistical power. Limited evidence obtained from a small number of RCTs suggests that balance and control exercises might be efficacious in preventing ankle ligament injuries and a programme involving a combination of balance and control exercises, eccentric hamstring, plyometrics and strength exercises could be efficacious in preventing all lower limb injuries.

Conclusions

Overall, the evidence for exercise programmes as an efficacious lower limb injury prevention strategy is predominantly restricted to studies addressing injury aetiology and mechanisms. The findings of this review highlight the need to develop and test interventions in well designed population-based trials with an emphasis on promoting intervention uptake and adherence and, hence, intervention effectiveness. The results of this review can inform the development of the components of a future lower limb injury prevention exercise protocol for community-level Australian football.

Keywords

Injury Prevention Strength Exercise Hamstring Injury Lower Limb Injury Community Sport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This review was funded by an NHMRC Partnership Project Grant (ID: 565907) that included additional support (both cash and in-kind) from the following project partner agencies: the Australian Football League; Victorian Health Promotion Foundation; New South Wales Sporting Injuries Committee; JLT Sport, a division of Jardine Lloyd Thompson Australia Pty Ltd; Department of Planning and Community Development—Sport and Recreation Victoria Division; and Sports Medicine Australia—National and Victorian Branches. The Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP) is one of the International Research Centres for Prevention of Injury and Protection of Athlete Health supported by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Caroline F. Finch was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Principal Research Fellowship (ID: 565900). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

Supplementary material

40279_2013_56_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (58 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 58 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Flood E, Harrison JE. Hospitalised sports injury, Australia, 2002–2003. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2006. p. 6–23.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cassell E, Finch C, Stathakis V. The epidemiology of sports and active recreation injury in the Latrobe Valley. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(5):405–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Finch C, Cassell E. The public health impact of injury during sport and active recreation. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9:490–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pointer S, Harrison J, Bradley C. National Injury Prevention Plan Priorities for 2004 and beyond: discussion paper. Adelaide: AIHW; 2003.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gabbe B, Finch C, Wajswelner H, et al. Australian football: injury profile at the community level. J Sci Med Sport. 2002;5(2):149–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McManus A, Stevenson M, Finch CF, et al. Incidence and risk factors for injury in non-elite Australian Football. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7(3):384–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Braham R, Finch CF, McIntosh A, et al. Community level Australian Football: a profile of injuries. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7(1):96–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gabbe B, Finch C. A profile of Australian football injuries presenting to sports medicine clinics. J Sci Med Sport. 2001;4(4):386–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Werner J, Hagglund M, Walden M, et al. UEFA injury study: a prospective study of hip and groin injuries in professional football over seven consecutive seasons. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(13):1036–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hägglund M, Waldén M, Ekstrand J. Injuries among male and female elite football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(6):819–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Verhagen E, van Tulder M, van der Beek A. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:111–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gabbe B, Finch CF, Wajswelner H, et al. Does community-level Australian football support injury prevention research? J Sci Med Sport. 2003;6(2):231–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Verhagen EALM, Van der Beek AJ, Bouter LM, et al. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4):477–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    King DA, Hume PA, Milburn PD, et al. Match and training injuries in rugby league: a review of published studies. Sports Med. 2010;40(2):163–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caine D, Maffulli N, Caine C, et al. Epidemiology of injury in child and adolescent sports: injury rates, risk factors, and prevention. Clin Sport Med. 2008;27(1):19–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kerssemakers SP, Fotiadou AN, de Jonge MC, et al. Sport injuries in the paediatric and adolescent patient: a growing problem. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39(5):471–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hägglund M, Waldén M, Ekstrand J. Previous injury as a risk factor for injury in elite football: a prospective study over two consecutive seasons. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:767–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Higgins J, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions 4.2.6. Chichester: Wiley; 2006.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Robinson KA, Dickersin K. Development of a highly sensitive search strategy for the retrieval of reports of controlled trials using PubMed. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31:150–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    von Elm E, Altman D, Egger M, et al. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. PLoS Med. 2007;4.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boden B, Dean G, Feagin JJ, et al. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics. 2000;23:573–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cochrane J, Lloyd D, Seward H, et al. Characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Australian football. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10:96–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Olsen O, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, et al. Injury mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in team handball: a systematic video analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1002–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Markolf K, Burchfield D, Shapiro M, et al. Combined knee loading states that generate high anterior cruciate ligament forces. J Orthop Res. 1995;13:930–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Besier T, Lloyd D, Cochrane J, et al. External loading of the knee joint during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1168–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Besier T, Lloyd D, Cochrane J, et al. Anticipatory effects on knee joint loading during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1176–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dempsey A, Lloyd D, Elliott B, et al. Whole body kinematics and knee moments that occur during an overhead catch and landing task in sport. Clin Biomech. 2012;27:466–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Donnelly C, Elliott B, Lloyd D, et al. Optimizing whole body kinematics to minimize valgus knee loading during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury risk. J Biomech. 2012;45:1491–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Donnelly C, Elliott B, Ackland T, et al. Translating ACL injury prevention research to injury prevention practice: incorporating the recent evidence. Res Sports Med. 2012;20:2–262.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hewett T, Myer G, Ford K, et al. Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:492–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gabbe BJ, Bennell KL, Finch CF, et al. Predictors of hamstring injury at the elite level of Australian football. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006;16(1):7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gabbe BJ, Finch CF, Bennell KL, et al. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(2):106–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Witvrouw E, Bellemans J, Lysens R, et al. Intrinsic risk factors for the development of patellar tendinitis in an athletic population. A two-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2001;29(2):190–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Witvrouw E, Danneels L, Asselman P, et al. Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players. A prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(1):41–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Engebretsen AH, Myklebust G, Holme I, et al. Intrinsic risk factors for hamstring injuries among male soccer players: a prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(6):1147–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Arnason A, Sigurdsson SB, Gudmundsson A, et al. Risk factors for injuries in football. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(1 Suppl.):5S–16S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yeung SS, Suen AM, Yeung EW, et al. A prospective cohort study of hamstring injuries in competitive sprinters: preseason muscle imbalance as a possible risk factor. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(8):589–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tyler T, Nicholas S, Campbell R, et al. The association of hip strength and flexibility with the incidence of adductor muscle strains in professional Ice Hockey Players. Am J Sports Med. 2001;29:124–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Emery C, Meeuwisse W. Risk factors for groin injuries in hockey. Med Sci Sports. 2001;33:1423–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mahieu NN, Witvrouw E, Stevens V, et al. Intrinsic risk factors for the development of achilles tendon overuse injury: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(2):226–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Arnason A, Andersen TE, Holme I, et al. Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(1):40–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bennell K, Tully E, Harvey N. Does the toe-touch test predict hamstring injury in Australian rules footballers? Aust J Physiother. 1999;45(2):103–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brooks JH, Fuller CW, Kemp SP, et al. Incidence, risk, and prevention of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(8):1297–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Malliaras P, Cook JL, Kent P, et al. Reduced ankle dorsiflexion range may increase the risk of patellar tendon injury among volleyball players. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(4):304–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cameron M, Adams R, Maher C. Motor control and strength as predictors of hamstring injury in elite players of Australian football. Phys Ther Sport. 2003;4(4):159–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Orchard J, Marsden J, Lord S, et al. Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25(1):81–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bennell K, Wajswelner H, Lew P, et al. Isokinetic strength testing does not predict hamstring injury in Australian rules footballers. Br J Sports Med. 1998;32(4):309–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ostenberg A, Roos H. Injury risk factors in female European football. A prospective study of 123 players during one season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000;10(5):279–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Croisier JL, Ganteaume S, Binet J, et al. Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(8):1469–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Watsford ML, Murphy AJ, McLachlan KA, et al. A prospective study of the relationship between lower body stiffness and hamstring injury in professional Australian rules footballers. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(10):2058–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Reinking MF, Reinking MF. Exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(9):1500–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Buist I, Bredeweg SW, Lemmink KA, et al. Predictors of running-related injuries in novice runners enrolled in a systematic training program: a prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(2):273–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ibrahim A, Murrell G, Knapman P. Adductor strain and hip range of movement in male professional soccer players. J Orthop Surg. 2007;15:46–9.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Verrall G, Slavotinek J, Barnes P, et al. Hip joint range of motion restriction precedes athletic chronic groin injury. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10:463–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kraemer R, Knobloch K, Kraemer R, et al. A soccer-specific balance training program for hamstring muscle and patellar and achilles tendon injuries: an intervention study in premier league female soccer. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(7):1384–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hopper DM, Hopper JL, Elliott BC. Do selected kinanthropometric and performance variables predict injuries in female netball players? J Sports Sci. 1995;13(3):213–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Krivickas LS, Feinberg JH. Lower extremity injuries in college athletes: relation between ligamentous laxity and lower extremity muscle tightness. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(11):1139–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Askling C, Karlsson J, Thorstensson A. Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13(4):244–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gabbe BJ, Branson R, Bennell KL. A pilot randomised controlled trial of eccentric exercise to prevent hamstring injuries in community-level Australian football. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(1–2):103–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Engebretsen AH, Myklebust G, Holme I, et al. Prevention of injuries among male soccer players: a prospective, randomized intervention study targeting players with previous injuries or reduced function. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(6):1052–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gabbe B, Bennell K. Injury prevention at community level Australian football. Melbourne: University of Melbourne; 2005.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mjølsnes R, Arnason A, Østhagen T, et al. A 10-week randomized trial comparing eccentric vs. concentric hamstring strength training in well-trained soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14:311–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cameron ML, Adams RD, Maher CG, et al. Effect of the HamSprint Drills training programme on lower limb neuromuscular control in Australian football players. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(1):24–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lee M, Reid S, Elliott B, et al. Running biomechanics and lower limb strength associated with hamstring re-injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1942–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Aagaard P, Simonsen E, Trolle M, et al. Isokinetic hamstring quadriceps strength ratio: influence from joint angular velocity, gravity, correction and contraction mode. Acta Physiol Scand. 1995;154:421–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Croisier J, Crielaard J. Hamstring muscle tear with recurrent complaints: an isokinetic profile. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2000;8:175–80.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Söderman K, Werner S, Pietilä T, et al. Balance board training: prevention of traumatic injuries of the lower extremities in female soccer players? A prospective randomized intervention study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2000;8:356–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gilchrist J, Mandelbaum BR, Melancon H, et al. A randomized controlled trial to prevent noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female collegiate soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:1476–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Caraffa A, Cerulli G, Projetti M, et al. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. A prospective controlled study of proprioceptive training. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1996;4:19–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Herman D, Weinhold P, Guskiewicz K, et al. The effects of strength training on the lower extremity biomechanics of female recreational athletes during a stop-jump task. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:733–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cochrane JL, Lloyd DG, Besier TF, et al. Training affects knee kinematics and kinetics in cutting maneuvers in sport. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1535–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Verhagen E, van der Beek A, Twisk J, et al. The effect of a proprioceptive balance board training program for the prevention of ankle sprains: a prospective controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1385–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cumps E, Verhagen E, Meeusen R. Efficacy of a sports specific balance training programme on the incidence of ankle sprains in basketball. J Sports Sci Med. 2007;6:212–9.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Holmich P, Larsen K, Krogsgaard K, et al. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomised trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:814–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fredberg U, Bolvig L, Andersen NT, et al. Prophylactic training in asymptomatic soccer players with ultrasonographic abnormalities in Achilles and patellar tendons: the Danish Super League Study. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(3):451–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    van Mechelen W, Hlobil H, Kemper HC, et al. Prevention of running injuries by warm-up, cool-down, and stretching exercises. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21:711–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pope RP, Herbert RD, Kirwan JD, et al. A randomized trial of preexercise stretching for prevention of lower-limb injury. Med Sci Sports. 2000;32:271–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pasanen K, Parkkari J, Pasanen M, et al. Neuromuscular training and the risk of leg injuries in female floorball players: cluster randomised controlled study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2008;337:a295.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hartig DE, Henderson JM. Increasing hamstring flexibility decreases lower extremity overuse injuries in military basic trainees. Am J Sports Med. 1999;27(2):173–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Verhagen EALM, Hupperets MDW, Finch CF, et al. The impact of adherence on sports injury prevention effect estimates in randomised controlled trials: looking beyond the CONSORT statement. J Sci Med Sport. 2011;14(4):287–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Finch C. A new framework for research leading to sports injury prevention. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9:3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Verhagen E, Finch CF. Setting our minds to implementation. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(13):1015–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Finch CF. No longer lost in translation: the art and science of sports injury prevention implementation research. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(16):1253–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schulz K, Altman D, Moher D, et al. CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Ann Int Med. 2010;152:726–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lloyd DG. Rationale for training programmes to reduce ACL injuries in Australian football. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2001;31:645–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Donnelly C, Elliott B, Doyle T, et al. Changes in knee joint biomechanics following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football. Br J Sports Med. 2012. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Finch CF, Donaldson A. A sports setting matrix for understanding the implementation context for community sport. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:973–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Twomey D, Finch C, Roediger E, et al. Preventing lower limb injuries: is the latest evidence being translated into the football field? J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(4):452–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Finch C, Gabbe B, White P, et al. Priorities for investment in injury prevention in community Australian football. Clin J Sport Med (in press).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Junge A, Rösch D, Peterson L, et al. Prevention of soccer injuries: a prospective intervention study in youth amateur players. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30:652–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, et al. Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2005;330:449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Braekken IH, et al. Prevention of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in elite and adolescent female team handball athletes. Instr Course Lect. 2007;56:407–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Emery CA, Rose MS, McAllister JR, et al. A prevention strategy to reduce the incidence of injury in high school basketball: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Clin J Sports Med. 2007;17:17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine Andrew
    • 1
  • Belinda J. Gabbe
    • 1
  • Jill Cook
    • 2
  • David G. Lloyd
    • 3
    • 4
  • Cyril J. Donnelly
    • 4
  • Clare Nash
    • 2
  • Caroline F. Finch
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive MedicineMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Primary Health CareMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Musculoskeletal ResearchGriffith Health Institute, Griffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  4. 4.School of Sport Science, Exercise and HealthUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  5. 5.Centre for Healthy and Safe SportUniversity of BallaratBallaratAustralia

Personalised recommendations