Sports Medicine

, Volume 43, Issue 8, pp 675–694 | Cite as

Training Transfer: Scientific Background and Insights for Practical Application

  • Vladimir B. Issurin
Review Article


Training transfer as an enduring, multilateral, and practically important problem encompasses a large body of research findings and experience, which characterize the process by which improving performance in certain exercises/tasks can affect the performance in alternative exercises or motor tasks. This problem is of paramount importance for the theory of training and for all aspects of its application in practice. Ultimately, training transfer determines how useful or useless each given exercise is for the targeted athletic performance. The methodological background of training transfer encompasses basic concepts related to transfer modality, i.e., positive, neutral, and negative; the generalization of training responses and their persistence over time; factors affecting training transfer such as personality, motivation, social environment, etc. Training transfer in sport is clearly differentiated with regard to the enhancement of motor skills and the development of motor abilities. The studies of bilateral skill transfer have shown cross-transfer effects following one-limb training associated with neural adaptations at cortical, subcortical, spinal, and segmental levels. Implementation of advanced sport technologies such as motor imagery, biofeedback, and exercising in artificial environments can facilitate and reinforce training transfer from appropriate motor tasks to targeted athletic performance. Training transfer of motor abilities has been studied with regard to contralateral effects following one limb training, cross-transfer induced by arm or leg training, the impact of strength/power training on the preparedness of endurance athletes, and the impact of endurance workloads on strength/power performance. The extensive research findings characterizing the interactions of these workloads have shown positive transfer, or its absence, depending on whether the combinations conform to sport-specific demands and physiological adaptations. Finally, cross-training as a form of concurrent exercising in different athletic disciplines has been examined in reference to the enhancement of general fitness, the preparation of recreational athletes, and the preparation of athletes for multi-sport activities such as triathlon, duathlon, etc.


Strength Training Technical Skill Endurance Training Motor Imagery Biofeedback Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No funding was used to assist in the preparation of this review. The author is grateful to Mr. Mike Garmise for editing the English text. The author has no conflicts of interest which are relevant to the content of this review.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Elite Sport DepartmentWingate InstituteNetanyaIsrael

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