Neurodoping: Brain Stimulation as a Performance-Enhancing Measure
- 1.3k Downloads
Doping may be defined, broadly, as the use of unauthorised means to increase performance in sport. Doping is most commonly associated with the use of drugs. In this paper, I discuss the use of emerging techniques for the modulation of brain activity in healthy people using electric or magnetic fields, and suggest how they might be used to enhance physical and mental performance in sports. I will suggest that neurodoping may have different uses in different sports, and I argue that each sport must determine whether neurodoping should be considered as cheating, or should be considered a legitimate aid to training or performance.
KeywordsTranscranial Magnetic Stimulation Brain Stimulation Elite Athlete Cortical Excitability Sport Performance
This work was supported by the Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) programme within the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Commission, under FETOpen grant number: 222079 (HIVE). I am grateful to Dr Martyn Bracewell and Mr Simon Tomlinson and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. I declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.
- 11.Axford P, Lakany H, Conway B. The effects of transcranial stimulation on enhanced physiological tremor: a pilot study. In: 6th UKRI PG Conference in biomedical engineering and medical physics 2011. Glasgow, UK; 2011.Google Scholar
- 20.Cohen Kadosh R, Levy N, O’Shea J, Shea N, Savulescu J. The neuroethics of non-invasive brain stimulation. Curr Biol. 2012;22:R108–R11.Google Scholar
- 21.Cohen Kadosh R. Using transcranial electrical stimulation to enhance cognitive functions in the typical and atypical brain. Transl Neurosci. 2013;4:1–14.Google Scholar
- 22.Tang W-T, Zhang W-Y, Huang C-C, Young M-S, Hwang I-S. Postural tremor and control of the upper limb in air pistol shooters. J Sports Sci. 2006;24:1579–87.Google Scholar
- 23.Magnus J, Klaassen F. On the advantage of serving first in a tennis set: four years at Wimbledon. Statistician. 1999;48:247–56.Google Scholar
- 28.Csikszentmihalyi M. Flow: the psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row; 1990.Google Scholar
- 30.Chi RP, Snyder AW. Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(2).Google Scholar
- 31.Jackson S, Csikszentmihalyi M. Flow in sports: the keys to optimal experiences and performances. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1999.Google Scholar