Sports Medicine

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 195–206 | Cite as

Physical Activity Interventions and Depression in Children and Adolescents

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • Helen Elizabeth Brown
  • Natalie Pearson
  • Rock E. Braithwaite
  • Wendy J. Brown
  • Stuart J. H. Biddle
Systematic Review



Evidence suggests chronic physical activity (PA) participation may be both protective against the onset of and beneficial for reducing depressive symptoms.


The aim of this article is to assess the impact of PA interventions on depression in children and adolescents using meta-analysis.

Data sources

Published English language studies were located from manual and computerized searches of the following databases: PsycInfo, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI; EPPI Centre), Web of Science and MEDLINE.

Study selection

Studies meeting inclusion criteria (1) reported on interventions to promote or increase PA; (2) included children aged 5–11 years and/or adolescents aged 12–19 years; (3) reported on results using a quantitative measure of depression; (4) included a non-physical control or comparison group; and (5) were published in peer-reviewed journals written in English, up to and including May 2011 (when the search was conducted).

Data extraction

Studies were coded for methodological, participant and study characteristics. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version-2 software was used to compute effect sizes, with subgroup analyses to identify moderating characteristics. Study quality was assessed using the Delphi technique.


Nine studies were included (n = 581); most were school-based randomized controlled trials, randomized by individual. Studies used a variety of measurement tools to assess depressive symptoms. The summary treatment effect was small but significant (Hedges’ g = −0.26, standard error = 0.09, 95% confidence intervals = −0.43, −0.08, p = 0.004). Subgroup analyses showed that methodological (e.g. studies with both education and PA intervention; those with a higher quality score; and less than 3 months in duration) and participant characteristics (e.g. single-gender studies; those targeting overweight or obese groups) contributed most to the reduction in depression.


There was a small significant overall effect for PA on depression. More outcome-focused, high-quality trials are required to effectively inform the implementation of programmes to reduce depressive symptoms in children and adolescents.


Physical Activity Depressive Symptom Physical Activity Intervention Methodological Characteristic Great Treatment Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Funding sources: This work was supported by an Alf Howard International Travel Scholarship (School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland) that enabled international collaborative work to be undertaken. Helen Elizabeth Brown was partially supported by an Australian NHMRC Program Grant (# 301110). The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Elizabeth Brown
    • 1
  • Natalie Pearson
    • 2
    • 4
  • Rock E. Braithwaite
    • 3
  • Wendy J. Brown
    • 1
  • Stuart J. H. Biddle
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Human Movement StudiesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of Sport, Exercise & Health SciencesLoughborough University LeicestershireLoughboroughUK
  3. 3.Department of Kinesiology and Recreation AdministrationHumboldt State UniversityArcataUSA
  4. 4.The NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research UnitLoughboroughUK

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