, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 655–672 | Cite as

Obesity in the Context of Aging: Quality of Life Considerations

  • Francesco Corica
  • Giampaolo Bianchi
  • Andrea Corsonello
  • Natalia Mazzella
  • Fabrizia Lattanzio
  • Giulio MarchesiniEmail author
Review Article


The progressive increase in the prevalence of obesity and aging in the population is resulting in increased healthcare and disability spending. The burden of obesity is particularly relevant in old age, due to accumulating co-morbidities and changes in body composition. Sarcopenic obesity, a mix of over- and under-nutrition, causes frailty, disability, and problems in social and psychological areas, impacting overall health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). The relationship between obesity, aging, and HR-QOL is, however, much more complex than generally acknowledged and is difficult to disentangle. The impact of obesity on HR-QOL is particularly strong in young people, who are free of co-morbidities. It progressively attenuates, compared with the general population, with advancing age, when co-morbid conditions are diffusely present and reduce the perceived health status, independent of obesity. However, even this apparent ‘obesity paradox’ should not minimize the importance of obesity on HR-QOL, as other obesity-associated limitations and disabilities do impact HR-QOL in older age. A patient-centered approach aimed at reducing the disability and social isolation of advancing age is mandatory to improve HR-QOL in any class of obesity.


Obesity Nottingham Health Profile Sarcopenic Obesity Body Image Dissatisfaction Obesity Paradox 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Ana Bozas, PhD, an employee of Analysis Group, Inc., for assistance with the preparation of this manuscript.

FC, GB, AC, NM, FL, and GM declare that no competing interests exist in relation to the material presented in this article.

Author contributions

FC, GB, AC, and GM conceived the study; FC and GM reviewed the literature and selected the most valid, relevant, and useful studies; GB provided the data from the Pianoro study; FC, AC, and GM provided the data from the QUOVADIS study; FC, GB, AC, and GM wrote the first draft of the manuscript; NM and FL critically reviewed the draft; all named authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Guarantor’s name

GM takes responsibility for the contents of the article.


  1. 1.
    United Nations. World population prospects, the 2010 revision: highlights. New York: United Nations; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014;384(9945):766–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jarosz PA, Bellar A. Sarcopenic obesity: an emerging cause of frailty in older adults. Geriatr Nurs. 2009;30(1):64–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Italian Cardiovascular Epidemiological Observatory. Ital Heart J. 2004;5(Suppl 3):49S–92S.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang YC, Colditz GA, Kuntz KM. Forecasting the obesity epidemic in the aging US population. Obesity. 2007;15(11):2855–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Global Health Observatory (GHO) Obesity. Situation and trends. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2013. Available at
  7. 7.
    Avorn J. Unhealthy ageing: functional and socioeconomic impact. Eur Heart J. 2001;3(Suppl N):N3–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Centers for Disease C, Prevention. The state of aging and health in America 2013. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2013.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Penn DM, Fischer JG, Sun Lee J, Hausman DB, Johnson MA. High BMI and waist circumference are associated with a high prevalence of comorbidities in older Americans Act programs in Georgia senior centers. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009;13(9):827–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gallagher Camden S, Gates J. Obesity: changing the face of geriatric care. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2006;52(10):36–8, 40–4.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Villareal DT, Apovian CM, Kushner RF, Klein S, American Society for N, Naaso TOS. Obesity in older adults: technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society. Obes Res. 2005;13(11):1849–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Han TS, Wu FC, Lean ME. Obesity and weight management in the elderly: a focus on men. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;27(4):509–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rizzoli R, Reginster JY, Arnal JF, Bautmans I, Beaudart C, Bischoff-Ferrari H, et al. Quality of life in sarcopenia and frailty. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;93(2):101–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yan LL, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Pirzada A, Garside DB, Schiffer L, et al. BMI and health-related quality of life in adults 65 years and older. Obes Res. 2004;12(1):69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zamboni M, Mazzali G, Zoico E, Harris TB, Meigs JB, Di Francesco V, et al. Health consequences of obesity in the elderly: a review of four unresolved questions. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005;29(9):1011–29.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Decaria JE, Sharp C, Petrella RJ. Scoping review report: obesity in older adults. Int J Obes (London). 2012;36(9):1141–50.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Edwards RD. Population aging, the dependency burden, and challenges facing preventive medicine. Prev Med. 2012;55(6):533–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang Z, Hall AG. The financial burden of overweight and obesity among elderly Americans: the dynamics of weight, longevity, and health care cost. Health Serv Res. 2008;43(3):849–68.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA. 1999;282(16):1523–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pi-Sunyer X. The medical risks of obesity. Postgrad Med. 2009;121(6):21–33.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F, Mackenbach JP, Al Mamun A, Bonneux L, et al. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(1):24–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dee A, Kearns K, O’Neill C, Sharp L, Staines A, O’Dwyer V, et al. The direct and indirect costs of both overweight and obesity: a systematic review. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1):242.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ezzati M, Vander Hoorn S, Lawes CM, Leach R, James WP, Lopez AD, et al. Rethinking the “diseases of affluence” paradigm: global patterns of nutritional risks in relation to economic development. PLoS Med. 2005;2(5):e133.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Muller-Riemenschneider F, Reinhold T, Berghofer A, Willich SN. Health-economic burden of obesity in Europe. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008;23(8):499–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Withrow D, Alter DA. The economic burden of obesity worldwide: a systematic review of the direct costs of obesity. Obes Rev. 2011;12(2):131–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pulgaron ER. Childhood obesity: a review of increased risk for physical and psychological comorbidities. Clin Ther. 2013;35(1):A18–32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Evans JG. Ageing and disease. Ciba Found Symp. 1988;134:38–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mathus-Vliegen EM. Obesity and the elderly. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;46(7):533–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dominguez LJ, Barbagallo M. The cardiometabolic syndrome and sarcopenic obesity in older persons. J Cardiometab Syndr. 2007;2(3):183–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zamboni M, Mazzali G, Fantin F, Rossi A, Di Francesco V. Sarcopenic obesity: a new category of obesity in the elderly. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(5):388–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roubenoff R. Sarcopenic obesity: the confluence of two epidemics. Obes Res. 2004;12(6):887–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Miller SL, Wolfe RR. The danger of weight loss in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2008;12(7):487–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Han TS, Tajar A, Lean ME. Obesity and weight management in the elderly. Br Med Bull. 2011;97:169–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baumgartner RN, Wayne SJ, Waters DL, Janssen I, Gallagher D, Morley JE. Sarcopenic obesity predicts instrumental activities of daily living disability in the elderly. Obes Res. 2004;12(12):1995–2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee S, Kim TN, Kim SH. Sarcopenic obesity is more closely associated with knee osteoarthritis than is nonsarcopenic obesity: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(12):3947–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barzilai N, Huffman DM, Muzumdar RH, Bartke A. The critical role of metabolic pathways in aging. Diabetes. 2012;61(6):1315–22.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Baumgartner RN, Stauber PM, McHugh D, Koehler KM, Garry PJ. Cross-sectional age differences in body composition in persons 60+ years of age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995;50(6):M307–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gallagher D, Visser M, De Meersman RE, Sepulveda D, Baumgartner RN, Pierson RN, et al. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: effects of age, gender, and ethnicity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;83(1):229–39.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Flynn MA, Nolph GB, Baker AS, Martin WM, Krause G. Total body potassium in aging humans: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50(4):713–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Muller DC, Elahi D, Tobin JD, Andres R. The effect of age on insulin resistance and secretion: a review. Semin Nephrol. 1996;16(4):289–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Elia M, Ritz P, Stubbs RJ. Total energy expenditure in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(Suppl 3):S92–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kennedy RL, Chokkalingham K, Srinivasan R. Obesity in the elderly: who should we be treating, and why, and how? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004;7(1):3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kennedy RL, Malabu U, Kazi M, Shahsidhar V. Management of obesity in the elderly: too much and too late? J Nutr Health Aging. 2008;12(9):608–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nomura T, Ikeda Y, Nakao S, Ito K, Ishida K, Suehiro T, et al. Muscle strength is a marker of insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. Endocr J. 2007;54(5):791–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Abbatecola AM, Ferrucci L, Ceda G, Russo CR, Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, et al. Insulin resistance and muscle strength in older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(10):1278–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guillet C, Boirie Y. Insulin resistance: a contributing factor to age-related muscle mass loss? Diabetes Metab. 2005;31(Spec No 2):5S20–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Roubenoff R. Sarcopenic obesity: does muscle loss cause fat gain? Lessons from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;904:553–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Beaufrere B, Morio B. Fat and protein redistribution with aging: metabolic considerations. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(Suppl 3):S48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cree MG, Newcomer BR, Katsanos CS, Sheffield-Moore M, Chinkes D, Aarsland A, et al. Intramuscular and liver triglycerides are increased in the elderly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(8):3864–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jensen GL. Inflammation: roles in aging and sarcopenia. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008;32(6):656–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cesari M, Pahor M. Target population for clinical trials on sarcopenia. J Nutr Health Aging. 2008;12(7):470–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Waters DL, Baumgartner RN. Sarcopenia and obesity. Clin Geriatr Med. 2011;27(3):401–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing. 2010;39(4):412–23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, Fiatarone MA, Evans WJ, Roubenoff R. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88(4):1321–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lexell J, Henriksson-Larsen K, Winblad B, Sjostrom M. Distribution of different fiber types in human skeletal muscles: effects of aging studied in whole muscle cross sections. Muscle Nerve. 1983;6(8):588–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Binkley N, Buehring B. Beyond FRAX: it’s time to consider “sarco-osteopenia”. J Clin Densitom. 2009;12(4):413–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ormsbee MJ, Prado CM, Ilich JZ, Purcell S, Siervo M, Folsom A, et al. Osteosarcopenic obesity: the role of bone, muscle, and fat on health. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2014;5(3):183–92.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhao LJ, Jiang H, Papasian CJ, Maulik D, Drees B, Hamilton J, et al. Correlation of obesity and osteoporosis: effect of fat mass on the determination of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(1):17–29.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nielson CM, Marshall LM, Adams AL, LeBlanc ES, Cawthon PM, Ensrud K, et al. BMI and fracture risk in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study (MrOS). J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(3):496–502.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Premaor MO, Pilbrow L, Tonkin C, Parker RA, Compston J. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(2):292–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    De Laet C, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johanson H, Johnell O, Delmas P, et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporo Int. 2005;16(11):1330–8.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):690–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pitroda AP, Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. The association of adiposity with parathyroid hormone in healthy older adults. Endocrine. 2009;36(2):218–23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Guri AJ, Bassaganya-Riera J. Systemic effects of white adipose tissue dysregulation and obesity-related inflammation. Obesity. 2011;19(4):689–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    DeMaria EJ, Sugerman HJ, Meador JG, Doty JM, Kellum JM, Wolfe L, et al. High failure rate after laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding for treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg. 2001;233(6):809–18.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Caffarelli C, Alessi C, Nuti R, Gonnelli S. Divergent effects of obesity on fragility fractures. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:1629–36.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, Rikkert MO, Rockwood K. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet. 2013;381(9868):752–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Walston J, Hadley EC, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Newman AB, Studenski SA. Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(6):991–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(3):M146–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rockwood K, Andrew M, Mitnitski A. A comparison of two approaches to measuring frailty in elderly people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(7):738–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tas U, Verhagen AP, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Odding E, Koes BW. Prognostic factors of disability in older people: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2007;57(537):319–23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Roubenoff R. The pathophysiology of wasting in the elderly. J Nutr. 1999;129(1S Suppl):256S–9S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sakuma K, Yamaguchi A. Sarcopenic obesity and endocrinal adaptation with age. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013:204164.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Florez H, Troen BR. Fat and inflammaging: a dual path to unfitness in elderly people? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(3):558–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Villareal DT, Banks M, Siener C, Sinacore DR, Klein S. Physical frailty and body composition in obese elderly men and women. Obes Res. 2004;12(6):913–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McCarthy LH, Bigal ME, Katz M, Derby C, Lipton RB. Chronic pain and obesity in elderly people: results from the Einstein aging study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(1):115–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Woods NF, LaCroix AZ, Gray SL, Aragaki A, Cochrane BB, Brunner RL, et al. Frailty: emergence and consequences in women aged 65 and older in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(8):1321–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Strandberg TE, Sirola J, Pitkala KH, Tilvis RS, Strandberg AY, Stenholm S. Association of midlife obesity and cardiovascular risk with old age frailty: a 26-year follow-up of initially healthy men. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(9):1153–7.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Stenholm S, Strandberg TE, Pitkala K, Sainio P, Heliovaara M, Koskinen S. Midlife obesity and risk of frailty in old age during a 22-year follow-up in men and women: the Mini-Finland Follow-up Survey. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(1):73–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stessman J, Jacobs JM, Ein-Mor E, Bursztyn M. Normal body mass index rather than obesity predicts greater mortality in elderly people: the Jerusalem longitudinal study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(12):2232–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Habbu A, Lakkis NM, Dokainish H. The obesity paradox: fact or fiction? Am J Cardiol. 2006;98(7):944–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Oreopoulos A, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Sharma AM, Fonarow GC. The obesity paradox in the elderly: potential mechanisms and clinical implications. Clin Geriatr Med. 2009;25(4):643–59, viii.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hong NS, Kim KS, Lee IK, Lind PM, Lind L, Jacobs DR, et al. The association between obesity and mortality in the elderly differs by serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants: a possible explanation for the obesity paradox. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(9):1170–5.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Masters RK, Powers DA, Link BG. Obesity and US mortality risk over the adult life course. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):431–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Amador LF, Al Snih S, Markides KS, Goodwin JS. Weight change and mortality among older Mexican Americans. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006;18(3):196–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Newman AB, Yanez D, Harris T, Duxbury A, Enright PL, Fried LP, et al. Weight change in old age and its association with mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(10):1309–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gregg EW, Gerzoff RB, Thompson TJ, Williamson DF. Intentional weight loss and death in overweight and obese US adults 35 years of age and older. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(5):383–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gregg EW, Gerzoff RB, Thompson TJ, Williamson DF. Trying to lose weight, losing weight, and 9-year mortality in overweight US adults with diabetes. Diabetes care. 2004;27(3):657–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Harrington M, Gibson S, Cottrell RC. A review and meta-analysis of the effect of weight loss on all-cause mortality risk. Nutr Res Rev. 2009;22(1):93–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Peters ET, Seidell JC, Menotti A, Arayanis C, Dontas A, Fidanza F, et al. Changes in body weight in relation to mortality in 6,441 European middle-aged men: the Seven Countries Study. Int J Obes (London). 1995;19(12):862–8.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ford DW, Hartman TJ, Still C, Wood C, Mitchell DC, Erickson P, et al. Body mass index, poor diet quality, and health-related quality of life are associated with mortality in rural older adults. J Nutr Gerontol Ger. 2014;33(1):23–34.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Landi F, Onder G, Gambassi G, Pedone C, Carbonin P, Bernabei R. Body mass index and mortality among hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(17):2641–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Testa MA, Simonson DC. Assesment of quality-of-life outcomes. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(13):835–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ware JE Jr. Conceptualization and measurement of health-related quality of life: comments on an evolving field. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84(4 Suppl 2):S43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wadden TA, Phelan S. Assessment of quality of life in obese individuals. Obes Res. 2002;10 Suppl 1:50S–7S.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, North American Association for the Study of Obesity. The practical guide: identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health; 2000.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA. Psychological aspects of severe obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(2 Suppl):524S–32S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fontaine KR, Barofsky I. Obesity and health-related quality of life. Obes Rev. 2001;2(3):173–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Guyatt GH, Bombardier C, Tugwell PX. Measuring disease-specific quality of life in clinical trials. CMAJ. 1986;134(8):889–95.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Patrick DL. Measuring health-related quality of life. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(8):622–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Guyatt GH, Veldhuyzen Van Zanten SJ, Feeny DH, Patrick DL. Measuring quality of life in clinical trials: a taxonomy and review. CMAJ. 1989;140(12):1441–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Le Pen C, Levy E, Loos F, Banzet MN, Basdevant A. “Specific” scale compared with “generic” scale: a double measurement of the quality of life in a French community sample of obese subjects. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52(7):445–50.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Duval K, Marceau P, Perusse L, Lacasse Y. An overview of obesity-specific quality of life questionnaires. Obes Rev. 2006;7(4):347–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sach TH, Barton GR, Doherty M, Muir KR, Jenkinson C, Avery AJ. The relationship between body mass index and health-related quality of life: comparing the EQ-5D, EuroQol VAS and SF-6D. Int J Obes (London). 2007;31(1):189–96.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stucki A, Borchers M, Stucki G, Cieza A, Amann E, Ruof J. Content comparison of health status measures for obesity based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health. Int J Obes (London). 2006;30(12):1791–9.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tayyem R, Ali A, Atkinson J, Martin CR. Analysis of health-related quality-of-life instruments measuring the impact of bariatric surgery: systematic review of the instruments used and their content validity. Patient. 2011;4(2):73–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ware JE Jr. Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992;30(6):473–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rabin R, de Charro F. EQ-5D: a measure of health status from the EuroQol Group. Ann Med. 2001;33(5):337–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hunt SM, McKenna SP, McEwen J, Williams J, Papp E. The Nottingham Health Profile: subjective health status and medical consultations. Soc Sci Med A. 1981;15(3 Pt 1):221–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dupuy HJ. The psychological general well-being (PGWB) inventory. In: Wenger NK, editor. Assessment of quality of life in clinical trials of cardiovascular therapies. New York: Le Jacq Publications; 1984. p. 170–83.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ware JE Jr, Kosinski M, Gandek B, Aaronson NK, Apolone G, Bech P, et al. The factor structure of the SF-36 Health Survey in 10 countries: results from the IQOLA Project. International Quality of Life Assessment. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998;51(11):1159–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chassany O, Dimenäs E, Dubois D, Wu A. The Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) User Manual. Accessed 11 Oct 2014. Scholar
  113. 113.
    Corica F, Corsonello A, Apolone G, Mannucci E, Lucchetti M, Bonfiglio C, et al. Metabolic syndrome, psychological status and quality of life in obesity: the QUOVADIS Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(1):185–91.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mannucci E, Petroni ML, Villanova N, Rotella CM, Apolone G, Marchesini G. Clinical and psychological correlates of health-related quality of life in obese patients. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010;8:90.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Therrien F, Marceau P, Turgeon N, Biron S, Richard D, Lacasse Y. The Laval Questionnaire: a new instrument to measure quality of life in morbid obesity. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2011;9:66.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Andresen EM, Rothenberg BM, Panzer R, Katz P, McDermott MP. Selecting a generic measure of health-related quality of life for use among older adults. A comparison of candidate instruments. Eval Health Prof. 1998;21(2):244–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hickey A, Barker M, McGee H, O’Boyle C. Measuring health-related quality of life in older patient populations: a review of current approaches. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(10):971–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bowling A. The psychometric properties of the older people’s quality of life questionnaire, compared with the CASP-19 and the WHOQOL-OLD. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2009;2009:298950.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Buttitta M, Iliescu C, Rousseau A, Guerrien A. Quality of life in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a literature review. Qual Life Res. 2014;23(4):1117–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Larsson U, Karlsson J, Sullivan M. Impact of overweight and obesity on health-related quality of life—a Swedish population study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26(3):417–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ul-Haq Z, Mackay DF, Fenwick E, Pell JP. Meta-analysis of the association between body mass index and health-related quality of life among adults, assessed by the SF-36. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(3):E322–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ul-Haq Z, Mackay DF, Fenwick E, Pell JP. Meta-analysis of the association between body mass index and health-related quality of life among children and adolescents, assessed using the pediatric quality of life inventory index. J Pediatr. 2013;162(2):280–6.e1.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Caixas A, Lecube A, Morales MJ, Calanas A, Moreiro J, Cordido F, et al. Weight-related quality of life in Spanish obese subjects suitable for bariatric surgery is lower than in their North American counterparts: a case-control study. Obes Surg. 2013;23(4):509–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    McDonough C, Dunkley AJ, Aujla N, Morris D, Davies MJ, Khunti K. The association between body mass index and health-related quality of life: influence of ethnicity on this relationship. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15(4):342–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hopman WM, Berger C, Joseph L, Barr SI, Gao Y, Prior JC, et al. The association between body mass index and health-related quality of life: data from CaMos, a stratified population study. Qual Life Res. 2007;16(10):1595–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Song HR, Park HS, Yun KE, Cho SH, Choi EY, Lee SY, et al. Gender and age differences in the impact of overweight on obesity-related quality of life among Korean adults. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2010;4(1):e1–e82.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jia H, Lubetkin EI. The impact of obesity on health-related quality-of-life in the general adult US population. J Public Health (Oxf). 2005;27(2):156–64.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Seidell JC, Bakx KC, Deurenberg P, Burema J, Hautvast JG, Huygen FJ. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults. Am J Public Health. 1986;76(12):1410–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Marchesini G, Bellini M, Natale S, Belsito C, Isacco S, Nuccitelli C, et al. Psychiatric distress and health-related quality of life in obesity. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003;16(3):145–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Marchesini G, Solaroli E, Baraldi L, Natale S, Migliorini S, Visani F, et al. Health-related quality of life in obesity: the role of eating behaviour. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2000;13(3):156–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Marano G, Cuzzolaro M, Vetrone G, Calugi S, Dalle Grave R, Marchesini G, et al. Further validation study of the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) in a clinical sample of 1,922 adult obese subjects. Eat Weight Disord. 2007;12(2):70–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Marchesini G, Natale S, Tiraferri F, Tartaglia A, Moscatiello S, MarchesiniReggiani L, et al. The burden of obesity on everyday life: a role for osteoarticular and respiratory diseases. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003;16(5–6):284–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ul-Haq Z, Mackay DF, Fenwick E, Pell JP. Association between body mass index and mental health among Scottish adult population: a cross-sectional study of 37,272 participants. Psychol Med. 2013;25:1–10.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Warkentin LM, Das D, Majumdar SR, Johnson JA, Padwal RS. The effect of weight loss on health-related quality of life: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Obes Rev. 2014;15(3):169–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Maciejewski ML, Patrick DL, Williamson DF. A structured review of randomized controlled trials of weight loss showed little improvement in health-related quality of life. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005;58(6):568–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Foreyt JP, Brunner RL, Goodrick GK, St Jeor ST, Miller GD. Psychological correlates of reported physical activity in normal-weight and obese adults: the Reno diet-heart study. Int J Obes Rel Metab Dis. 1995;19(Suppl 4):S69–72.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hulens M, Vansant G, Claessens AL, Lysens R, Muls E, Rzewnicki R. Health-related quality of life in physically active and sedentary obese women. Am J Hum Biol. 2002;14(6):777–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Black JA, White B, Viner RM, Simmons RK. Bariatric surgery for obese children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2013;14(8):634–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    McEwen LN, Coelho RB, Baumann LM, Bilik D, Nota-Kirby B, Herman WH. The cost, quality of life impact, and cost-utility of bariatric surgery in a managed care population. Obes Surg. 2010;20(7):919–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Chang CY, Hung CK, Chang YY, Tai CM, Lin JT, Wang JD. Health-related quality of life in adult patients with morbid obesity coming for bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2010;20(8):1121–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Poves Prim I, Macias GJ, Cabrera Fraga M, Situ L, Ballesta Lopez C. Quality of life in morbid obesity. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2005;97(3):187–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Foster GD, Wadden TA, Phelan S, Sarwer DB, Sanderson RS. Obese patients’ perceptions of treatment outcomes and the factors that influence them. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(17):2133–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Herman KM, Hopman WM, Rosenberg MW. Self-rated health and life satisfaction among Canadian adults: associations of perceived weight status versus BMI. Qual Life Res. 2013;22(10):2693–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Melchionda N, Marchesini G, Apolone G, Cuzzolaro M, Mannucci E, Grossi E, et al. The QUOVADIS Study: features of obese Italian patients seeking treatment at specialist centers. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003;16(2):115–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kolotkin RL, Norquist JM, Crosby RD, Suryawanshi S, Teixeira PJ, Heymsfield SB, et al. One-year health-related quality of life outcomes in weight loss trial participants: comparison of three measures. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009;7:53.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:6–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vincent HK, Vincent KR, Lamb KM. Obesity and mobility disability in the older adult. Obes Rev. 2010;11(8):568–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Reynolds SL, McIlvane JM. The impact of obesity and arthritis on active life expectancy in older Americans. Obesity. 2009;17(2):363–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sharkey JR, Ory MG, Branch LG. Severe elder obesity and 1-year diminished lower extremity physical performance in homebound older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(9):1407–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Berenbaum F, Eymard F, Houard X. Osteoarthritis, inflammation and obesity. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2013;25(1):114–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Heliovaara M, Makela M, Impivaara O, Knekt P, Aromaa A, Sievers K. Association of overweight, trauma and workload with coxarthrosis. A health survey of 7,217 persons. Acta Orthop Scand. 1993;64(5):513–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Cicuttini FM, Baker JR, Spector TD. The association of obesity with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in women: a twin study. J Rheumatol. 1996;23(7):1221–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Giuli C, Papa R, Bevilacqua R, Felici E, Gagliardi C, Marcellini F, et al. Correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight older adults: an observational study. BMC Publ Health. 2014;14:35.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Goins RT, Spencer SM, Krummel DA. Effect of obesity on health-related quality of life among Appalachian elderly. South Med J. 2003;96(6):552–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Groessl EJ, Kaplan RM, Barrett-Connor E, Ganiats TG. Body mass index and quality of well-being in a community of older adults. Am J Prev Med. 2004;26(2):126–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bowling A, Windsor J. Discriminative power of the health status questionnaire 12 in relation to age, sex, and longstanding illness: findings from a survey of households in Great Britain. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1997;51(5):564–73.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Seshadri KG, Ananthakrishnan V, Tamilselvan B, Amarabalan R, Kumar RN. Effect of mild physical activity in obese and elderly women with type 2 diabetes. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(Suppl 2):S453–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Bottone FG Jr, Hawkins K, Musich S, Cheng Y, Ozminkowski RJ, Migliori RJ, et al. The relationship between body mass index and quality of life in community-living older adults living in the United States. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(6):495–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Huang IC, Frangakis C, Wu AW. The relationship of excess body weight and health-related quality of life: evidence from a population study in Taiwan. Int J Obes (London). 2006;30(8):1250–9.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sikorski C, Luppa M, Kaiser M, Glaesmer H, Schomerus G, Konig HH, et al. The stigma of obesity in the general public and its implications for public health—a systematic review. BMC Publ Health. 2011;11:661.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, Lyketsos CG, Eaton WW. Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(12):1139–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Carpenter KM, Hasin DS, Allison DB, Faith MS. Relationships between obesity and DSM-IV major depressive disorder, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts: results from a general population study. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(2):251–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA. 1999;281(6):537–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Guallar-Castillon P, Sendino AR, Banegas JR, Lopez-Garcia E, Rodriguez-Artalejo F. Differences in quality of life between women and men in the older population of Spain. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60(6):1229–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Napoli N, Shah K, Waters DL, Sinacore DR, Qualls C, Villareal DT. Effect of weight loss, exercise, or both on cognition and quality of life in obese older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(1):189–98.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    O’Keefe KL, Kemmeter PR, Kemmeter KD. Bariatric surgery outcomes in patients aged 65 years and older at an American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence. Obes Surg. 2010;20(9):1199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Bianchi G, Rossi V, Muscari A, Magalotti D, Zoli M, Pianoro Study Group. Physical activity is negatively associated with the metabolic syndrome in the elderly. QJM. 2008;101(9):713–21.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Muscari A, Giannoni C, Pierpaoli L, Berzigotti A, Maietta P, Foschi E, et al. Chronic endurance exercise training prevents aging-related cognitive decline in healthy older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;25(10):1055–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Washburn RA, Smith KW, Jette AM, Janney CA. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE): development and evaluation. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46(2):153–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Motl RW, McAuley E. Physical activity, disability, and quality of life in older adults. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2010;21(2):299–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Donini LM, Ricciardi LM, Neri B, Lenzi A, Marchesini G. Risk of malnutrition (over and under-nutrition): validation of the JaNuS screening tool. Clin Nutr. Epub 2013 Dec 14.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Fryback DG, Dunham NC, Palta M, Hanmer J, Buechner J, Cherepanov D, et al. US norms for six generic health-related quality-of-life indexes from the National Health Measurement study. Med Care. 2007;45(12):1162–70.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hays RD, Sherbourne CD, Mazel RM. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0. Health Econ. 1993;2(3):217–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    VanderZee KI, Sanderman R, Heyink J. A comparison of two multidimensional measures of health status: the Nottingham Health Profile and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0. Qual Life Res. 1996;5(1):165–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Barry TL, Kaiser KL, Atwood JR. Reliability, validity, and scoring of the Health Status Questionnaire-12 version 2.0. J Nurs Meas. 2007;15(1):24–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Brazier J, Jones N, Kind P. Testing the validity of the Euroqol and comparing it with the SF-36 health survey questionnaire. Qual Life Res. 1993;2(3):169–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Gudex C, Dolan P, Kind P, Williams A. Health state valuations from the general public using the visual analogue scale. Qual Life Res. 1996;5(6):521–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Pickard AS, Neary MP, Cella D. Estimation of minimally important differences in EQ-5D utility and VAS scores in cancer. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007;5:70.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Tran BX, Ohinmaa A, Nguyen LT. Quality of life profile and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS patients. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10(1):132.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kaplan RM, Ganiats TG, Sieber WJ, Anderson JP. The Quality of Well-Being Scale: critical similarities and differences with SF-36. Int J Qual Health Care. 1998;10(6):509–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sarkin AJ, Groessl EJ, Carlson JA, Tally SR, Kaplan RM, Sieber WJ, et al. Development and validation of a mental health subscale from the Quality of Well-Being Self-Administered. Qual Life Res. 2013;22(7):1685–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Measuring healthy days: population assessment of health-related quality of life. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2000. Report no.: 7704885464.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Forhan M, Vrkljan B, MacDermid J. A systematic review of the quality of psychometric evidence supporting the use of an obesity-specific quality of life measure for use with persons who have class III obesity. Obesity Rev. 2010;11(3):222–8.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Niero M, Martin M, Finger T, Lucas R, Mear I, Wild D, et al. A new approach to multicultural item generation in the development of two obesity-specific measures: the obesity and weight loss quality of life (OWLQOL) questionnaire and the weight-related symptom measure (WRSM). Clin Ther. 2002;24(4):690–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Rothman M. Performance of two self-report measures for evaluating obesity and weight loss. Obes Res. 2004;12(1):48–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mathias SD, Williamson CL, Colwell HH, Cisternas MG, Pasta DJ, Stolshek BS, et al. Assessing health-related quality-of-life and health state preference in persons with obesity: a validation study. Qual Life Res. 1997;6(4):311–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Moorehead MK, Ardelt-Gattinger E, Lechner H, Oria HE. The validation of the Moorehead-Ardelt quality of life questionnaire II. Obes Surg. 2003;13(5):684–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Butler GS, Vallis TM, Perey B, Veldhuyzen van Zanten SJ, MacDonald AS, Konok G. The obesity adjustment survey: development of a scale to assess psychological adjustment to morbid obesity. Int J Obes Rel Metab Dis. 1999;23(5):505–11.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Oria HE, Moorehead MK. Updated bariatric analysis and reporting outcome system (BAROS). Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2009;5(1):60–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Mannucci E, Ricca V, Barciulli E, Di Bernardo M, Travaglini R, Cabras PL, et al. Quality of life and overweight: the obesity related well-being (Orwell 97) questionnaire. Addict Behav. 1999;24(3):345–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Karlsson J, Taft C, Sjostrom L, Torgerson JS, Sullivan M. Psychosocial functioning in the obese before and after weight reduction: construct validity and responsiveness of the obesity-related problems scale. Int J Obes Rel Metab Dis. 2003;27(5):617–30.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Ziegler O, Filipecki J, Girod I, Guillemin F. Development and validation of a French obesity-specific quality of life questionnaire: quality of life, obesity and dietetics (QOLOD) rating scale. Diabetes Metab. 2005;31(3 Pt 1):273–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Power M, Quinn K, Schmidt S, Group W-O. Development of the WHOQOL-old module. Qual Life Res. 2005;14(10):2197–214.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Bowling A, Stenner P. Which measure of quality of life performs best in older age? A comparison of the OPQOL, CASP-19 and WHOQOL-OLD. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(3):273–80.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Hyde M, Wiggins RD, Higgs P, Blane DB. A measure of quality of life in early old age: the theory, development and properties of a needs satisfaction model (CASP-19). Aging Ment Health. 2003;7(3):186–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Wee CC, Davis RB, Hamel MB. Comparing the SF-12 and SF-36 health status questionnaires in patients with and without obesity. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6:11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Revicki DA, Osoba D, Fairclough D, Barofsky I, Berzon R, Leidy NK, et al. Recommendations on health-related quality of life research to support labeling and promotional claims in the United States. Qual Life Res. 2000;9(8):887–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Corica
    • 1
  • Giampaolo Bianchi
    • 2
  • Andrea Corsonello
    • 3
  • Natalia Mazzella
    • 4
  • Fabrizia Lattanzio
    • 3
  • Giulio Marchesini
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics“Alma Mater Studiorum” UniversityBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Scientific Direction, Italian National Research Center on Aging (INRCA)AnconaItaly
  4. 4.Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Dietetics, Department of Clinical Medicine“Alma Mater Studiorum” University, Policlinico S. OrsolaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations