Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnant Women: Integrating Screening and Treatment into Prenatal Care
Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis continue to be significant burdens to the health of pregnant women and their children despite easy and effective guidance for screening and treatment. Specific guidelines exist for screening for these infections as well as treatment and follow-up. In this article, we review the epidemiology of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Testing methodology is also reviewed as molecular-based techniques have replaced culture as the current gold standard tests of choice for chlamydia and gonorrhea. The nontreponemal and treponemal serologic diagnostic and screening approach to syphilis has undergone less change. Treatment for gonorrhea includes a one-time dose of parenteral ceftriaxone and oral azithromycin. This treatment regimen not only addresses the possible gonococcal resistance seen in recent years but also treats chlamydia, which may present similarly or co-infect the same patient. Syphilis treatment in both pregnant women and their infected neonates remains with penicillin G formulations. It is crucial to establish close follow-up evaluation for the pregnant woman infected with these sexually transmitted infections to ensure adequate treatment and help prevent perinatal spread of the infection.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Harold J. Lochner III and Nizar F. Maraqa have no conflicts of interest.
No sources of funding were used to support the writing of this manuscript.
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