Pediatric Drugs

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 303–314 | Cite as

Using Lithium in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Efficacy, Tolerability, and Practical Considerations

  • B. Grant
  • J. A. SalpekarEmail author
Review Article


Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels. As a treatment for bipolar disorder in pediatrics, lithium is challenging, given its narrow therapeutic window and myriad of potential side effects. However, the efficacy of lithium continues to match that of newer pharmacologic agents, and its tolerability has been shown to be comparable with more commonly prescribed medications. Lithium is still one of few drugs that have been proven to reduce the risk of suicidality, and it may have utility in illnesses beyond affective disorders. Practically, as a primary agent or as an adjunct, lithium continues to claim a rightful place in the treatment armamentarium of child psychiatry. New dosing paradigms have improved tolerability and reduced potential side effects. Recent evidence affirms that lithium is effective for pediatric bipolar disorder in multiple phases of the illness.


Author Contributions

Both authors participated in the writing, editing, and approval of this manuscript and had full control of content throughout development.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


No sources of funding were used to conduct this study or prepare this manuscript.

Conflict of interest

Dr. Salpekar is a past educational  consultant for Sunovion, his institution receives research funding from Lundbeck, and he serves as a Data and Safety Monitoring Board chair for the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Grant has no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Kennedy Krieger InstituteJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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