Pediatric Drugs

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 151–168 | Cite as

Relapsed and Refractory Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Current and Emerging Treatments

Review Article

Abstract

Survival rates for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) exceed 60 % when modern, intensified chemotherapeutic regimens and enhanced supportive care measures are employed. Despite well-recognized improvements in outcomes, primary refractory or relapsed pediatric AML yields significant morbidity and mortality, and improved understanding of this obstinate population along with refined treatment protocols are urgently needed. Although a significant number of patients with refractory or relapsed disease will achieve remission, long-term survival rates remain poor, and efforts to identify therapies which will improve OS are under continuous investigation. The current fundamental goal of such investigation is the achievement of as complete a remission as possible without dose-limiting toxicities, and the progression to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation thereafter. In this review the scope of the problem of relapsed and refractory AML as well as current and emerging chemotherapy options will be discussed.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Drs. Peter Steinherz, Neerav Shukla and Rachel Kobos for their advice and input in developing this paper.

Funding

No funding was used for the development of this paper.

Conflicts of Interest

Drs. Davila, Slotkin and Renaud have no conflicts of interest to report.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of PediatricsNew YorkUSA

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