Pediatric Drugs

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 493–503 | Cite as

Cutaneous Drug Reactions in Children: An Update

  • Kara HeelanEmail author
  • Neil H. Shear
Review Article


Cutaneous drug reactions account for a large proportion of adverse drug reactions. Cutaneous drug reactions can be very challenging to diagnose. They can mimic many other skin diseases; this is especially evident during childhood, when viral exanthems are commonplace. Also, if a patient is taking numerous medications, establishing causality to a specific drug can be multifaceted and difficult. The purpose of this review is to highlight an approach to the diagnosis of a suspected cutaneous drug reaction in a child. We have classified different types of drug eruptions by morphology: exanthematous, urticarial, pustular, and bullous. Within each of these groups we have divided them into simple, benign, or non-febrile and complex or febrile reactions. We also include a miscellaneous group to ensure a methodical review.


Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Cefaclor Bullous Pemphigoid Insulin Detemir 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to prepare this review. Kara Heelan has received fellowship support from Abbott (AbbVie). Neil H. Shear has no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Segal AR, Doherty KM, Leggott J, Zlotoff B. Cutaneous reactions to drugs in children. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4):e1082–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Star K, Noren GN, Nordin K, Edwards IR. Suspected adverse drug reactions reported for children worldwide: an exploratory study using VigiBase. Drug Saf. 2011;34(5):415–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Castro-Pastrana LI, Ghannadan R, Rieder MJ, Dahlke E, Hayden M, Carleton B. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions in children: an analysis of reports from the Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS). J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2011;18:e106–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Impicciatore P, Choonara I, Clarkson A, Provasi D, Pandolfini C, Bonati M. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in paediatric in/out-patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;52(1):77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gallagher RM, Mason JR, Bird KA, Kirkham JJ, Peak M, Williamson PR, et al. Adverse drug reactions causing admission to a paediatric hospital. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e50127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smyth RM, Gargon E, Kirkham J, Cresswell L, Golder S, Smyth R, et al. Adverse drug reactions in children—a systematic review. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e24061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Menniti-Ippolito G, Raschetti R, Da Cas R, Giaquinto C, Cantarutti L. Active monitoring of adverse drug reactions in children. Italian Paediatric Pharmacosurveillance Multicenter Group. Lancet. 2000;355(9215):1613–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ibia EO, Schwartz RH, Wiedermann BL. Antibiotic rashes in children: a survey in a private practice setting. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136(7):849–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pirmohamed M, Friedmann PS, Molokhia M, Loke YK, Smith C, Phillips E, et al. Phenotype standardization for immune-mediated drug-induced skin injury. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;89(6):896–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nigen S, Knowles SR, Shear NH. Drug eruptions: approaching the diagnosis of drug-induced skin diseases. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003;2(3):278–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bigby M, Jick S, Jick H, Arndt K. Drug-induced cutaneous reactions. A report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program on 15,438 consecutive inpatients, 1975 to 1982. JAMA. 1986;256(24):3358–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naranjo CA, Shear NH, Lanctot KL. Advances in the diagnosis of adverse drug reactions. J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;32(10):897–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stern RS. Clinical practice: exanthematous drug eruptions. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(26):2492–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yawalkar N. Maculopapular drug eruptions. Basel: Karger; 2007. p. 242–51.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crowson AN, Magro CM. Recent advances in the pathology of cutaneous drug eruptions. Dermatol Clin. 1999; 17(3):537–60, viii.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carroll MC, Yueng-Yue KA, Esterly NB, Drolet BA. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome in pediatric patients. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):485–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kress DW. Pediatric dermatology emergencies. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2011;23(4):403–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roujeau JC, Stern RS. Severe adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(19):1272–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cacoub P, Musette P, Descamps V, Meyer O, Speirs C, Finzi L, et al. The DRESS syndrome: a literature review. Am J Med. 2011;124(7):588–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen YC, Chiu HC, Chu CY. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: a retrospective study of 60 cases. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(12):1373–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eshki M, Allanore L, Musette P, Milpied B, Grange A, Guillaume JC, et al. Twelve-year analysis of severe cases of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: a cause of unpredictable multiorgan failure. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145(1):67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hunter EB, Johnston PE, Tanner G, Pinson CW, Awad JA. Bromfenac (Duract)-associated hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94(8):2299–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gupta A, Eggo MC, Uetrecht JP, Cribb AE, Daneman D, Rieder MJ, et al. Drug-induced hypothyroidism: the thyroid as a target organ in hypersensitivity reactions to anticonvulsants and sulfonamides. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992;51(1):56–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shear NH, Spielberg SP. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: In vitro assessment of risk. J Clin Invest. 1988;82(6):1826–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Newell BD, Moinfar M, Mancini AJ, Nopper AJ. Retrospective analysis of 32 pediatric patients with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (ACHSS). Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(5):536–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tamayo-Sanchez L, Ruiz-Maldonado R, Laterza A. Acute annular urticaria in infants and children. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14(3):231–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bigby M. Rates of cutaneous reactions to drugs. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137(6):765–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Twarog FJ. Urticaria in childhood: pathogenesis and management. Pediatr Clin N Am. 1983;30(5):887–98.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bilbao A, Garcia JM, Pocheville I, Gutierrez C, Corral JM, Samper A, et al. Round table: urticaria in relation to infections [article in Spanish]. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1999;27(2):73–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smith PF, Corelli RL. Doxepin in the management of pruritus associated with allergic cutaneous reactions. Ann Pharmacother. 1997;31(5):633–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Poon M, Reid C. Do steroids help children with acute urticaria? Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(1):85–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lawley TJ, Bielory L, Gascon P, Yancey KB, Young NS, Frank MM. A prospective clinical and immunologic analysis of patients with serum sickness. N Engl J Med. 1984;311(22):1407–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kearns GL, Wheeler JG, Childress SH, Letzig LG. Serum sickness-like reactions to cefaclor: role of hepatic metabolism and individual susceptibility. J Pediatr. 1994;125(5 Pt 1):805–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ashraf-Benson S, Wall GC, Veach LA. Serum sickness-like reaction associated with efalizumab. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(2):383–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dreyfus DH, Randolph CC. Characterization of an anaphylactoid reaction to omalizumab. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(4):624–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Finger E, Scheinberg M. Development of serum sickness-like symptoms after rituximab infusion in two patients with severe hypergammaglobulinemia. J Clin Rheumatol. 2007;13(2):94–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gamarra RM, McGraw SD, Drelichman VS, Maas LC. Serum sickness-like reactions in patients receiving intravenous infliximab. J Emerg Med. 2006;30(1):41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grosen A, Julsgaard M, Christensen LA. Serum sickness-like reaction due to Infliximab reintroduction during pregnancy. J Crohns Colitis. 2013;7(5):e191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sarma N, Malakar S, Lahiri K, Banerjee U. Serum sickness like reaction with minocycline. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2004;70(1):43–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Katta R, Anusuri V. Serum sickness-like reaction to cefuroxime: a case report and review of the literature. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6(7):747–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Parra FM, Perez Elias MJ, Cuevas M, Ferreira A. Serum sickness-like illness associated with rifampicin. Ann Allergy. 1994;73(2):123–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Slama TG. Serum sickness-like illness associated with ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34(5):904–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ralph ED, John M, Rieder MJ, Bombassaro AM. Serum sickness-like reaction possibly associated with meropenem use. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(11):E149–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brucculeri M, Charlton M, Serur D. Serum sickness-like reaction associated with cefazolin. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2006;6:3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Colton RL, Amir J, Mimouni M, Zeharia A. Serum sickness-like reaction associated with griseofulvin. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38(4):609–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Park H, Knowles S, Shear NH. Serum sickness-like reaction to itraconazole. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(11):1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Waibel KH, Katial RK. Serum sickness-like reaction and bupropion. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43(5):509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Phillips EJ, Knowles SR, Shear NH. Serum sickness-like reaction associated with clopidogrel. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56(5):583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shapiro LE, Knowles SR, Shear NH. Fluoxetine-induced serum sickness-like reaction. Ann Pharmacother. 1997;31(7–8):927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aujero MP, Brooks S, Li N, Venna S. Severe serum sickness-like type III reaction to insulin detemir. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64(6):e127–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Azik FM, Kanmaz G, Ileri T. Serum sickness-like syndrome after immunoglobulin M-enriched polyclonal immunoglobulin. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2010;25(1–4):49–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Harris A, Eswaran S, Bosworth B, Gambarin-Gelwan M, Scherl EJ. Mesalamine-induced pneumonitis and serum sickness-like reaction. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2007;3(11):875–7.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee HS, Yule S, McKenzie A, Cross S, Reid T, Davidson R, et al. Hypersensitivity reactions to streptokinase in patients with high pre-treatment antistreptokinase antibody and neutralisation titres. Eur Heart J. 1993;14(12):1640–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Joubert GI, Hadad K, Matsui D, Gloor J, Rieder MJ. Selection of treatment of cefaclor-associated urticarial, serum sickness-like reactions and erythema multiforme by emergency pediatricians: lack of a uniform standard of care. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;6(4):197–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vial T, Pont J, Pham E, Rabilloud M, Descotes J. Cefaclor-associated serum sickness-like disease: eight cases and review of the literature. Ann Pharmacother. 1992 Jul-Aug;26(7-8):910-4.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Grammer LC. Cefaclor serum sickness. JAMA. 1996;275(15):1152–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hurwitz RM. Steroid acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21(6):1179–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Traupe H, von Muhlendahl KE, Bramswig J, Happle R. Acne of the fulminans type following testosterone therapy in three excessively tall boys. Arch Dermatol. 1988;124(3):414–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sidoroff A, Halevy S, Bavinck JN, Vaillant L, Roujeau JC. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)—a clinical reaction pattern. J Cutan Pathol. 2001;28(3):113–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Roujeau JC, Bioulac-Sage P, Bourseau C, Guillaume JC, Bernard P, Lok C, et al. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: analysis of 63 cases. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127(9):1333–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meadows KP, Egan CA, Vanderhooft S. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), an uncommon condition in children: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17(5):399–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ersoy S, Paller AS, Mancini AJ. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis in children. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140(9):1172–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fernando SL. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis. Australas J Dermatol. 2012;53(2):87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schmid S, Kuechler PC, Britschgi M, Steiner UC, Yawalkar N, Limat A, et al. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: role of cytotoxic T cells in pustule formation. Am J Pathol. 2002;161(6):2079–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    De Silva B, Banney L, Uttley W, Luqmani R, Schofield O. Pseudoporphyria and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17(6):480–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lang BA, Finlayson LA. Naproxen-induced pseudoporphyria in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr. 1994;124(4):639–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brenner S, Goldberg I. Drug-induced pemphigus. Clin Dermatol. 2011;29(4):455–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cetkovska P, Pizinger K. Childhood pemphigus associated with montelukast administration. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003;28(3):328–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Purvis DJ, Bhogal BS, Harper JI. Bullous pemphigoid in an infant using complementary medicine. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(2):195–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fisler RE, Saeb M, Liang MG, Howard RM, McKee PH. Childhood bullous pemphigoid: a clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2003;25(3):183–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Erbagci Z. Childhood bullous pemphigoid following hepatitis B immunization. J Dermatol. 2002;29(12):781–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wojnarowska F, Marsden RA, Bhogal B, Black MM. Chronic bullous disease of childhood, childhood cicatricial pemphigoid, and linear IgA disease of adults: a comparative study demonstrating clinical and immunopathologic overlap. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19(5 Pt 1):792–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nantel-Battista M, Al Dhaybi R, Hatami A, Marcoux D, Desroches A, Kokta V. Childhood linear IgA bullous disease induced by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. J Dermatol Case Rep. 2010;19:4(3):33–5.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ho JC, Ng PL, Tan SH, Giam YC. Childhood linear IgA bullous disease triggered by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24(5):E40–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Koh MJ, Tay YK. An update on Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009;21(4):505–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Finkelstein Y, Soon GS, Acuna P, George M, Pope E, Ito S, et al. Recurrence and outcomes of Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children. Pediatrics. 2011;128(4):723–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Levi N, Bastuji-Garin S, Mockenhaupt M, Roujeau JC, Flahault A, Kelly JP, et al. Medications as risk factors of Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children: a pooled analysis. Pediatrics. 2009;123(2):e297–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sotozono C, Ueta M, Kinoshita S. Systemic and local management at the onset of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis with ocular complications. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149(2):354 (author reply 5).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Struck MF, Hilbert P, Mockenhaupt M, Reichelt B, Steen M. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions: emergency approach to non-burn epidermolytic syndromes. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36(1):22–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chung WH, Hung SI, Hong HS, Hsih MS, Yang LC, Ho HC, et al. Medical genetics: a marker for Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Nature. 2004;428(6982):486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shiga S, Cartotto R. What are the fluid requirements in toxic epidermal necrolysis? J Burn Care Res. 2010;31(1):100–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Paquet P, Pierard GE. New insights in toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome): clinical considerations, pathobiology and targeted treatments revisited. Drug Saf. 2010;33(3):189–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hanken I, Schimmer M, Sander CA. Basic measures and systemic medical treatment of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010;8(5):341–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Inamo Y, Okubo T, Wada M, Fuchigami S, Hashimoto K, Fuchigami T, et al. Intravenous ulinastatin therapy for Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in pediatric patients. Three case reports. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2002;127(1):89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mockenhaupt M. Severe drug-induced skin reactions: clinical pattern, diagnostics and therapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2009;7(2):142–60 (quiz 61–2).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Del Pozzo-Magana BR, Lazo-Langner A, Carleton B, Castro-Pastrana LI, Rieder MJ. A systematic review of treatment of drug-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2011;18:e121–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Khaled A, Kharfi M, Ben Hamida M, El Fekih N, El Aidli S, Zeglaoui F, et al. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions in children: a series of 90 cases. Tunis Med. 2012;90(1):45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sharma VK, Dhar S. Clinical pattern of cutaneous drug eruption among children and adolescents in north India. Pediatr Dermatol. 1995;12(2):178–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ott H. Hypersensitivity reactions to drugs. Harper’s textbook of pediatric dermatology, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley; 2011: 183.1–183.14.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shiohara T. Fixed drug eruption: pathogenesis and diagnostic tests. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;9(4):316–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ozkaya E. Fixed drug eruption: state of the art. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008;6(3):181–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shih IH, Huang YH, Yang CH, Yang LC, Hong HS. Childhood neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52(6):963–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shear NH, Knowles SR, Shapiro L, Poldre P. Dapsone in prevention of recurrent neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35(5 Pt 2):819–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    White-Koning M, Civade E, Geoerger B, Thomas F, Le Deley MC, Hennebelle I, et al. Population analysis of erlotinib in adults and children reveals pharmacokinetic characteristics as the main factor explaining tolerance particularities in children. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(14):4862–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Arkachaisri T, Lehman TJ. Systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders of childhood. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1999;11(5):384–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Farver DK. Minocycline-induced lupus. Ann Pharmacother. 1997;31(10):1160–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Akin E, Miller LC, Tucker LB. Minocycline-induced lupus in adolescents. Pediatrics. 1998;101(5):926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Finkel TH, Hunter DJ, Paisley JE, Finkel RS, Larsen GL. Drug-induced lupus in a child after treatment with zafirlukast (Accolate). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103(3 Pt 1):533–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences CentreUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences CentreUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations