Pediatric Drugs

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 191–202 | Cite as

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder and Severe Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescents

Diagnosis and Pharmacological Treatment
Review Article

Abstract

Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that premenstrual disorders (PMDs) begin during the teenage years. At least 20 % of adolescents experience moderate-to-severe premenstrual symptoms associated with functional impairment. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) consists of physical and/or psychological premenstrual symptoms that interfere with functioning. Symptoms are triggered by ovulation and resolve within the first few days of menses. The prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a severe form of PMS accompanied by affective symptoms, is likely equal to or higher than in adults. The diagnosis of a PMD requires a medical and psychological history and physical examination but it is the daily prospective charting of bothersome symptoms for two menstrual cycles that will clearly determine if the symptoms are related to a PMD or to another underlying medical or psychiatric diagnosis. The number and type of symptoms are less important than the timing. Randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic treatments in teens with moderate-to-severe PMS and PMDD have yet to be performed. However, clinical experience suggests that treatments that are effective for adults can be used in adolescents. PMS can be ameliorated by education about the nature of the disorder, improving calcium intake, performing exercise and reducing stress, but to treat severe PMS or PMDD pharmacologic therapy is usually required. Eliminating ovulation with certain hormonal contraceptive formulations or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists will be discussed. Serotonergic agonists are a first-line therapy for adults, and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine and escitalopram can be administered safely to teens.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding: No sources of funding were used in the preparation of this document.

Conflict of interest

Dr. Andrea J. Rapkin presently consults or has consulted for manufacturers of products discussed in this article and has received consulting fees/fees for participation in review activities from Bayer Schering Pharma AG.

Dr. Judith Mikacich has no conflicts of interest to declare that are directly relevant to the content of this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Yonkers KA, O’Brien PM, Eriksson E. Premenstrual syndrome. Lancet. 2008;371(9619):1200–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rapkin AJ, Winer SA. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: quality of life and burden of illness. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2009;9(2):157–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freeman EW, Halberstadt SM, Rickels K, et al. Core Symptoms that discriminate premenstrual syndrome. J Women’s Health. 2011;20:29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Halbreich U, Backstrom T, Eriksson E, et al. Clinical diagnostic criteria for premenstrual syndrome and guidelines for their quantification for research studies. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:123–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rapkin AJ, Winer SA. The pharmacologic management of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Exper Opin Pharmacother. 2008;9:429–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robinson RL, Swindle RW. Premenstrual symptom severity: impact on social functioning and treatment-seeking behaviors. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9:757–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Montero P, Bernis C, Loukid M, et al. Characteristics of menstrual cycles in Moroccan girls: prevalence of dysfunctions and associated behaviours. Ann Hum Biol. 1999;26:243–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shye D, Jaffe B. Prevalence and correlates of perimenstrual symptoms: a study of Israeli teenage girls. J Adolesc Health. 1991;12:217–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dosdzol A, Nowosielski K, Skrzypulec V, et al. Premenstrual disorders in Polish adolescents girls: prevalence and risk factors. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:1216–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ogebe O, Abdulmalik J, Bello-Mojeed MA, et al. A comparison of the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and comorbidities among adolescents in the United States of America and Nigeria. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Steiner M, Peer M, Palova E, et al. The premenstrual symptoms screening tool revised for adolescents (PSST-A): prevalence of severe PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011;14:77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takeda T, Koga S, Yaegashi N. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Japanese high school students. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010;13(6):535–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delara M, Ghofranipur F, Azadfallah P, et al. Health related quality of life among adolescents with premenstrual disorders: a cross sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;1(10):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wittchen HU, Becker E, Lieb R, et al. Prevalence, incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community. Psychol Med. 2002;32:119–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rojnic Kuzman M, Hotujac L. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a neglected diagnosis? Preliminary study on a sample of Croatian students. Coll Antropol. 2007;31:131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nwankwo TO, Aniebue UU, Aniebue PN. Menstrual disorders in adolescent school girls in Enugu. Nigeria. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010;23(6):358–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yonkers KA, White K. Premenstrual exacerbation of depression: one process or two? J Clin Psychiatry. 1992;53:289–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yonkers KA. The association between premenstrual dysphoric disorder and other mood disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(Suppl. 15):19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Perry BL, Miles D, Burruss K, et al. Premenstrual symptomatology and alcohol consumption in college women. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65:464–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sein Anand J, Chodorowski Z, Ciechanowicz R, et al. The relationship between suicidal attempts and menstrual cycle in women. Przegl Lek. 2005;62:431–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee DO. Menstrually related self-injurious behavior in adolescents with autism [letter]. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:1193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee LK, Chen PC, Lee KK, et al. Menstruation among adolescent girls in Malaysia: a cross-sectional school survey. Singap Med J. 2006;47:869–74.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Steiner M, Macdougall M, Brown E. The premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) for clinicians. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006;6(3):203–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Derman O, Kanbur NO, Tokur TE, et al. Premenstrual syndrome and associated symptoms in adolescent girls. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;116:201–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cleckner-Smith CS, Doughty AS, Grossman JA. Premenstrual symptoms: prevalence and severity in an adolescent sample. J Adolesc Health. 1998;22:403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vichnin M, Freeman EW, Lin H, et al. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescents: severity and impairment. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2006;19:397–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Issa BA, Yussuf AD, Olatinwo AW, et al. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder among medical students of a Nigerian university. Ann Afr Med. 2010;9:118–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Premenstrual syndrome. ACOG Practice Bulletin. 2000;15:39–53.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Management of premenstrual syndrome green-top guidelines. No. 48. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2007.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edn, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Brien PM, Bäckström T, Brown C, et al. Towards a consensus on diagnostic criteria, measurement and trial design of the premenstrual disorders: the ISPMD Montreal consensus. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011;14(1):13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Freeman EW, Schweizer E, Rickels K. Personality factors in women with premenstrual syndrome. Psychosom Med. 1995;57:453–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sulak PJ. Continuous oral contraception: changing times. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;22:355–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Endicott J, Nee J, Harrison W. Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP): reliability and validity. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006;9(1):41–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Houston AM, Abraham A, Huang Z, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and consequences of menstrual health in urban adolescent females. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2006;19:271–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pearlstein TB, Frank E, Rivera-Tovar A, et al. Prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. J Affect Disord. 1990;20:129–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Labad J, Menchon JM, Alonso P, et al. Female reproductive cycle and obsessive—compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:428–35. (quiz 546).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Portella AT, Haaga DA, Rohan KJ. The association between seasonal and premenstrual symptoms is continuous and is not fully accounted for by depressive symptoms. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194:833–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wilson CA, Turner CW, Keye WR Jr. Firstborn adolescent daughters and mothers with and without premenstrual syndrome: a comparison. J Adolesc Health. 1991;12:130–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Treolar S, Heath A, Martin N. Genetic and environmental influences on premenstrual symptoms in an Australian twin sample. Psychol Med. 2002;32:25–38.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Condon JT. The premenstrual syndrome: a twin study. Br J Psychiatry. 1993;162:481–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Perkonigg A, Yonkers KA, Pfister H, et al. Risk factors for premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a community sample of young women: the role of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:1314–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Koci A, Strickland O. Relationship of adolescent physical and sexual abuse to perimenstrual symptoms (PMS) in adulthood. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2007;28:75–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Masho SW, Adera T, South-Paul J. Obesity as a risk factor for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;26(1):33–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rapkin AJ, Mikacich JA. Premenstrual syndrome in adolescents: diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2006;3(Suppl. 1):132–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wong LP. Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: urban-rural and multiethnic differences in perception, impacts, and treatment seeking. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:272–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chandraratne NK, Gunawardena NS. Premenstrual syndrome: the experience from a sample of Sri Lankan adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:304–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chau JP, Chang AM. Effects of an educational programme on adolescents with premenstrual syndrome. Health Educ Res. 1999;14:817–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hunter MS, Ussher JM, Browne SJ, et al. A randomized comparison of psychological (cognitive behavior therapy), medical (fluoxetine) and combined treatment for women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;23:193–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Steege JF, Blumenthal JA. The effects of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms in middle-aged women: a preliminary study. J Psychosom Res. 1993;37:127–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Bendich A, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1246–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, et al. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:444–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ghanbari Z, Haghollahi F, Shariat M, et al. Effects of calcium supplement therapy in women with premenstrual syndrome. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;48(2):124–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rubinow DR, Hoban MC, Grover GN, et al. Changes in plasma hormones across the menstrual cycle in patients with menstrually related mood disorder and in control subjects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;158:5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schmidt PJ, Nieman LK, Danaceau MA, et al. Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:209–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    YAZ (drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol) [prescribing information]. Montville: Berlex, Inc.; 2006.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Joffee H, Cohen LS, Harlow BL. Impact of oral contraceptive pill use on premenstrual mood: predictors of improvement and deterioration. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:1523–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sulak PJ, Scow RD, Preece C. Hormone withdrawal symptoms in oral contraceptive users. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:261–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Greco T, Graham CA, Bancroft J, et al. The effects of oral contraceptives on androgen levels and their relevance to premenstrual mood and sexual interest: a comparison of two triphasic formulations containing norgestimate and either 35 or 25 microg of ethinyl estradiol. Contraception. 2007;76:8–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lopez LM, Kaptein A, Helmerhorst FM. Oral contraceptives containing drospirenone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; (1): CD006586.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sullivan H, Furniss H, Spona J, et al. Effect of 21-day and 24-day oral contraceptive regimens containing gestodene (60 microg) and ethinyl estradiol (15 microg) on ovarian activity. Fertil Steril. 1999;72:115–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yonkers KA, Brown C, Pearlstein TB, et al. Efficacy of a new low-dose oral contraceptive with drospirenone in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:492–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pearlstein TB, Bachmann GA, Zacur HA, et al. Treatment of pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder with a new drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive formulation. Contraception. 2005;72:414–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Muhn P, Krattenmacher R, Beier S, et al. Drospirenone: a novel progestogen with antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. Pharmacological characterization in animal models. Contraception. 1995;51:99–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    US FDA. FDA drug safety communication: safety review update on the possible increased risk of blood clots with birth control pills containing drospirenone. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm273021.htm. Accessed 26 Sep 2011.
  66. 66.
    Reid RL, Westhoff C, Mansour D, et al. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism consensus opinion from an International workshop held in Berlin, Germany in December 2009. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2010;36(3):117–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Seeger JD, Loughlin J, Eng PM, et al. Risk of thromboembolism in women taking ethinylestradiol/drospirenone and other oral contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(3):587–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dinger JC, Heinemann LA, Kühl-Habich D. The safety of drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive: final results from the European Active Surveillance Study on oral contraceptives based on 142,475 women-years of observation. Contraception. 2007;75(5):334–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lidegaard Ø, Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, Skjeldestad FE, Løkkegaard E. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001–9. BMJ. 2011;25(343):d6423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dinger J, Shapiro S. Combined oral contraceptives, venous thromboembolism, and the problem of interpreting large but incomplete datasets. J Fam Plann Rerpod Health Care. 2012;38(1):2–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Manzoli L, De Vito C, Marzuillo C, et al. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Saf. 2012;35(3):191–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Freeman EW, Halbreich U, Grugg GS, et al. An overview of four studies of a continuous oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel 90 mcg/ethinyl estradiol 20 mg) on premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome. Contraception. 2012;85(5):437–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    O’Brien S, Rapkin A, Dennerstein L, et al. Diagnosis and management of premenstrual disorders. BMJ. 2011;3(342):d2994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cunningham J, Yonkers KA, O’Brien S, et al. Update on research and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2009;17(2):120–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Silber TJ, Valadez-Meltzer A. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents: case reports of treatment with fluoxetine and review of the literature. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:518–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Steiner M, Steinberg S, Steward D, et al. Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:1529–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Freeman EW, Rickels K, Arredondo F, et al. Full-or half-cycle treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome with a serotonergic antidepressant. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;19:3–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Halbreich U, Smoller JW. Intermittent luteal phase sertraline treatment of dysphoric premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58:399–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Steiner M, Hirschberg AL, Bergeron R, et al. Luteal phase dosing with paroxetine controlled release (CR) in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:352–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wikander I, Sundblad C, Andersch B, et al. Citalopram in premenstrual dysphoria: is intermittent treatment during luteal phases more effective than continuous medication throughout the menstrual cycle? J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998;18:390–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Freeman EW, Rickels K, Yonkers KA, et al. Venlafaxine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:737–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pearlstein TB, Stone AB, Lund SA, et al. Comparison of fluoxetine, bupropion, and placebo in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997;17:261–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yonkers KA, Halbreich U, Freeman E, et al. Symptomatic improvement of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with sertraline treatment: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997;278:983–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cohen LS, Soares CN, Yonkers KA, et al. Paroxetine controlled release for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychosom Med. 2004;66:707–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Halbreich U, Bergeron R, Yonkers KA, et al. Efficacy of intermittent, luteal phase sertraline treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:1219–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kornstein SG, Pearlstein TB, Fayyad R, et al. Low-dose sertraline in the treatment of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome: efficacy of 3 dosing strategies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:1624–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Steiner M, Brown E, Trzepacz P, et al. Fluoxetine improves functional work capacity in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2003;6:71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ravindran LN, Woods SA, Steiner M, et al. Symptom-onset dosing with citalopram in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD): a case series. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007;10(3):125–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, et al. Clinical subtypes of premenstrual syndrome and responses to sertaline treatment. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(6):1293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pearlstein T, Joliat MJ, Brown EB, et al. Recurrence of symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder after the cessation of luteal-phase fluoxetine treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:887–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Koren G, Nordeng H. Antidepressant risk during pregnancy: the benefit-risk ratio. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207(3):157–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hetrick S, Merry S, McKenzie J, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; (3): CD004851.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nur MM, Romano ME, Siqueira LM. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder in an adolescent female: a case report of an adolescent with PMDD treated successfully with luteal phase dosing of fluoxetine 20 mg. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2007;20:201–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    US FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults. 2008. http://www.fda.gov/cder/. Accessed 1 Mar 2013.
  95. 95.
    Gibbons RD, Hur K, Bhaumik DK, et al. The relationship between antidepressant prescription rates and rate of early adolescent suicide. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gibbons RD, Brown CH, Hur K, et al. Early evidence on the effects of regulators’ suicidality warnings on SSRI prescriptions and suicide in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1356–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jackson B, Lurie S. Adolescent depression: challenges and opportunities: a review and current recommendations for clinical practice. Adv Pediatr. 2006;53:111–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Scahill L, Hamrin V, Pachler ME. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and adolescents with major depression. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2005;18:86–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rowe L, Tonge B, Melvin G. When should GPs prescribe SSRIs for adolescent depression? Aust Fam Physician. 2004;33:1005–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Anderson HD, Pace WD, Libby AM, et al. Rates of 5 common antidepressant side effects among new adult and adolescent cases of depression: a retrospective US claims study. Clin Ther. 2012;34(1):113–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Ismail KM, et al. The effectiveness of GnRHa with and without “add-back” therapy in treating premenstrual syndrome: a meta analysis. BJOG. 2004;111:585–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mezrow G, Shoupe D, Spicer D, et al. Depot leuprolide acetate with estrogen and progestin add-back for long-term treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Fertil Steril. 1994;62:932–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Watson NR, Studd JW, Sawas M, et al. Treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome with oestradiol patches and cyclical oral norethisterone. Lancet. 1989;2:730–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lam RW, Carter D, Misri S, et al. A controlled study of light therapy in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1999;86:185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Girman A, Lee R, Kligler B. An integrative medicine approach to premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:S56–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Berger D, Schaffner W, Schrader E, et al. Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440 in patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000;264:150–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ. 2001;322:134–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Canning S, Waterman M, Orsi N, et al. The efficacy of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CNS Drugs. 2010;24(3):207–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hicks SM, Walker AF, Gallagher J, et al. The significance of “nonsignificance” in randomized controlled studies: a discussion inspired by a double-blinded study on St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum I). for premenstrual symptoms. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10:925–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vellacott ID, Shroff NE, Pearce MY, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of spironolactone in the premenstrual syndrome. Curr Med Res Opin. 1987;10:450–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wang M, Hammarback S, Lindhe BA, et al. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome by spironolactone: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1995;74:803–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLAUniversity of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Sacramento Women’s HealthSacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations