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The Safety and Tolerability of Statin Therapy in Primary Prevention in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Zhen ZhouEmail author
  • Loai Albarqouni
  • Andrea J. Curtis
  • Monique Breslin
  • Mark Nelson
Systematic Review
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The use of statins in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in older adults. Nonetheless, good clinical evidence for the safety and tolerability of statins in this population is limited.

Objective

We aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of statins in older adults without overt CVD, focusing on statin-related muscle symptoms.

Methods

Double-blinded randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of statins published before January 2012 were identified from a Cochrane review updated to 2012. Trials published between January 2012 and July 2018 were identified through the CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Eligible trials were limited to those including individuals aged ≥ 65 years without overt CVD, who were followed for at least 1 year. Trials had to have reported at least one of the outcomes of interest. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models.

Results

We identified 11 trials, including 18,192 participants (mean age 73.7 years; 43% females). Compared with placebo, statins neither increased the risks of muscle-related symptoms (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.90–1.12), total adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs nor led to more total permanent treatment discontinuations and discontinuations due to AEs or specifically due to muscle-related symptoms. No evidence of heterogeneity was observed in any of these outcomes.

Conclusions

This meta-analysis of RCTs found no excess incidence of muscle-related symptoms, total AEs, serious AEs and treatment discontinuations attributable to statin treatment compared with placebo among older adults without CVD.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. Frank Brouwers for providing unpublished individual patient data from PREVEND IT, AstraZeneca for providing the data from the METEOR trial and Pfizer for providing the data from the BONE and ASPEN trials.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

No sources of funding were used to conduct this study or prepare this manuscript.

Conflict of interest

MN has participated on an advisory board for Amgen, who make a lipid-lowering agent. ZZ, LA, AC and MB have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.

Ethical approval

Not applicable for this meta-analysis.

Supplementary material

40266_2019_736_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3588 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Menzies Institute for Medical ResearchUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.The Centre for Research in Evidence-Based Practice (CREBP), Faculty of Health Sciences and MedicineBond UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive MedicineMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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