Parkinson’s Disease in the Era of Personalised Medicine: One Size Does Not Fit All
The concept of personalised medicine in Parkinson’s disease has arrived where the implications of findings made in research are certain to have an increasing impact upon clinical practice. Disease heterogeneity in Parkinson’s disease has been well described and lends itself to the construct of personalised medicine where it is hypothesised that a greater understanding of genetic and pathophysiological contributions may underpin the sub-groups described. This in turn has driven the development of potentially individualised disease-modifying therapies where, for example, we are beginning to see treatments that target patients with Parkinson’s disease with specific genetic mutations. Furthermore, clinicians are increasingly recognising the need to tailor their management approach to patients depending on their age of presentation, acknowledging differential side-effect profiles and responses especially when considering the use of device-assisted technologies such as infusion or surgery. Clearly, individualising the treatment of both motor and non-motor symptoms will remain imperative but, in the future, personalised medicine may provide clearer insights into various aspects of a patient’s symptomatology, disease course and thus the best therapeutic approaches.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Lauren E. Ryden receives a salary from the University of Sydney, ForeFront group and is currently completing a Neurodegenerative Disease Fellowship at the Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Simon J.G. Lewis is supported by an NHMRC-ARC Dementia Fellowship (#1110414) and funding to ForeFront, a collaborative research group at the Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, from the NHMRC programme (#1132524), Dementia Research Team (#1095127), NeuroSleep Centre of Research Excellence (#1060992) grants and a Sydney Research Excellence Initiative 2020 grant. No sources of funding were received for the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Lauren E. Ryden and Simon J. G. Lewis have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the contents of this article.
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