Infective Endocarditis in the Elderly: Diagnostic and Treatment Options
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Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon, life-threatening systemic disorder with significant morbidity and persistently high mortality. The age of the peak incidence of IE has shifted from 45 years in the 1950s to 70 years at the present time, and elderly people have a five-fold higher risk of IE than the general adult population. Elderly IE patients demonstrate a higher prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci, enterococci and Streptococcus bovis, and lower rates of infection by viridans group streptococci. Methicillin resistance is more prevalent in elderly patients as a consequence of increased nosocomial acquisition. The elderly are a vulnerable group in whom diagnosis is often difficult on account of non-specific presenting features and where higher prevalence of comorbidities contributes to adverse outcomes. Treatment of older patients with IE presents specific challenges associated with prolonged antibiotic therapy, and access to surgery may be denied on account of advanced age and attendant comorbidities. This practical review covers all aspects of elderly IE, including clinical and microbiological diagnosis and appropriate diagnostic procedures, initial antibiotic selection, antibiotic prophylaxis, considerations about antibiotic therapy and surgery.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No funding was received for the preparation of this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
MPU, EDM, RR, JH, JBC and BP declare that they have no conflicts of interest relating to the content of this review.
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