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Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa) Liver Injury: A Comprehensive Review

  • Jonathan SchimmelEmail author
  • Richard C. Dart
Review Article

Abstract

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) leaves contain the mu opioid Kupferschmidt,partial agonists mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. The US Drug Enforcement Agency considers it a ‘drug of concern’, and the US FDA is reviewing kratom, but there is a paucity of information regarding health effects. Liver injury is often cited as a potential health consequence, however the same few case reports are repeatedly referenced, without a broader context. Furthermore, reports have largely lacked standardized causality assessment methods. The objective is to evaluate causality in kratom liver injury, through a comprehensive scoping review of human cases, and by reviewing epidemiologic, animal, and mechanistic reports that relate to kratom liver injury. Hepatotoxicity causality was systematically examined using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) for case reports. Biopsy findings, potential pathophysiologic mechanisms, and management options are discussed. This review identified 26 case reports and abstracts, in addition to 7 cases reported from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network, 25 in FDA databases, and 27 in internet user forums. Latency periods to symptom onset had a median of 20.6 days and mean of 21 days (range 2–49). Common presenting signs and symptoms were abdominal discomfort, jaundice, pruritis, and dark urine. Histologic findings were predominantly cholestatic, although, biochemically, the condition was heterogenous or mixed; the median R ratio was 3.4 and the mean was 4.6 (range 0.24–10.4). Kratom likely causes liver injury based on the totality of low-quality human evidence, and, in the context of epidemiologic, animal, and mechanistic studies. It remains unclear which subgroups of users are at heightened risk.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Laurie Halmo, MD, for contributions to the manuscript.

Funding

This report did not receive any specific funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Jonathan Schimmel and Richard C. Dart declare no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Medical ToxicologyMount Sinai Hospital Icahn School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug SafetyDenver Health and Hospital AuthorityDenverUSA

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