, Volume 79, Issue 17, pp 1839–1848 | Cite as

Immunotherapy Against Gliomas: is the Breakthrough Near?

  • Rimas V. LukasEmail author
  • Derek A. Wainwright
  • Craig M. Horbinski
  • Fabio M. Iwamoto
  • Adam M. Sonabend
Review Article


Immunotherapeutic approaches have been, and continue to be, aggressively investigated in the treatment of infiltrating gliomas. While the results of late-phase clinical studies have been disappointing in this disease space thus far, the success of immunotherapies in other malignancies as well as the incremental gains in our understanding of immune-tumour interactions in gliomas has fuelled a strong continued interest of their evaluation in these tumours. We discuss a range of immunotherapeutic approaches including, but not limited to, vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors, oncolytic viruses, and gene therapies. Potential biomarkers under investigation to help elucidate which patients may respond or not respond to immunotherapeutic regimens are reviewed. Directions for future investigations are also noted.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


RVL, DAW, CMH, AMS are supported by P50CA221747 SPORE for Translational Approaches to Brain Tumours. DAW and RVL are supported by BrainUp grant 2136.

Conflicts of interest

RVL has received honoraria for serving on advisory boards for Monteris and Ziopharm. RVL, CMH, AMS, and FMI have received honoraria as consultants for Abbvie. FMI has received honoraria for consulting for Merck, Novocure, Tocagen, Alexion, and Regeneron. RVL has received support from Roche for travel to present at a meeting. FMI has received travel support to FDA meeting from Merck. FMI has received funding for research support for investigator-initiated trials from Merck, BMS, and Novocure. RVL have received honoraria for medical editing from Medlink Neurolology, medical review of content for EBSCO Publishing, and creating/presenting board review material for American Physician Institute.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rimas V. Lukas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Derek A. Wainwright
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Craig M. Horbinski
    • 2
    • 3
    • 6
  • Fabio M. Iwamoto
    • 7
  • Adam M. Sonabend
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Lou & Jean Malnati Brain Tumor Institute at the Lurie Comprehensive Cancer CenterNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurological SurgeryNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology-ImmunologyNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Medicine-Hematology/OncologyNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  6. 6.Department of PathologyNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  7. 7.Department of NeurologyColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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