, Volume 78, Issue 3, pp 287–291 | Cite as

Outcomes, Access, and Cost Issues Involving PCSK9 Inhibitors to Lower LDL-Cholesterol

Current Opinion


The clinical importance and benefit of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors appears well established for the high-risk cardiovascular (CV) patient. This applies especially to the statin-intolerant patient or the patient who does not attain an appropriate low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target. Therefore, the barriers to appropriate clinical use of the PCSK9 inhibitors involve cost and not the documented CV benefit or LDL-C lowering. Multiple roadblocks affect many high-risk CV patients in arranging approval of a PCSK9 inhibitor. Overcoming these roadblocks may require legal pressures, some increased regulation, and facilitation by competitive forces.



The author thanks Colleen McMullen, MA, MBA, for her excellent editorial critique.


No external funding was used in the preparation of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author confirms that he has no conflict of interest involving any pharmaceutical or medical device company or any other possible conflict.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gill Heart and Vascular InstituteUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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