Bezlotoxumab: A Review in Preventing Clostridium difficile Infection Recurrence
Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava™) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B indicated for the prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI) recurrence in patients with a high recurrence risk. It is the first agent approved for recurrence prevention and is administered as a single intravenous infusion in conjunction with standard-of-care (SoC) antibacterial treatment for CDI. In well-designed, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials (MODIFY 1 and 2), a single infusion of bezlotoxumab, given in combination with SoC antibacterial therapy for CDI in adults, was effective in reducing CDI recurrence in the 12 weeks post-treatment, with this benefit being seen mainly in the patients at high recurrence risk. Bezlotoxumab did not impact the efficacy of the antibacterials being used to treat the CDI and, consistent with its benefits on CDI recurrence, appeared to reduce the need for subsequent antibacterials, thus minimizing further gut microbiota disruption. Longer term, there were no further CDI recurrences over 12 months’ follow-up among patients who had received bezlotoxumab in MODIFY 2 and entered an extension substudy. Bezlotoxumab has low immunogenicity and is generally well tolerated, although the potential for heart failure in some patients requires consideration; cost-effectiveness data for bezlotoxumab are awaited with interest. Thus, a single intravenous infusion of bezlotoxumab during SoC antibacterial treatment for CDI is an emerging option for reducing CDI recurrence in adults at high risk of recurrence.
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