, Volume 77, Issue 16, pp 1713–1721 | Cite as

Pharmacological Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Current and Evolving Treatments

  • Daniel M. Beswick
  • Stacey T. Gray
  • Timothy L. Smith
Leading Article


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory sinonasal condition with multiple etiologic factors that is associated with a vast economic cost. Treatment is most frequently pharmacologic and has centered on agents that ameliorate inflammation, decrease bacterial or pathogen load, and facilitate egress of mucus or purulence from the sinonasal cavity. Nasal saline irrigations, topical nasal steroids, certain antibiotics, and systemic steroids have shown some efficacy in the management of CRS. Recently, biologic therapeutics that target specific inflammatory pathways associated with subsets of CRS have been developed and evaluated. Early data evaluating these biologic treatments suggest a potential role in treating a subset of CRS with refractory, poorly controlled disease. Additional studies are necessary to identify which patients would benefit most from biologic therapies and to assess the cost of these therapies compared with the benefit they provide. This review describes the pathophysiology of CRS and summarizes both established and novel biologic pharmacologic treatments.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No sources of funding were directly used for this project.

Conflict of interest

Timothy L. Smith was previously a consultant for Intersect ENT. This relationship ended in 2015. He is supported by a grant for this investigation from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), one of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA (R01 DC005805; PI/PD: TL Smith). Public clinical trial registration (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) ID: NCT01332136. This funding organization did not contribute to the design or conduct of this study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, approval or decision to submit this manuscript for publication.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel M. Beswick
    • 1
  • Stacey T. Gray
    • 2
    • 3
  • Timothy L. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Department of OtolaryngologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of OtolaryngologyMassachusetts Eye and Ear InfirmaryBostonUSA

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