Advertisement

Drugs

, Volume 76, Issue 18, pp 1719–1735 | Cite as

Comparative Pharmacology and Guide to the Use of the Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

  • Anthony L. KovacEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Since the introduction of the serotonin 5-hydroxy tryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in the early 1990s, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post-discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) has decreased, yet continues to be a problem for the surgical patient. The clinical application of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has helped define the approach and role of these antiemetics in the prevention and treatment of PONV and PDNV. Pharmacological and clinical differences exist among these medications resulting in corresponding differences in effectiveness, safety, optimal dosage, time of administration, and use as combination and rescue antiemetic therapy. The clinical application of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics has improved the prevention and treatment of PONV and PDNV. The most recent consensus guidelines for PONV published in 2014 outline the use of these antiemetics. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists play an important role to help prevent PONV and PDNV in perioperative care pathways such as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS). Comparisons and guidelines for use of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in relation to the risk for PONV and PDNV are reviewed.

Keywords

Ondansetron Granisetron Palonosetron Tropisetron Dolasetron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance and Ethical Standards

Dr. Kovac has previously received grant support from GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, Aventis, Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Merck, and Helsinn Healthcare. Dr. Kovac has served as an advisory consultant for Aventis, Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Adolor Pharma, Merck, and Helsinn Healthcare. Dr. Kovac has served as a member of the speakers’ bureau for GlaxoSmithKline, Abbott Laboratories, Roche, Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Merck, and Helsinn Healthcare.

References

  1. 1.
    Kapur PA. The big “little problem”. Anesth Analg. 1991;73(3):243–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gan TJ, et al. Consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2014;118(1):85–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apfel CC, et al. A simplified risk score for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting: conclusions from cross-validations between two centers. Anesthesiology. 1999;91(3):693–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eberhart LH, et al. Evaluation of three risk scores to predict postoperative nausea and vomiting. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2000;44(4):480–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Watcha MF, White PF. Postoperative nausea and vomiting. Its etiology, treatment, and prevention. Anesthesiology. 1992;77(1):162–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Apfel CC, et al. A factorial trial of six interventions for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(24):2441–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mortensen K, et al. Consensus guidelines for enhanced recovery after gastrectomy: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(R)) Society recommendations. Br J Surg. 2014;101(10):1209–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ahmed J, et al. Enhanced recovery after surgery protocols—compliance and variations in practice during routine colorectal surgery. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14(9):1045–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cohen IT. Ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Therapy. 2006;3(5):571–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balfour JA, Goa KL. Dolasetron. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential in the management of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Drugs. 1997;54(2):273–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Board T, Board R. The role of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. AORN J. 2006;83(1):209–16, 219–20.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Culy CR, Bhana N, Plosker GL. Ondansetron: a review of its use as an antiemetic in children. Paediatr Drugs. 2001;3(6):441–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blower PR. Granisetron: relating pharmacology to clinical efficacy. Support Care Cancer. 2003;11(2):93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Simpson K, Spencer CM, McClellan KJ. Tropisetron: an update of its use in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Drugs. 2000;59(6):1297–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee CR, Plosker GL, McTavish D. Tropisetron. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential as an antiemetic. Drugs. 1993;46(5):925–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rabasseda X. Ramosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist for the control of nausea and vomiting. Drugs Today (Barc). 2002;38(2):75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Navari RM. Palonosetron: a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist. Future Oncol. 2006;2(5):591–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang LP, Scott LJ. Palonosetron: in the prevention of nausea and vomiting. Drugs. 2009;69(16):2257–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kovac AL. Benefits and risks of newer treatments for chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Drug Saf. 2003;26(4):227–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blower PR. 5-HT3-receptor antagonists and the cytochrome P450 system: clinical implications. Cancer J. 2002;8(5):405–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilde MI, Markham A. Ondansetron. A review of its pharmacology and preliminary clinical findings in novel applications. Drugs. 1996;52(5):773–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Milne RJ, Heel RC. Ondansetron. Therapeutic use as an antiemetic. Drugs. 1991;41(4):574–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dixon CM, et al. Multiple forms of cytochrome P450 are involved in the metabolism of ondansetron in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995;23(11):1225–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saynor DA, Dixon CM. The metabolism of ondansetron. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1989;25(Suppl 1):S75–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    GlaxoSmithKline, R.T.P. Zofran (ondansetron hydrochloride) Injection [package insert]; 2004.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kovac AL. Prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting: controversies in the use of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 3 receptor antagonists. J Clin Anesth. 2006;18(4):304–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pharmaceuticals A. Anzemet(R) (dolasetron) package insert; 2003.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Acupuncture. Medical letter on drugs and therapeutics. 2006;48(1234):38–9.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    FDA, Anzemet (dolasetron mesylate): drug safety communication—reports of abnormal heart rhythms. FDA Safety Alerts, 2010. http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm237341.htm(12-17-2010).
  30. 30.
    Hsu ES. A review of granisetron, 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists, and other antiemetics. Am J Therapeutics. 2010;17(5):476–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    White PF, et al. The use of oral granisetron versus intravenous ondansetron for antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery: the effect on emetic symptoms and quality of recovery. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(5):1387–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    de Bruijn KM. Tropisetron. A review of the clinical experience. Drugs. 1992;43(Suppl 3):11–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee HJ, et al. Preoperatively administered ramosetron oral disintegrating tablets for preventing nausea and vomiting associated with patient-controlled analgesia in breast cancer patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25(9):756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cayman Chemical, A.A., MI, Ramosetron (Hydrochloride) product insert. 2016.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Choi DK, et al. Prophylactic control of post-operative nausea and vomiting using ondansetron and ramosetron after cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54(8):962–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ryu J, et al. Ramosetron versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(4):812–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wallenborn J, Kranke P. Palonosetron hydrochloride in the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Clin Med Insights Therapeutics. 2010;2:387–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Candiotti KA, et al. A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different doses of palonosetron versus placebo for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(2):445–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kovac AL, et al. A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different doses of palonosetron versus placebo in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting over a 72-hour period. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(2):439–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bajwa SS, et al. Palonosetron: a novel approach to control postoperative nausea and vomiting in day care surgery. Saudi J Anaesth. 2011;5(1):19–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    van Wijngaarden I, Tulp MT, Soudijn W. The concept of selectivity in 5-HT receptor research. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990;188(6):301–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Taguchi A, Sharma N, Saleem RM, Sessler DI, Carpenter RL, Sevedsadr M, Kirz A. Selective postoperative inhibition of gastrointestinal opioid receptors. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:935–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Al-Khrasani M, et al. The central versus peripheral antinociceptive effects of mu-opioid receptor agonists in the new model of rat visceral pain. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87(2-3):238-43.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fischer V, et al. The polymorphic cytochrome P-4502D6 is involved in the metabolism of both 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists, tropisetron and ondansetron. Drug Metab Dispos. 1994;22(2):269–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Upward JW, et al. The clinical pharmacology of granisetron (BRL 43694), a novel specific 5-HT3 antagonist. Eur J Cancer. 1990;26(Suppl 1):S12–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rojas C, et al. Palonosetron triggers 5-HT(3) receptor internalization and causes prolonged inhibition of receptor function. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;626(2–3):193–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sanwald P, David M, Dow J. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of dolasetron. Comparison with other indole-containing 5-HT3 antagonists. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996;24(5):602–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bloomer JC, et al. Characterisation of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of granisetron. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;38(6):557–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tramer MR. A rational approach to the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting: evidence from systematic reviews. Part I. Efficacy and harm of antiemetic interventions, and methodological issues. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(1):4–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tramer MR, et al. Efficacy, dose-response, and safety of ondansetron in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 1997;87(6):1277–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cascorbi I. Pharmacogenetics of cytochrome p4502D6: genetic background and clinical implication. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003;33(Suppl 2):17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jann MW, Cohen LJ. The influence of ethnicity and antidepressant pharmacogenetics in the treatment of depression. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2000;16(1):39–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sachse C, et al. Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;60(2):284–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Johansson I, et al. Inherited amplification of an active gene in the cytochrome P450 CYP2D locus as a cause of ultrarapid metabolism of debrisoquine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993;90(24):11825–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kaiser R, et al. Patient-tailored antiemetic treatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists according to cytochrome P-450 2D6 genotypes. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(12):2805–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Firkusny L, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M. In vitro characterization of cytochrome P450 catalysed metabolism of the antiemetic tropisetron. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995;49(12):1777–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dimmitt DC, et al. Pharmacokinetics of dolasetron with coadministration of cimetidine or rifampin in healthy subjects. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1999;43(2):126–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Koriech OM. Fluoxetine treatment comprises the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron in cancer patients. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 1995;7(6):371–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vale C, et al. Co-administration of ondansetron decreases the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in humans. Pharmacology. 2011;88(3–4):182–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stevens AJ, Woodman RJ, Owen H. The effect of ondansetron on the efficacy of postoperative tramadol: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a drug interaction. Anaesthesia. 2015;70(2):209–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rauers NI, et al. Antagonistic effects of ondansetron and tramadol? A randomized placebo and active drug controlled study. J Pain. 2010;11(12):1274–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Arcioni R, et al. Ondansetron inhibits the analgesic effects of tramadol: a possible 5-HT(3) spinal receptor involvement in acute pain in humans. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(6):1553–7 (table of contents).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    De Witte JL, et al. The analgesic efficacy of tramadol is impaired by concurrent administration of ondansetron. Anesth Analg. 2001;92(5):1319–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Scholtysik G, et al. 5-Hydroxytryptamine antagonist ICS 205-930 blocks cardiac potassium, sodium and calcium currents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;245(3):773–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Simpson KH, Hicks FM. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ondansetron. A review. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996;48(8):774–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Huh IY, et al. Change of QT variability index during general anesthesia. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2016;69(3):250–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Byon HJ, et al. A comparison of QTc intervals after laryngoscopic intubation and i-gel insertion during propofol-sevoflurane anaesthesia. Minerva Anestesiol. 2016;82(9):950-6.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Min JJ, et al. A comparison of the effects of sevoflurane and desflurane on corrected QT interval prolongation in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation: a prospective observational study. Transpl Proc. 2016;48(1):96–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lee JH, et al. The effect of sevoflurane and ondansetron on QT interval and transmural dispersion of repolarization in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2014;24(4):421–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    de Kam PJ, et al. Effect of sugammadex on QT/QTc interval prolongation when combined with QTc-prolonging sevoflurane or propofol anaesthesia. Clin Drug Investig. 2013;33(8):545–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tacken MC, Bracke FA, Van Zundert AA. Torsade de pointes during sevoflurane anesthesia and fluconazole infusion in a patient with long QT syndrome. A case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2011;62(2):105–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kuryshev YA, et al. Interactions of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 antagonist class of antiemetic drugs with human cardiac ion channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;295(2):614–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hunt TL, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging safety evaluation of single-dose intravenous dolasetron in healthy male volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995;35(7):705–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Benedict CR, et al. Single-blind study of the effects of intravenous dolasetron mesylate versus ondansetron on electrocardiographic parameters in normal volunteers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1996;28(1):53–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Boike SC, et al. Cardiovascular effects of i.v. granisetron at two administration rates and of ondansetron in healthy adults. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1997;54(10):1172–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Navari RM, Koeller JM. Electrocardiographic and cardiovascular effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37(9):1276–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tang J, et al. The effect of timing of ondansetron administration on its efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit as a prophylactic antiemetic in the ambulatory setting. Anesth Analg. 1998;86(2):274–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Keefe DL. The cardiotoxic potential of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist antiemetics: is there cause for concern? Oncologist. 2002;7(1):65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kovac AL, et al. Efficacy of repeat intravenous dosing of ondansetron in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. J Clin Anesth. 1999;11(6):453–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Figueredo ED, Canosa LG. Ondansetron in the prophylaxis of postoperative vomiting: a meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth. 1998;10(3):211–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chan MT, et al. Single-dose tropisetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after breast surgery. Anesth Analg. 1998;87(4):931–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sukhani R, et al. Ondansetron and dolasetron provide equivalent postoperative vomiting control after ambulatory tonsillectomy in dexamethasone-pretreated children. Anesth Analg. 2002;95(5):1230–5 (table of contents).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Janicki PK, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting with granisetron and dolasetron in relation to CYP2D6 genotype. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(4):1127–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Iatrou CA, et al. Prophylactic intravenous ondansetron and dolasetron in intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2005;101(5):1516–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Metaxari M, et al. Antiemetic prophylaxis in thyroid surgery: a randomized, double-blind comparison of three 5-HT3 agents. J Anesth. 2011;25(3):356–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gupta K, et al. Palonosetron, ondansetron, and granisetron for antiemetic prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting—a comparative evaluation. Anesth Essays Res. 2014;8(2):197–201.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kazemi-Kjellberg F, Henzi I, Tramer MR. Treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. BMC Anesthesiol. 2001;1(1):2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bhattacharjee DP, et al. A comparative study between palonosetron and granisetron to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2010;26(4):480–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Contreras-Dominguez V, Carbonell-Bellolio P. Prophylactic antiemetic therapy for acute abdominal surgery. A comparative study of droperidol, metoclopramide, tropisetron, granisetron and dexamethasone. Rev Bras de Anestesiol. 2008;58(1):35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Eberhart LHJ, et al. Anti-emetic prophylaxis with oral tropisetron and/or dexamethasone. Eur J Clin Investig. 2006;36(8):580–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gao C, et al. Efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting after general anesthesia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Drug Des Dev Ther. 2015;9:2343–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Joo J, et al. Ramosetron versus ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting in strabismus surgery patients. BMC Anesthesiol. 2016;16(1):41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Park SK, Cho EJ. A randomized, double-blind trial of palonosetron compared with ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynaecological laparoscopic surgery. J Int Med Res. 2011;39(2):399–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Singh PM, et al. Efficacy of palonosetron in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)—a meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth. 2016;34:459–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Celiker V, et al. Minimum effective dose of dexamethasone after tonsillectomy. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14(8):666–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Liu K, Hsu CC, Chia YY. The effective dose of dexamethasone for antiemesis after major gynecological surgery. Anesth Analg. 1999;89(5):1316–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Johns RA, Hanousek J, Montgomery JE. A comparison of cyclizine and granisetron alone and in combination for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 2006;61(11):1053–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Henzi I, Walder B, Tramer MR. Dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(1):186–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Du Pen S, et al. Ondansetron in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in ambulatory outpatients: a dose-comparative, stratified, multicentre study. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl. 1992;6:55–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Koivuranta M, Laara E. A survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 1998;53(4):413–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gan TJ. Risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(6):1884–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Apfel CC, et al. Who is at risk for postdischarge nausea and vomiting after ambulatory surgery? Anesthesiology. 2012;117(3):475-86.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Koivuranta M, et al. A survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(5):443–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wang JJ, et al. The effect of timing of dexamethasone administration on its efficacy as a prophylactic antiemetic for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2000;91(1):136–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kovac AL. Update on management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Drugs 2013;73(14):1525-47.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Carroll NV, et al. Postoperative nausea and vomiting after discharge from outpatient surgery centers. Anesth Analg. 1995;80(5):903–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wu CL, et al. Systematic review and analysis of postdischarge symptoms after outpatient surgery. Anesthesiology. 2002;96(4):994–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gupta A, et al. Does the routine prophylactic use of antiemetics affect the incidence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting following ambulatory surgery? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2003;99(2):488–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pan PH, Lee SC, Harris LC. Antiemetic prophylaxis for postdischarge nausea and vomiting and impact on functional quality of living during recovery in patients with high emetic risks: a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of two prophylactic antiemetic regimens. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(2):429–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tricco AC, et al. Comparative safety of serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in patients undergoing surgery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2015;13:142.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hsu ES. A review of granisetron, 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists, and other antiemetics. Am J Ther. 2010;17(5):476–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations