, Volume 75, Issue 1, pp 9–32 | Cite as

Pharmacological Approaches to the Management of Binge Eating Disorder

  • Kimberly A. BrownleyEmail author
  • Christine M. Peat
  • Maria La Via
  • Cynthia M. Bulik
Review Article


In the USA, binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of ~3.5 % in adult women, 2.0 % in adult men, and 1.6 % in adolescents. BED is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating that are accompanied by a sense of loss of control over eating and result in marked psychological distress. BED is highly co-morbid with obesity and with depression and other psychiatric conditions, and it is associated with substantial role impairment. Currently, there are no US FDA-approved pharmacological treatments for BED. Animal and human studies implicate underlying dysregulation in dopamine, opioid, acetylcholine, and serotonin neurocircuitry within brain reward regions in the pathogenesis and maintenance of BED. To date, the efficacy of various agents that target these and other neurotransmitter systems involved in motivated feeding behavior, mood regulation, and impulse control have been investigated in the treatment of BED. Several antidepressant and anticonvulsant agents have demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating frequency, but only in limited cases have these effects resulted in patients achieving abstinence, which is the primary goal of treatment; they also range from less (fluvoxamine) to more (topiramate) effective in achieving weight loss that is both clinically meaningful and significantly greater than placebo. Collectively, the literature on pharmacological treatment approaches to BED is limited in that very few agents have been studied in multiple, confirmatory trials with adequate follow up, and almost none have been evaluated in large patient samples that are diverse with respect to age, sex, and ethnicity. In addition, prior trials have not adequately addressed, through study design, the high placebo response commonly observed in this patient population. Several novel agents are in various phases of testing, and recent animal studies focusing on glutamate-signaling circuits linking the amygdala to the lateral hypothalamus offer new avenues for exploration and potential therapeutic development. Studies of newly FDA-approved medications for long-term obesity treatment and further explorations of dietary supplements and neutraceuticals with appetite- and mood-altering properties may also be worthwhile.


Fluoxetine Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Topiramate Binge Eating Duloxetine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Drs. Brownley, Peat, and Bulik have received funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for conducting a systematic review of treatment and outcomes in binge eating disorder. None of these funds were used in the preparation of this manuscript. Dr. Bulik is a consultant and contract recipient for Shire Pharmaceuticals. Drs. Brownley and Peat have been consultants for Shire Pharmaceuticals. Dr. La Via reports no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, et al. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:348–58.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Swanson SA, Crow SJ, Le Grange D, et al. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adolescents. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication adolescent supplement. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(7):714–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agrawal A, Hinrichs AL, Dunn G, et al. Linkage scan for quantitative traits identifies new regions of interest for substance dependence in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;93(1–2):12–20.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alegria M, Woo M, Cao Z, et al. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in Latinos in the United States. Int J Eat Disord. 2007;40(Suppl):S15–21.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith DE, Marcus MD, Lewis CE, et al. Prevalence of binge eating disorder, obesity, and depression in a biracial cohort of young adults. Ann Behav Med. 1998;20(3):227–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Zwaan M. Binge eating disorder and obesity. Int J Obes. 2001;12(9):S51–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yanovski SZ. Binge eating disorder: current knowledge and future directions. Obes Res. 1993;1(4):306–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yanovski SZ. Binge eating disorder and obesity in 2003: could treating an eating disorder have a positive effect on the obesity epidemic? Int J Eat Disord. 2003;34(Suppl):S117–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fichter MM, Quadflieg N, Brandl B. Recurrent overeating: an empirical comparison of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. Int J Eat Disord. 1993;14(1):1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, et al. Psychiatric and medical symptoms in binge eating in the absence of compensatory behaviors. Obes Res. 2004;12(9):1445–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yanovski SZ, Nelson JE, Dubbert BK, et al. Association of binge eating disorder and psychiatric comorbidity in obese subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(10):1472–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Kendler KS. Medical and psychiatric morbidity in obese women with and without binge eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2002;32(1):72–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mussell MP, Mitchell JE, de Zwaan M, et al. Clinical characteristics associated with binge eating in obese females: a descriptive study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20(4):324–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grilo CM, White MA, Masheb RM. DSM-IV psychiatric disorder comorbidity and its correlates in binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42(3):228–34.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    de Zwaan M, Mitchell JE, Seim HC, et al. Eating related and general psychopathology in obese females with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 1994;15(1):43–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hudson JI, Lalonde JK, Coit CE, et al. Longitudinal study of the diagnosis of components of the metabolic syndrome in individuals with binge-eating disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(6):1568–73.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Chiu WT, et al. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the world health organization world mental health surveys. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9):904–14.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Matheson BE, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shafer-Berger S, et al. Eating patterns in youth with and without loss of control eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45(8):957–61.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cassidy OL, Matheson B, Osborn R, et al. Loss of control eating in African-American and Caucasian youth. Eat Behav. 2012;13(2):174–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meany G, Conceicao E, Mitchell JE. Binge eating, binge eating disorder and loss of control eating: effects on weight outcomes after bariatric surgery. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2014;22(2):87–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Cohen M, Yanovski S, et al. A prospective study of psychological predictors for body fat gain in children at high-risk for adult obesity. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42(1):26–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lang T, Hauser R, Buddeberg C, et al. Impact of gastric banding on eating behavior and weight. Obes Surg. 2002;12(1):100–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Olsen C, et al. A prospective study of pediatric loss of control eating and psychological outcomes. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;120(1):108–18.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McManus F, Waller G. A functional analysis of binge-eating. Clin Psychol Rev. 1995;15(8):845–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Corwin RL, Avena NM, Boggiano MM. Feeding and reward: perspectives from three rat models of binge eating. Physiol Behav. 2011;104(1):87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Telch CF, Agras WS. The effects of short-term food deprivation on caloric intake in eating-disordered subjects. Appetite. 1996;26(3):221–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stice E, Presnell K, Spangler D. Risk factors for binge eating onset in adolescent girls: a 2-year prospective investigation. Health Psychol. 2002;21(2):131–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stice E, Agras WS. Predicting onset and cessation of bulimic behaviors during adolescence: a longitudinal grouping analysis. Behav Ther. 1998;29:257–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Herman CP, Polivy J. From dietary restraint to binge eating: attaching causes to effects. Appetite. 1990;14(2):123–5 (discussion 142–3).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abraham S, Beumont P. How patients describe bulimia or binge eating. Psychosom Med. 1982;12:625–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lingswiler VM, Crowther JH, Stephens MA. Emotional and somatic consequences of binge episodes. Addict Behav. 1989;14(5):503–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lingswiler VM, Crowther JH, Stephens MAP. Affective and cognitive antecedents to eating episodes in bulimia and binge eating. Int J Eat Disord. 1989;8(5):533–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grilo CM, Shiffman S, Carter-Campbell JT. Binge eating antecedents in normal-weight nonpurging females: is there consistency? Int J Eat Disord. 1994;16(3):239–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Elmore DK, de Castro JM. Self-rated moods and hunger in relation to spontaneous eating behavior in bulimics, recovered bulimics, and normals. Int J Eat Disord. 1990;9(2):179–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barker ET, Williams RL, Galambos NL. Daily spillover to and from binge eating in first-year university females. Eat Disord. 2006;14(3):229–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Haedt-Matt AA, Keel PK. Revisiting the affect regulation model of binge eating: a meta-analysis of studies using ecological momentary assessment. Psychol Bull. 2011;137(4):660–81.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Haedt-Matt AA, Keel PK. Hunger and binge eating: a meta-analysis of studies using ecological momentary assessment. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44(7):573–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    van der Ster Wallin G, Norring C, Holmgren S. Binge eating versus nonpurged eating in bulimics: is there a carbohydrate craving after all? Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994;89(6):376–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Greeno C, Wing R, Shiffman S. Binge antecedents in obese women with and without binge eating disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:95–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vanderlinden J, Dalle Grave R, Fernandez F, et al. Which factors do provoke binge eating? An exploratory study in eating disorder patients. Eat Weight Disord. 2004;9(4):300–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gendall KA, Joyce PR, Sullivan PF, et al. Food cravers: characteristics of those who binge. Int J Eat Disord. 1998;23(4):353–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    White MA, Grilo CM. Psychometric properties of the food craving inventory among obese patients with binge eating disorder. Eat Behav. 2005;6(3):239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Waters A, Hill A, Waller G. Internal and external antecedents of binge eating episodes in a group of women with bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2001;29(1):17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hagan MM, Chandler PC, Wauford PK, et al. The role of palatable food and hunger as trigger factors in an animal model of stress induced binge eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2003;34(2):183–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Boggiano MM, Artiga AI, Pritchett CE, et al. High intake of palatable food predicts binge-eating independent of susceptibility to obesity: an animal model of lean vs obese binge-eating and obesity with and without binge-eating. Int J Obes. 2007;31(9):1357–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Avena NM, Bocarsly ME. Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Neuropharmacology. 2012;63(1):87–96.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Avena NM, Bocarsly ME, Hoebel BG. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;829:351–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32(1):20–39.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kelley AE, Schiltz CA, Landry CF. Neural systems recruited by drug- and food-related cues: studies of gene activation in corticolimbic regions. Physiol Behav. 2005;86(1–2):11–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience. 2005;134(3):737–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Colantuoni C, Schwenker J, McCarthy J, et al. Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Neuroreport. 2001;12(16):3549–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Avena NM, Rada P, Moise N, et al. Sucrose sham feeding on a binge schedule releases accumbens dopamine repeatedly and eliminates the acetylcholine satiety response. Neuroscience. 2006;139(3):813–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Boggiano MM, Chandler PC, Viana JB, et al. Combined dieting and stress evoke exaggerated responses to opioids in binge-eating rats. Behav Neurosci. 2005;119(5):1207–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Avena NM, Bocarsly ME, Rada P, et al. After daily bingeing on a sucrose solution, food deprivation induces anxiety and accumbens dopamine/acetylcholine imbalance. Physiol Behav. 2008;94(3):309–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shinohara M, Mizushima H, Hirano M, et al. Eating disorders with binge-eating behaviour are associated with the s allele of the 3′-UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2004;29(2):134–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sobik L, Hutchison K, Craighead L. Cue-elicited craving for food: a fresh approach to the study of binge eating. Appetite. 2005;44(3):253–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Davis C, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, et al. Binge eating disorder and the dopamine D2 receptor: genotypes and sub-phenotypes. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012;38(2):328–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Balodis IM, Grilo CM, Kober H, et al. A pilot study linking reduced fronto-striatal recruitment during reward processing to persistent bingeing following treatment for binge-eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2014;47(4):376–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Balodis IM, Kober H, Worhunsky PD, et al. Monetary reward processing in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9):877–86.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Drewnowski A, Krahn DD, Demitrack MA, et al. Naloxone, an opiate blocker, reduces the consumption of sweet high-fat foods in obese and lean female binge eaters. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(6):1206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jennings JH, Rizzi G, Stamatakis AM, et al. The inhibitory circuit architecture of the lateral hypothalamus orchestrates feeding. Science. 2013;341(6153):1517–21.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Berkman ND, Bulik CM, Brownley KA, et al. Management of eating disorders. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2006;135:1–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brownley KA, Berkman ND, Sedway JA, et al. Binge eating disorder treatment: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Int J Eat Disord. 2007;40(4):337–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bacon L. Health at every size: the surprising truth about your weight. 2nd ed. Dallas: BenBella Books, Inc.; 2010.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Neumark-Sztainer D. Preventing obesity and eating disorders in adolescents: what can health care providers do? J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(3):206–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Danielsdottir S, Burgard D, Oliver-Pyatt W. AED guidelines for childhood obesity prevention programs. 2009.
  68. 68.
    West S, King V, Carey TS, et al. Systems to rate the strength of scientific evidence. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2002;47:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Stunkard A, Berkowitz R, Tanikrut C, et al. d-Fenfluramine treatment of binge eating disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:1455–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pataky Z, Gasteyger C, Ziegler O, et al. Efficacy of rimonabant in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013;121(1):20–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Appolinario JC, Bacaltchuk J, Sichieri R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sibutramine in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(11):1109–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Milano W, Petrella C, Casella A, et al. Use of sibutramine, an inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline, in the treatment of binge eating disorder: a placebo-controlled study. Adv Ther. 2005;22(1):25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bauer C, Fischer A, Keller U. Effect of sibutramine and of cognitive-behavioural weight loss therapy in obesity and subclinical binge eating disorder. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8(3):289–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Grilo CM, Masheb RM, White MA, et al. Treatment of binge eating disorder in racially and ethnically diverse obese patients in primary care: randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of self-help and medication. Behav Res Ther. 2014;58:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wilfley DE, Crow SJ, Hudson JI, et al. Efficacy of sibutramine for the treatment of binge eating disorder: a randomized multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(1):51–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Greeno CG, Wing RR. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of fluoxetine on dietary intake in overweight women with and without binge-eating disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(3):267–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    McElroy S. Forced-dose titration of SPD489 in adults with binge eating disorder (BED) [ identifier NCT01291173]. US National Institutes of Health, Accessed Nov 20 2014.
  78. 78.
    McElroy S. SPD489 in adults aged 18-55 years with moderate to severe binge eating disorder [ identifier NCT01718483]. US National Institutes of Health, Accessed Nov 20 2014.
  79. 79.
    McElroy S. SPD489 in adults aged 18-55 years with moderate to severe binge eating disorder [ identifier NCT01718509]. US National Institutes of Health, Accessed Nov 20 2014.
  80. 80.
    McElroy SL, Hudson JI, Malhotra S, et al. Citalopram in the treatment of binge-eating disorder: a placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(7):807–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guerdjikova AI, McElroy SL, Kotwal R, et al. High-dose escitalopram in the treatment of binge-eating disorder with obesity: a placebo-controlled monotherapy trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2008;23(1):1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Arnold LM, McElroy SL, Hudson JI, et al. A placebo-controlled, randomized trial of fluoxetine in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(11):1028–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Devlin MJ, Goldfein JA, Petkova E, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy and fluoxetine as adjuncts to group behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder. Obes Res. 2005;13(6):1077–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Grilo CM, Masheb RM, Wilson GT. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy and fluoxetine for the treatment of binge eating disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled comparison. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57(3):301–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Molinari E, Baruffi M, Croci M, et al. Binge eating disorder in obesity: comparison of different therapeutic strategies. Eat Weight Disord. 2005;10(3):154–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ricca V, Mannucci E, Mezzani B, et al. Fluoxetine and fluvoxamine combined with individual cognitive-behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder: a one-year follow-up study. Psychother Psychosom. 2001;70(6):298–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pearlstein T, Spurell E, Hohlstein LA, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluvoxamine in binge eating disorder: a high placebo response. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2003;6:147–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hudson JI, McElroy SL, Raymond NC, et al. Fluvoxamine in the treatment of binge-eating disorder: a multicenter placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(12):1756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Leombruni P, Piero A, Lavagnino L, et al. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing sertraline and fluoxetine 6-month treatment in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32(6):1599–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McElroy SL, Casuto LS, Nelson EB, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of binge eating disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(6):1004–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Guerdjikova AI, McElroy SL, Winstanley EL, et al. Duloxetine in the treatment of binge eating disorder with depressive disorders: a placebo-controlled trial. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45(2):281–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    White MA, Grilo CM. Bupropion for overweight women with binge-eating disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(4):400–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    McCann UD, Agras WS. Successful treatment of nonpurging bulimia nervosa with desipramine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147(11):1509–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Laederach-Hofmann K, Graf C, Horber F, et al. Imipramine and diet counseling with psychological support in the treatment of obese binge eaters: a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Int J Eat Disord. 1999;26(3):231–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Devlin MJ, Goldfein JA, Petkova E, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy and fluoxetine for binge eating disorder: 2-year follow-up. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(7):1702–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Grilo CM, Crosby RD, Wilson GT, et al. 12-month follow-up of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80(6):1108–13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1481–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Agras W, Telch C, Arnow B, et al. Weight loss, cognitive-behavioral, and desipramine treatments in binge eating disorder: an additive design. Behav Ther. 1994;25:225–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Guerdjikova AI, McElroy SL, Welge JA, et al. Lamotrigine in the treatment of binge-eating disorder with obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled monotherapy trial. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(3):150–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    McElroy SL, Arnold LM, Shapira NA, et al. Topiramate in the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(2):255–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    McElroy SL, Hudson JI, Capece JA, et al. Topiramate for the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a placebo-controlled study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(9):1039–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Brambilla F, Samek L, Company M, et al. Multivariate therapeutic approach to binge-eating disorder: combined nutritional, psychological and pharmacological treatment. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(6):312–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Claudino AM, de Oliveira IR, Appolinario JC, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate plus cognitive-behavior therapy in binge-eating disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(9):1324–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    McElroy SL, Kotwal R, Guerdjikova AI, et al. Zonisamide in the treatment of binge eating disorder with obesity: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(12):1897–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ricca V, Castellini G, Lo Sauro C, et al. Zonisamide combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in binge eating disorder: a 1-year follow-up study. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2009;6(11):23–8.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    McElroy SL, Guerdjikova A, Kotwal R, et al. Atomoxetine in the treatment of binge-eating disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(3):390–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Grilo CM, Masheb RM, Salant SL. Cognitive behavioral therapy guided self-help and orlistat for the treatment of binge eating disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57(10):1193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Grilo CM, White MA. Orlistat with behavioral weight loss for obesity with versus without binge eating disorder: randomized placebo-controlled trial at a community mental health center serving educationally and economically disadvantaged Latino/as. Behav Res Ther. 2013;51(3):167–75.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Golay A, Laurent-Jaccard A, Habicht F, et al. Effect of orlistat in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Obes Res. 2005;13(10):1701–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    McElroy SL, Guerdjikova AI, Blom TJ, et al. A placebo-controlled pilot study of the novel opioid receptor antagonist ALKS-33 in binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46(3):239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    McElroy SL, Guerdjikova AI, Winstanley EL, et al. Acamprosate in the treatment of binge eating disorder: a placebo-controlled trial. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44(1):81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Corwin RL, Boan J, Peters KF, et al. Baclofen reduces binge eating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Behav Pharmacol. 2012;23(5–6):616–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Davis CM, Vincent JB. Chromium oligopeptide activates insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Biochemistry. 1997;36(15):4382–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    McCarty MF. Enhancing central and peripheral insulin activity as a strategy for the treatment of endogenous depression—an adjuvant role for chromium picolinate? Med Hypotheses. 1994;43(4):247–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Attenburrow MJ, Odontiadis J, Murray BJ, et al. Chromium treatment decreases the sensitivity of 5-HT2A receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;159(4):432–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Piotrowska A, Mlyniec K, Siwek A, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of chromium chloride in the mouse forced swim test: involvement of glutamatergic and serotonergic receptors. Pharmacol Rep. 2008;60(6):991–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Daws LC, Avison MJ, Robertson SD, et al. Insulin signaling and addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61(7):1123–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Papazoglou I, Berthou F, Vicaire N, et al. Hypothalamic serotonin-insulin signaling cross-talk and alterations in a type 2 diabetic model. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;350(1):136–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gerozissis K. Brain insulin, energy and glucose homeostasis; genes, environment and metabolic pathologies. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;585(1):38–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Albizu L, Holloway T, Gonzalez-Maeso J, et al. Functional crosstalk and heteromerization of serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61(4):770–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    de Bartolomeis A, Buonaguro EF, Iasevoli F. Serotonin-glutamate and serotonin-dopamine reciprocal interactions as putative molecular targets for novel antipsychotic treatments: from receptor heterodimers to postsynaptic scaffolding and effector proteins. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;225(1):1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Davidson JRT, Abraham K, Connor KM, et al. Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: a placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53(3):261–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Docherty JP, Sack DA, Roffman M, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. J Psychiatr Pract. 2005;11:302–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    McLeod MN, Gaynes BN, Golden RN. Chromium potentiation of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder in 5 patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(4):237–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    McLeod MN, Golden RN. Chromium treatment of depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000;3(4):311–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Anton SD, Morrison CD, Cefalu WT, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10(5):405–12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Brownley KA, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, et al. A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) study. J Psychosom Res. 2013;75(1):36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Reas DL, Grilo CM. Review and meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy for binge-eating disorder. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(9):2024–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Grilo CM, Masheb RM, Wilson GT. Rapid response to treatment for binge eating disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74(3):602–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Grilo CM, Masheb RM. Rapid response predicts binge eating and weight loss in binge eating disorder: findings from a controlled trial of orlistat with guided self-help cognitive behavioral therapy. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45(11):2537–50.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Grilo CM, White MA, Wilson GT, et al. Rapid response predicts 12-month post-treatment outcomes in binge-eating disorder: theoretical and clinical implications. Psychol Med. 2012;42(4):807–17.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Jacobs-Pilipski MJ, Wilfley DE, Crow SJ, et al. Placebo response in binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2007;40(3):204–11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Carter WP, Hudson JI, Lalonde JK, et al. Pharmacologic treatment of binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2003;34(Suppl):S74–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Brownley KA, Girdler SS, Stout AL, et al. Chromium supplementation for menstrual cycle-related mood symptoms. J Diet Suppl. 2013;10(4):345–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fleming JW, McClendon KS, Riche DM. New obesity agents: lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47(7–8):1007–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yager J, Devlin MJ, Halmi KA, et al. Guideline watch (2012): practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders, 3rd ed. American Psychiatric Association. Accessed 20 Nov 2014.
  137. 137.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Eating disorders: core interventions in the treatment and management of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related eating disorders. 2004. Accessed Nov 20 2014.
  138. 138.
    Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck Depression Inventory manual. 2nd ed. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation; 1996.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gormally J, Black S, Daston S, et al. The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav. 1982;7(1):47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Derogatis LR, Melisaratos N. The Brief Symptom Inventory: an introductory report. Psychol Med. 1983;13(3):595–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cooper PJ, Taylor MJ, Cooper Z, et al. The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. Int J Eat Disord. 1987;9(4):485–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Guy W. ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. Rockville: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute of Mental Health, Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs; 1976.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Cooper Z, Fairburn CG. The eating disorder examination: a semistructured interview for the assessment of the specific psychopathology of eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 1987;6:1–8. doi: 10.1002/1098-108x(198701)6:1<1::aid-eat2260060102>;2-9.
  144. 144.
    Fairburn CG, Beglin SJ. Assessment of eating disorders: interview or self-report questionnaire? Int J Eat Disord. 1994;16(4):363–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Garfinkel D, Olmsted M, Polivy J. The eating disorders inventory: a measure of cognitive-behavioral dimensions of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. In: Darby PL, Garfinkel PE, Garner DM, Coscina DV, editors. Anorexia nervosa: recent developments in research. New York: Alan R Liss; 1983.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hamilton M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating. Br J Med Psychol. 1959;32:50–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;23:56–62.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rush A, Trivedi M, Ibrahim H, et al. The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:573–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Horowitz LM, Rosenberg SE, Baer BA, et al. Inventory of interpersonal problems: psychometric properties and clinical applications. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56(6):885–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rosenberg M. Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1965.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Brown GL, Zung WW. Depression scales: self- or physician-rating? A validation of certain clinically observable phenomena. Compr Psychiatry. 1972;13(4):361–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene PR, et al. Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.; 1983.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Stunkard A, Messick S. Three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29:71–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Goodman W, Price L, Rasmussen S, et al. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS): II. Validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;46:1012–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Patton JH, Stanford MS, Barratt ES. Factor structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. J Clin Psychol. 1995;51(6):768–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Masheb RM, Grilo CM. Emotional overeating and its associations with eating disorder psychopathology among overweight patients with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2006;39(2):141–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Montgomery SA, Smeyatsky N, de Ruiter M, et al. Profiles of antidepressant activity with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1985;320:38–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sheehan DV, Harnett-Sheehan K, Raj BA. The measurement of disability. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996;11(Suppl 3):89–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983;67(6):361–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hunt SM, McKenna SP, McEwen J, et al. A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1980;34(4):281–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Penley JA, Wiebe JS, Nwosu A. Psychometric properties of the Spanish Beck Depression Inventory-II in a medical sample. Psychol Assess. 2003;15(4):569–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Grilo CM, Lozano C, Elder KA. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the Spanish language version of the eating disorder examination interview: clinical and research implications. J Psychiatr Pract. 2005;11(4):231–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. How to score the SF-12 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales. Lincoln: QualityMetric; 1998.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kimberly A. Brownley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christine M. Peat
    • 1
  • Maria La Via
    • 1
  • Cynthia M. Bulik
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, CB #7175University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of NutritionUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations