Drugs

, Volume 73, Issue 14, pp 1525–1547 | Cite as

Update on the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

Review Article

Abstract

New antiemetic drug developments, formulations, guidelines, risk evaluation, and controversies have occurred in the area of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). These developments have helped improve our understanding of the prevention and treatment of PONV in the postanesthesia care unit and after discharge home or to the hospital ward. Antiemetic drug research has resulted in the introduction of the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist palonosetron and the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist aprepitant, as well as new data on existing antiemetics. The next frontier and need for further nausea and vomiting research and therapy is the area of postdischarge nausea and vomiting after the patient is discharged home from phase II of the ambulatory stepdown unit or to the hospital ward. Antiemetic drug selection depends on efficacy, cost, safety, and ease of dosing. Safety concerns have arisen regarding the side effects of antiemetics, specifically their effect on the ECG with prolongation of the QTc interval by the butyrophenones and the first-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist class of antiemetics. The impact of pharmocogenetics on antiemetic drug metabolism and their resulting efficacy has been correlated with genetic makeup affecting drug response. A discussion of ethics in PONV research has been initiated by the meta-analysis of PONV studies. To help guide antiemetic selection and PONV therapy for clinical practitioners, the Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia (SAMBA) PONV consensus guidelines have been introduced and updated.

Notes

Conflict of interest and acknowledgments

In the past, Dr. Kovac has received grant support from GlaxoWellcome (GlaxoSmithKline), Roche Pharmaceuticals, Hoechst Marion Roussel (now Sanofi), Merck, Baxter, Eisai Pharmaceuticals, and Helsinn. He has participated in the speakers bureau for GlaxoSmithKline, Roche Pharmaceuticals, Abbott Laboratories, Merck, Helsinn, and Baxter. Dr. Kovac has served as an advisor for GlaxoSmithKline, Roche Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Sanofi-Adventis, Adolor, Baxter Healthcare, and Helsinn. No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

References

  1. 1.
    Kovac AL. Prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Drugs 2000;59(2):213–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lichtor L, Glass PS. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: what are we waiting for? Anesth Analg. 2009;108(3):1050–1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gan TJ, Meyer TA, Apfel CC, Chung F, Davis PJ, Habib AS, et al. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(6):1615–28.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen MM, Duncan PG, DeBoer DP, Tweed WA. The postoperative interview: assessing risk factors for nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 1994;78(1):7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carroll NV, Miederhoff P, Cox FM, Hirsch JD. Postoperative nausea and vomiting after discharge from outpatient surgery centers. Anesth Analg. 1995;80(5):903–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu CL, Berenholtz SM, Pronovost PJ, Fleisher LA. Systematic review and analysis of postdischarge symptoms after outpatient surgery. Anesthesiology. 2002;96(4):994–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gupta A, Wu CL, Elkassabany N, Krug CE, Parker SD, Fleisher LA. Does the routine prophylactic use of antiemetics affect the incidence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting following ambulatory surgery? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2003;99(2):488–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mattila K, Toivonen J, Janhunen L, Rosenberg PH, Hynynen M. Postdischarge symptoms after ambulatory surgery: first-week incidence, intensity, and risk factors. Anesth Analg. 2005;101(6):1643–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Doyle A, Britton J, Madan R. The incidence of post discharge nausea and vomiting following regional anaesthesia for day surgery: a 5 day follow up. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35(5):E89.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Irefin SA, Farid IS, Senagore AJ. Urgent colectomy in a patient with membranous tracheal disruption after severe vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2000;91(5):1300–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Toprak V, Keles GT, Kaygisiz Z, Tok D. Subcutaneous emphysema following severe vomiting after emerging from general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004;48(7):917–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baric A. Oesophageal rupture in a patient with postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2000;28(3):325–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schumann R, Polaner DM. Massive subcutaneous emphysema and sudden airway compromise after postoperative vomiting. Anesth Analg. 1999;89(3):796–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gold BS, Kitz DS, Lecky JH, Neuhaus JM. Unanticipated admission to the hospital following ambulatory surgery. JAMA. 1989;262(21):3008–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blacoe DA, Cunning E, Bell G. Paediatric day-case surgery: an audit of unplanned hospital admission Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow. Anaesthesia. 2008;63(6):610–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Le TP, Gan TJ. Update on the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting and postdischarge nausea and vomiting in ambulatory surgery. Anesthesiol Clin. 2010;28(2):225–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Odom-Forren J, Fetzer SJ, Moser DK. Evidence-based interventions for post discharge nausea and vomiting: a review of the literature. J Perianesth Nurs. 2006;21(6):411–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Apfel CC, Laara E, Koivuranta M, Greim CA, Roewer N. A simplified risk score for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting: conclusions from cross-validations between two centers. Anesthesiology. 1999;91(3):693–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Apfel CC, Kranke P, Eberhart LH, Roos A, Roewer N. Comparison of predictive models for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88(2):234–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Biedler A, Wermelt J, Kunitz O, Muller A, Wilhelm W, Dethling J, et al. A risk adapted approach reduces the overall institutional incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51(1):13–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van den Bosch JE, Kalkman CJ, Vergouwe Y, Van Klei WA, Bonsel GJ, Grobbee DE, et al. Assessing the applicability of scoring systems for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 2005;60(4):323–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kranke P, Eberhart LH. Possibilities and limitations in the pharmacological management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28(11):758–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kooij FO, Klok T, Hollmann MW, Kal JE. Automated reminders increase adherence to guidelines for administration of prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27(2):187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kooij FO, Klok T, Hollmann MW, Kal JE. Decision support increases guideline adherence for prescribing postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Anesth Analg. 2008;106(3):893–8.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frenzel JC, Kee SS, Ensor JE, Riedel BJ, Ruiz JR. Ongoing provision of individual clinician performance data improves practice behavior. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(2):515–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pierre S, Corno G, Benais H, Apfel CC. A risk score-dependent antiemetic approach effectively reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting: a continuous quality improvement initiative. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51(4):320–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eberhart LHJ, Morin AM. Risk scores for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting are clinically useful tools and should be used in every patient: con—‘life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated’. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28(3):155–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Apfel CC, Korttila K, Abdalla M, Kerger H, Turan A, Vedder I, et al. A factorial trial of six interventions for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(24):2441–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Watcha MF, White PF. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: its etiology, treatment, and prevention. Anesthesiology. 1992;77(1):162–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gan TJ, Meyer T, Apfel CC, Chung F, Davis PJ, Eubanks S, et al. Consensus guidelines for managing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2003;97(1):62–71.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Choi EM, Lee MG, Lee SH, Choi KW, Choi SH. Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with the efficacy of ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 2010;65(10):996–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ho KY, Gan TJ. Pharmacology, pharmacogenetics, and clinical efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006;19(6):606–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tanaka M, Kobayashi D, Murakami Y, Ozaki N, Suzuki T, Iwata N, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3B receptor gene and paroxetine-induced nausea. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11(2):261–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ozawa S, Soyama A, Saeki M, Fukushima-Uesaka H, Itoda M, Koyano S, et al. Ethnic differences in genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP3As and MDR1/ABCB1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004;19(2):83–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kim RB, Leake BF, Choo EF, Dresser GK, Kubba SV, Schwarz UI, et al. Identification of functionally variant MDR1 alleles among European Americans and African Americans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;70(2):189–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Candiotti KA, Birnbach DJ, Lubarsky DA, Nhuch F, Kamat A, Koch WH, et al. The impact of pharmacogenomics on postoperative nausea and vomiting: do CYP2D6 allele copy number and polymorphisms affect the success or failure of ondansetron prophylaxis? Anesthesiology. 2005;102(3):543–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Janicki PK, Schuler HG, Jarzembowski TM, Rossi M 2nd. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting with granisetron and dolasetron in relation to CYP2D6 genotype. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(4):1127–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carlisle J, Stevenson CA. Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006:(3):CD004125.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Henzi I, Sonderegger J, Tramer MR. Efficacy, dose-response, and adverse effects of droperidol for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth. 2000;47(6):537–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wallenborn J, Gelbrich G, Bulst D, Behrends K, Wallenborn H, Rohrbach A, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by metoclopramide combined with dexamethasone: randomised double blind multicentre trial. BMJ. 2006;333(7563):324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Henzi I, Walder B, Tramer MR. Dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(1):186–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gan TJ, Coop A, Philip BK. A randomized, double-blind study of granisetron plus dexamethasone versus ondansetron plus dexamethasone to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg. 2005;101(5):1323–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lopez-Olaondo L, Carrascosa F, Pueyo FJ, Monedero P, Busto N, Saez A. Combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth. 1996;76(6):835–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bhardwaj N, Bala I, Kaur C, Chari P. Comparison of ondansetron with ondansetron plus dexamethasone for antiemetic prophylaxis in children undergoing strabismus surgery. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2004;41(2):100–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Habib AS, Keifer JC, Borel CO, White WD, Gan TJ. A comparison of the combination of aprepitant and dexamethasone versus the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing craniotomy. Anesth Analg. 2011;112(4):813–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yeo J, Jung J, Ryu T, Jeon YH, Kim S, Baek W. Antiemetic efficacy of dexamethasone combined with midazolam after middle ear surgery. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 2009;141(6):684–8.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Allford M, Guruswamy V. A national survey of the anesthetic management of tonsillectomy surgery in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2009;19(2):145–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Steward DL, Welge JA, Myer CM. Do steroids reduce morbidity of tonsillectomy? Meta-analysis of randomized trials. Laryngoscope. 2001;111(10):1712–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Steward DL, Welge J, Myer C. Steroids for improving recovery following tonsillectomy in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(8): CD003997Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Neff SP, Stapelberg F, Warmington A. Excruciating perineal pain after intravenous dexamethasone. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2002;30(3):370–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nazar C, Flores R, Lacassie H, Muoz H. Dexamethasone for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis: effect on glycaemia in normal patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:130.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nazar C, Flores R, Lacassie H, Muoz H. Dexamethasone for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis: effect on glycaemia in patients with type II diabetes undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:128.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Eberhart LHJ, Graf J, Morin AM, Stief T, Kalder M, Lattermann R, et al. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of oral premedication with dexamethasone on hyperglycaemic response to abdominal hysterectomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28(3):195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kranke P, Morin AM, Roewer N, Eberhart LH. Dimenhydrinate for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002;46(3):238–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Apfel CC, Zhang K, George E, Shi S, Jalota L, Hornuss C, et al. Transdermal scopolamine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2010;32(12):1987–2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sah N, Ramesh V, Kaul B, Dalby P, Shestak K, Vallejo MC. Transdermal scopolamine patch in addition to ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in patients undergoing ambulatory cosmetic surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2009;21(4):249–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lee HK, Lee JH, Chon SS, Ahn EK, Kim JH, Jang Y-H. The effect of transdermal scopolamine plus intravenous dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients with epidural PCA after major orthopedic surgery. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2010;58(1):50–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gan TJ, Sinha AC, Kovac AL, Jones RK, Cohen SA, Battikha JP, et al. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing transdermal scopolamine plus ondansetron to ondansetron alone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the outpatient setting. Anesth Analg. 2009;108(5):1498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fortney JT, Gan TJ, Graczyk S, Wetchler B, Melson T, Khalil S, et al. A comparison of the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction of ondansetron versus droperidol as antiemetics for elective outpatient surgical procedures. S3A-409 and S3A-410 Study Groups. Anesth Analg. 1998;86(4):731–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Domino KB, Anderson EA, Polissar NL, Posner KL. Comparative efficacy and safety of ondansetron, droperidol, and metoclopramide for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 1999;88(6):1370–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schaub I, Lysakowski C, Elia N, Tramer MR. Low-dose droperidol (≤1 mg or ≤15 μg kg−1) for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults: quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2012;29(6):286–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gan TJ, White PF, Scuderi PE, Watcha MF, Kovac A. FDA “black box” warning regarding use of droperidol for postoperative nausea and vomiting: is it justified? Anesthesiology. 2002;97(1):287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jackson CW, Sheehan AH, Reddan JG. Evidence-based review of the black-box warning for droperidol. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64(11):1174–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rosow CE, Haspel KL, Smith SE, Grecu L, Bittner EA. Haloperidol versus ondansetron for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2008;106(5):1407–9.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chan MTV, Choi KC, Gin T, Chui PT, Short TG, Yuen PM, et al. The additive interactions between ondansetron and droperidol for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2006;103(5):1155–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yang YL, Lai HY, Wang JJ, Wang PK, Chen TY, Chu CC, et al. The timing of haloperidol administration does not affect its prophylactic antiemetic efficacy. Can J Anaesth. 2008;55(5):270–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Grecu L, Bittner EA, Kher J, Smith SE, Rosow CE. Haloperidol plus ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2008;106(5):1410–3.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cruz NI, Portilla P, Vela RE. Timing of ondansetron administration to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. P R Health Sci J. 2008;27(1):43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Aouad MT, Siddik-Sayyid SM, Taha SK, Azar MS, Nasr VG, Hakki MA, et al. Haloperidol vs. ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting following gynaecological surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2007;24(2):171–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Olatosi OJ, Kushimo O, Okeke C, Oriyomi O, Ajayi GO. Antiemetic prophylaxis with promethazine or ondansetron in major gynaecological surgery. South Afr J Anaesth Analg. 2008;14(6):39–42.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ryu J, So Y-M, Hwang J, Do S-H. Ramosetron versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(4):812–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Park SK, Cho EJ. A randomized, double-blind trial of palonosetron compared with ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynaecological laparoscopic surgery. J Int Med Res. 2011;39(2):399–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Diemunsch P, Gan TJ, Philip BK, Girao MJ, Eberhart L, Irwin MG, et al. Single-dose aprepitant vs ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind phase III trial in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99(2):202–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Iatrou CA, Dragoumanis CK, Vogiatzaki TD, Vretzakis GI, Simopoulos CE, Dimitriou VK. Prophylactic intravenous ondansetron and dolasetron in intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2005;101(5):1516–20.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Birmingham SD, Mecklenburg BW, Lujan E, Dacanay RG, Boyle PK, Green R. Dolasetron versus ondansetron as single-agent prophylaxis for patients at increased risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting: a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial. Mil Med. 2006;171(9):913–6.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Graczyk SG, McKenzie R, Kallar S, Hickok CB, Melson T, Morrill B, et al. Intravenous dolasetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(2):325–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Golembiewski J, Tokumaru S. Pharmacological prophylaxis and management of adult postoperative/postdischarge nausea and vomiting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2006;21(6):385–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bhatia N, Katyal S, Grewal A, Kaul TK. Antiemetic prophylaxis with granisetron, ondansetron and metoclopramide in ambulatory gynaecological laparoscopic surgery: a comparison. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2008;24(3):303–6.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Erhan Y, Erhan E, Aydede H, Yumus O, Yentur A. Ondansetron, granisetron, and dexamethasone compared for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(6):1487–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    White PF, Tang J, Hamza MA, Ogunnaike B, Lo M, Wender RH, et al. The use of oral granisetron versus intravenous ondansetron for antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery: the effect on emetic symptoms and quality of recovery. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(5):1387–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Johns RA, Hanousek J, Montgomery JE. A comparison of cyclizine and granisetron alone and in combination for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 2006;61(11):1053–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bhattacharjee DP, Dawn S, Nayak S, Roy PR, Acharya A, Dey R. A comparative study between palonosetron and granisetron to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2010;26(4):480–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Contreras-Dominguez V, Carbonell-Bellolio P. Prophylactic antiemetic therapy for acute abdominal surgery: a comparative study of droperidol, metoclopramide, tropisetron, granisetron and dexamethasone. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia. 2008;58(1):35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ekinci O, Malat I, Isitmangil G, Aydin N. A randomized comparison of droperidol, metoclopramide, tropisetron, and ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2011;71(1):59–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Eberhart LHJ, Buning EK, Folz B, Maybauer DM, Kastner M, Kalder M, et al. Anti-emetic prophylaxis with oral tropisetron and/or dexamethasone. Eur J Clin Invest. 2006;36(8):580–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Eberhart LH, Morin AM, Georgieff M. Dexamethasone for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Der Anaesthesist. 2000;49(8):713–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee D, Kim JY, Shin JW, Ku CH, Park YS, Kwak HJ. The effect of oral and IV ramosetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy with total intravenous anesthesia. J Anesth. 2009;23(1):46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lee HJ, Kwon JY, Shin SW, Kim CH, Baek SH, Baik SW, et al. Preoperatively administered ramosetron oral disintegrating tablets for preventing nausea and vomiting associated with patient-controlled analgesia in breast cancer patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25(9):756–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Choi DK, Chin JH, Lee EH, Lim OB, Chung CH, Ro YJ, et al. Prophylactic control of post-operative nausea and vomiting using ondansetron and ramosetron after cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54(8):962–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    George E, Hornuss C, Apfel CC. Neurokinin-1 and novel serotonin antagonists for postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010;23(6):714–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bajwa SS, Bajwa SK, Kaur J, Sharma V, Singh A, Singh A, et al. Palonosetron: a novel approach to control postoperative nausea and vomiting in day care surgery. Saudi J Anaesth. 2011;5(1):19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rojas C, Thomas AG, Alt J, Stathis M, Zhang J, Rubenstein EB, et al. Palonosetron triggers 5-HT(3) receptor internalization and causes prolonged inhibition of receptor function. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;626(2–3):193–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kovac AL, Eberhart L, Kotarski J, Clerici G, Apfel C. A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different doses of palonosetron versus placebo in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting over a 72-hour period. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(2):439–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Candiotti KA, Kovac AL, Melson TI, Clerici G, Joo Gan T, Palonosetron 04-06 Study G. A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different doses of palonosetron versus placebo for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(2):445–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Blitz JD, Haile M, Kline R, Franco L, Didehvar S, Pachter HL, et al. A randomized double blind study to evaluate efficacy of palonosetron with dexamethasone versus palonosetron alone for prevention of postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting in subjects undergoing laparoscopic surgeries with high emetogenic risk. Am J Ther. 2012;19(5):324–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wallenborn J, Kranke P. Palonosetron hydrochloride in the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Clin Med Insights Ther. 2010;2:387–99.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yang LPH, Scott LJ. Palonosetron: in the prevention of nausea and vomiting. Drugs. 2009;69(16):2257–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gan TJ, Apfel CC, Kovac A, Philip BK, Singla N, Minkowitz H, et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison of the NK1 antagonist, aprepitant, versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2007;104(5):1082–9.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Weren M, Demeere JL. Methylprednisolone vs. dexamethasone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2008;59(1):1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Miyagawa Y, Ejiri M, Kuzuya T, Osada T, Ishiguro N, Yamada K. Methylprednisolone reduces postoperative nausea in total knee and hip arthroplasty. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010;35(6):679–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bashir F, Mohammad Bhat K, Qazi S, Hashia AM. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study evaluating preventive role of gabapentin for PONV in patients undergoing laparascopic cholecystectomy. JK Sci. 2009;11(4):190–3.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pandey CK, Priye S, Ambesh SP, Singh S, Singh U, Singh PK. Prophylactic gabapentin for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Postgrad Med. 2006;52(2):97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Koc S, Memis D, Sut N. The preoperative use of gabapentin, dexamethasone, and their combination in varicocele surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(4):1137–42.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jung JS, et al. Effect of midazolam upon the prevention of nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2007;52(5):550–5.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jung JS, Park JS, Kim SO, Lim DG, Park SS, Kwak KH, et al. Prophylactic antiemetic effect of midazolam after middle ear surgery [Erratum appears in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Dec; 141(6):797]. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137(5):753–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tarhan O, Canbay O, Celebi N, Uzun S, Sahin A, Coskun F, et al. Subhypnotic doses of midazolam prevent nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Minerva Anestesiol. 2007;73(12):629–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lee Y, Wang JJ, Yang YL, Chen A, Lai HY. Midazolam vs ondansetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomised controlled trial. Anaesthesia. 2007;62(1):18–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Safavi MR, Honarmand A. Low dose intravenous midazolam for prevention of PONV, in lower abdominal surgery—preoperative vs intraoperative administration. Middle East J Anesthesiol. 2009;20(1):75–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shahriari A, Khooshideh M, Heidari MH. Prevention of nausea and vomiting in caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with midazolam or metoclopramide? JPMA. 2009;59(11):756–9.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kim EJ, Ko JS, Kim CS, Lee SM, Choi DH. Combination of antiemetics for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in high-risk patients. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22(5):878–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kushwaha BB, Chakraborty A, Agarwal J, Malick A, Bushan S, Bhattacharya P. Comparative study of granisetron and ondansetron alone and their combination with dexamethasone, for prevention of PONV in middle ear surgery. Int J Anesthesiol. 2007;13(2):10.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Leksowski K, Peryga P, Szyca R. Ondansetron, metoclopramid, dexamethason, and their combinations compared for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomized study. Surg Endosc. 2006;20(6):878–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shende D, Bharti N, Kathirvel S, Madan R. Combination of droperidol and ondansetron reduces PONV after pediatric strabismus surgery more than single drug therapy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(6):756–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tramer MR. A rational approach to the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting: evidence from systematic reviews. Part I. Efficacy and harm of antiemetic interventions, and methodological issues. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(1):4–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tramer MR. A rational approach to the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting: evidence from systematic reviews. Part II. Recommendations for prevention and treatment, and research agenda. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(1):14–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Choi YS, Shim JK, Yoon DH, Jeon DH, Lee JY, Kwak YL. Effect of ramosetron on patient-controlled analgesia related nausea and vomiting after spine surgery in highly susceptible patients: comparison with ondansetron. Spine. 2008;33(17):E602–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Boonmak P, Boonmak S, Bunsaengjaroen P, Srichaipanha S, Poomsawat S, Nonlhaopol D. Antiemetic effect of ondansetron 0.2 mg mL-1 in PCA morphine solution. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2007;24(8):664–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lee A, Fan LT. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point P6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009:CD003281.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Frey UH, Scharmann P, Lohlein C, Peters J. P6 acustimulation effectively decreases postoperative nausea and vomiting in high-risk patients. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:620–5.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kim YH, Kim KS, Lee HJ, Shim JC, Yoon SW. The efficacy of several neuromuscular monitoring modes at the P6 acupuncture point in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:819–23.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Maharaj CH, Kallam SR, Malik A, Hassett P, Grady D, Laffey JG. Preoperative intravenous fluid therapy decreases postoperative nausea and pain in high risk patients. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:675–82.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Magner JJ, McCaul C, Carton E, Gardiner J, Buggy D. Effect of intraoperative intravenous crystalloid infusion on postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynaecological laparoscopy: comparison of 30 and 10 ml kg(−1). Br J Anaesth. 2004;93:381–5.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gan TJ, Ginsberg B, Glass PS, Fortney J, Jhaveri R, Perno R. Opioid-sparing effects of a low-dose infusion of naloxone in patient-administered morphine sulfate. Anesthesiology. 1997;87:1075–81.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Maxwell LG, Kaufmann SC, Bitzer S, Jackson EV, Jr., McGready J, Kost-Byerly S, Kozlowski L, Rothman SK, Yaster M. The effects of a small-dose naloxone infusion on opioid-induced side effects and analgesia in children and adolescents treated with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia: a double-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:953–8.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Joshi GP, Duffy L, Chehade J, Wesevich J, Gajraj N, Johnson ER. Effects of prophylactic nalmefene on the incidence of morphine-related side effects in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Anesthesiology. 1999;90:1007–11.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Chaiyakunapruk N, Kitikannakorn N, Nathisuwan S, Leeprakobboon K, Leelasettagool C. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194(1):95–9.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nale R, Bhave S, Divekar DS. A comparative study of ginger and other routinely used antiemetics for prevention of post operative nausea and vomiting. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2007;23(4):405–10.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nanthakomon T, Pongrojpaw D. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89(Suppl 4):S130–6.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    McKeen DM, Arellano R, O’Connell C. Supplemental oxygen does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy. Can J Anaesth. 2009;56(9):651–7.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gan TJ. Risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 2006;102(6):1884–98.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Brady MC, Kinn S, Stuart P, Ness V. Preoperative fasting for adults to prevent perioperative complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(5).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hou J, Zheng K, Hui N. The clinical analysis about factors related to postoperative nausea and vomiting on gynecology surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:128–9.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Madson AT, Silverman MJ. The effect of music therapy on relaxation, anxiety, pain perception, and nausea in adult solid organ transplant patients. J Music Ther. 2010;47(3):220–32.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Van den Bosch JE, Moons KG, Bonsel GJ, Kalkman CJ. Does measurement of preoperative anxiety have added value for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting? Anesth Analg. 2005;100(5):1525–32.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Tanguy M, Seguin P, Malledant Y. Bench-to-bedside review: routine postoperative use of the nasogastric tube - utility or futility? Critical Care. 2007;11(1).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Raeder J, Dahl V, Bjoernestad E, Edlund G, Modin S, Naucler E, et al. Does esomeprazole prevent post-operative nausea and vomiting? Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2007;51(2):217–25.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Schwartz A. Comparison of inhalation of isopropyl alcohol vs promethazine in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients identified as high risk for developing PONV. AANA J. 2009;77(6):417–8.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Czarnetzki C, Schiffer E, Lysakowski C, Haller G, Bertrand D, Tramer MR. Transcutaneous nicotine does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;71(3):383–90.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kovac AL, O’Connor TA, Pearman MH, Kekoler LJ, Edmondson D, Baughman VL, et al. Efficacy of repeat intravenous dosing of ondansetron in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. J Clin Anesth. 1999;11(6):453–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kazemi-Kjellberg F, Henzi I, Tramer MR. Treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. BMC Anesthesiol. 2001;1(1):2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Scuderi PE, James RL, Harris L, Mims GR 3rd. Antiemetic prophylaxis does not improve outcomes after outpatient surgery when compared to symptomatic treatment. Anesthesiology. 1999;90(2):360–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Habib AS, Reuveni J, Taguchi A, White WD, Gan TJ. A comparison of ondansetron with promethazine for treating postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients who received prophylaxis with ondansetron: a retrospective database analysis [Erratum appears in Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug; 105(2):364]. Anesth Analg. 2007;104(3):548–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pellegrini J, DeLoge J, Bennett J, Kelly J. Comparison of inhalation of isopropyl alcohol vs promethazine in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients identified as at high risk for developing PONV. AANA J. 2009;77(4):293–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cotton JW, Rowell LR, Hood RR, Pellegrini JE. A comparative analysis of isopropyl alcohol and ondansetron in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting from the hospital setting to the home. AANA J. 2007;75(1):21–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Khalil SN, Roth AG, Cohen IT, Simhi E, Ansermino JM, Bolos ME, et al. A double-blind comparison of intravenous ondansetron and placebo for preventing postoperative emesis in 1- to 24-month-old pediatric patients after surgery under general anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2005;101(2):356–61.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cohen IT. An overview of the clinical use of ondansetron in preschool age children. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007;3(2):333–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Cohen IT. Ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Therapy. 2006;3(5):571–8.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Neufeld SM, Newburn-Cook CV. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after craniotomy: a meta-analysis. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2007;19(1):10–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Apfel CC, Cakmakkaya OS, Shilling A, Shi YY, Leslie JB, Allard M et al. Who is at risk for postdischarge nausea and vomiting after ambulatory surgery? Anesthesiology. 2012;86:475–86.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Pan PH, Lee SC, Harris LC. Antiemetic prophylaxis for postdischarge nausea and vomiting and impact on functional quality of living during recovery in patients with high emetic risks: a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of two prophylactic antiemetic regimens. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(2):429–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    White PF, Song D, Abrao J, Klein KW, Navarette B. Effect of low-dose droperidol on the QT interval during and after general anesthesia: a placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology. 2005;102(6):1101–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Charbit B, Albaladejo P, Funck-Brentano C, Legrand M, Samain E, Marty J. Prolongation of QTc interval after postoperative nausea and vomiting treatment by droperidol or ondansetron. Anesthesiology. 2005;102(6):1094–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Charbit B, Alvarez JC, Dasque E, Abe E, Demolis JL, Funck-Brentano C. Droperidol and ondansetron-induced QT interval prolongation: a clinical drug interaction study. Anesthesiology. 2008;109(2):206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Brigger MT, Cunningham MJ, Hartnick CJ. Dexamethasone administration and postoperative bleeding risk in children undergoing tonsillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(8):766–72.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gunter JB, Willging JP, Myer CM, 3rd. Dexamethasone and postoperative bleeding after tonsillectomy in children. JAMA. 2009;301(17):1764–5.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Baugh RF, Archer SM, Mitchell RB, Rosenfeld RM, Amin R, Burns JJ, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillectomy in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;144(1 Suppl):S1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kranke P, Apfel CC, Eberhart LH, Georgieff M, Roewer N. The influence of a dominating centre on a quantitative systematic review of granisetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(6):659–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kranke P, Apfel CC, Roewer N, Fujii Y. Reported data on granisetron and postoperative nausea and vomiting by Fujii et al. Are incredibly nice! Anesth Analg. 2000;90(4):1004–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kranke P. Putting the record straight: granisetron’s efficacy as an antiemetic ‘post-Fujii’. Anaesthesia. 2012;67(10):1063–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Cohen MM, Cameron CB, Duncan PG. Pediatric anesthesia morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. Anesth Analg. 1990;70(2):160–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Forrest JB, Rehder K, Goldsmith CH, Cahalan MK, Levy WJ, Strunin L, et al. Multicenter study of general anesthesia. I. Design and patient demography. Anesthesiology. 1990;72(2):252–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Stefancic L, Maric S, Brozovic G. Multimodal approach to the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Libri Oncologici. 2008;36(1–3):71–4.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Chaparro LE, Gallo T, Gonzalez NJ, Rivera MF, Peng PW. Effectiveness of combined haloperidol and dexamethasone versus dexamethasone only for postoperative nausea and vomiting in high-risk day surgery patients: a randomized blinded trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27(2):192–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Quinn AC, Brown JH, Wallace PG, Asbury AJ. Studies in postoperative sequelae. Nausea and vomiting—still a problem. Anaesthesia. 1994;49(1):62–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Koivuranta M, Laara E, Snare L, Alahuhta S. A survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(5):443–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Tramer MR, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Efficacy, dose-response, and safety of ondansetron in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 1997;87(6):1277–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Figueredo ED, Canosa LG. Ondansetron in the prophylaxis of postoperative vomiting: a meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth. 1998;10(3):211–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sinclair DR, Chung F, Mezei G. Can postoperative nausea and vomiting be predicted? Anesthesiology. 1999;91(1):109–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Junger A, Hartmann B, Benson M, Schindler E, Dietrich G, Jost A, et al. The use of an anesthesia information management system for prediction of antiemetic rescue treatment at the postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg. 2001;92(5):1203–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kovac AL. Prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting: controversies in the use of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 3 receptor antagonists. J Clin Anesth. 2006;18(4):304–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Rowley MP, Brown TC. Postoperative vomiting in children. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1982;10(4):309–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Patel RI, Hannallah RS. Anesthetic complications following pediatric ambulatory surgery: a 3-yr study. Anesthesiology. 1988;69(6):1009–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    D’Errico C, Voepel-Lewis TD, Siewert M, Malviya S. Prolonged recovery stay and unplanned admission of the pediatric surgical outpatient: an observational study. J Clin Anesth. 1998;10(6):482–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Schofield NM, White JB. Interrelations among children, parents, premedication, and anaesthetists in paediatric day stay surgery. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 1989;299(6712):1371–5.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Karlsson E, Larsson LE, Nilsson K. Postanaesthetic nausea in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1990;34(7):515–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Byers GF, Doyle E, Best CJ, Morton NS. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in paediatric surgical inpatients. Paediatr Anaesth. 1995;5(4):253–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Kotiniemi LH, Ryhanen PT, Valanne J, Jokela R, Mustonen A, Poukkula E. Postoperative symptoms at home following day-case surgery in children: a multicentre survey of 551 children. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(10):963–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Villeret I, Laffon M, Duchalais A, Blond MH, Lecuyer AI, Mercier C. Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in paediatric ambulatory surgery. Paediatric Anaesth. 2002;12(8):712–7.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Abramowitz MD, Oh TH, Epstein BS, Ruttimann UE, Friendly DS. The antiemetic effect of droperidol following outpatient strabismus surgery in children. Anesthesiology. 1983;59(6):579–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kuhn I, Scheifler G, Wissing H. Incidence of nausea and vomiting in children after strabismus surgery following desflurane anaesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 1999;9(6):521–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ferrari LR, Donlon JV. Metoclopramide reduces the incidence of vomiting after tonsillectomy in children. Anesth Analg. 1992;75(3):351–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Stewart PC, Baines DB, Dalton C. Paediatric day stay tonsillectomy service: development and audit. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2002;30(5):641–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ridings P, Gault D, Khan L. Reduction in postoperative vomiting after surgical correction of prominent ears. Br J Anaesth. 1994;72(5):592–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Erb TO, Hall JM, Ing RJ, Kanter RJ, Kern FH, Schulman SR, et al. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in children and adolescents undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation: a randomized comparison of propofol- and isoflurane-based anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2002;95(6):1577–81.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    McCall JE, Stubbs K, Saylors S, Pohlman S, Ivers B, Smith S, et al. The search for cost-effective prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the child undergoing reconstructive burn surgery: ondansetron versus dimenhydrinate. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1999;20(4):309–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Furst SR, Sullivan LJ, Soriano SG, McDermott JS, Adelson PD, Rockoff MA. Effects of ondansetron on emesis in the first 24 hours after craniotomy in children. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(2):325–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Murray DJ, Schmid CM, Forbes RB. Anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging in children: a low incidence of protracted post-procedure vomiting. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7(3):232–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kovac AL. Management of postoperative nausea and vomiting in children. Paediatr Drugs. 2007;9(1):47–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Eberhart LH, Geldner G, Kranke P, Morin AM, Schauffelen A, Treiber H, et al. The development and validation of a risk score to predict the probability of postoperative vomiting in pediatric patients. Anesth Analg. 2004;99(6):1630–7 (table of contents).Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Kovac AL. Benefits and risks of newer treatments for chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Drug Saf. 2003;26(4):227–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    McKenzie R, Tantisira B, Karambelkar DJ, Riley TJ, Abdelhady H. Comparison of ondansetron with ondansetron plus dexamethasone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 1994;79(5):961–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    McKenzie R, Riley TJ, Tantisira B, Hamilton DL. Effect of propofol for induction and ondansetron with or without dexamethasone for the prevention of nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. J Clin Anesth. 1997;9(1):15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    McKenzie R, Uy NT, Riley TJ, Hamilton DL. Droperidol/ondansetron combination controls nausea and vomiting after tubal banding. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(6):1218–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Koivuranta M, Jokela R, Kiviluoma K, Alahuhta S. The anti-emetic efficacy of a combination of ondansetron and droperidol. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(9):863–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Pueyo FJ, Carrascosa F, Lopez L, Iribarren MJ, Garcia-Pedrajas F, Saez A. Combination of ondansetron and droperidol in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(1):117–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Steinbrook RA, Freiberger D, Gosnell JL, Brooks DC. Prophylactic antiemetics for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: ondansetron versus droperidol plus metoclopramide. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(5):1081–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wennström B, Reinsfelt B. Rectally administered diclofenac (Voltaren) reduces vomiting compared with opioid (morphine) after strabismus surgery in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002;46(4):430–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ozcan AA, Gunes Y, Haciyakupoglu G. Using diazepam and atropine before strabismus surgery to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, controlled study. J AAPOS. 2003;7(3):210–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gurkan Y, Kilickan L, Toker K. Propofol-nitrous oxide versus sevoflurane-nitrous oxide for strabismus surgery in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 1999;9(6):495–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Standl T, Wilhelm S, von Knobelsdorff G, Schulte am Esch J. Propofol reduces emesis after sufentanil supplemented anaesthesia in paediatric squint surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1996;40(6):729–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Eltzschig HK, Schroeder TH, Eissler BJ, Felbinger TW, Vonthein R, Ehlers R, et al. The effect of remifentanil or fentanyl on postoperative vomiting and pain in children undergoing strabismus surgery. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(5):1173–7.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Pandit UA, Malviya S, Lewis IH. Vomiting after outpatient tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children: the role of nitrous oxide. Anesth Analg. 1995;80(2):230–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Ved SA, Walden TL, Montana J, Lea DE, Tefft MC, Kataria BK, et al. Vomiting and recovery after outpatient tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children. Comparison of four anesthetic techniques using nitrous oxide with halothane or propofol. Anesthesiology. 1996;85(1):4–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Zestos MM, Carr AS, McAuliffe G, Smith HS, Sikich N, Lerman J. Subhypnotic propofol does not treat postoperative vomiting in children after adenotonsillectomy. Can J Anaesth. 1997;44(4):401–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Chhibber AK, Lustik SJ, Thakur R, Francisco DR, Fickling KB. Effects of anticholinergics on postoperative vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. Anesthesiology. 1999;90(3):697–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Welters ID, Menges T, Graf M, Beikirch C, Menzebach A, Hempelmann G. Reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting by dimenhydrinate suppositories after strabismus surgery in children. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(2):311–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Schlager A, Mitterschiffthaler G, Puhringer F. Rectally administered dimenhydrinate reduces postoperative vomiting in children after strabismus surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2000;84(3):405–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Vener DF, Carr AS, Sikich N, Bissonnette B, Lerman J. Dimenhydrinate decreases vomiting after strabismus surgery in children. Anesth Analg. 1996;82(4):728–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Handa F, Fujii Y. The efficacy of oral clonidine premedication in the prevention of postoperative vomiting in children following strabismus surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2001;11(1):71–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gulhas N, Turkoz A, Durmus M, Togal T, Gedik E, Ersoy MO. Oral clonidine premedication does not reduce postoperative vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003;47(1):90–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Karlsson E, Larsson LE, Nilsson K. The effects of prophylactic dixyrazine on postoperative vomiting after two different anaesthetic methods for squint surgery in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1993;37(1):45–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Splinter W, Noel LP, Roberts D, Rhine E, Bonn G, Clarke W. Antiemetic prophylaxis for strabismus surgery. Can J Ophthalmol. 1994;29(5):224–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Bowhay AR, May HA, Rudnicka AR, Booker PD. A randomized controlled trial of the antiemetic effect of three doses of ondansetron after strabismus surgery in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2001;11(2):215–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Scuderi PE, Weaver RG Jr, James RL, Mims G, Elliott WG, Weeks DB. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled comparison of droperidol, ondansetron, and metoclopramide for the prevention of vomiting following outpatient strabismus surgery in children. J Clin Anesth. 1997;9(7):551–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Sadhasivam S, Shende D, Madan R. Prophylactic ondansetron in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting following pediatric strabismus surgery: a dose-response study. Anesthesiology. 2000;92(4):1035–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kymer PJ, Brown RE Jr, Lawhorn CD, Jones E, Pearce L. The effects of oral droperidol versus oral metoclopramide versus both oral droperidol and metoclopramide on postoperative vomiting when used as a premedicant for strabismus surgery. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7(1):35–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Klockgether-Radke A, Neumann S, Neumann P, Braun U, Muhlendyck H. Ondansetron, droperidol and their combination for the prevention of post-operative vomiting in children. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1997;14(4):362–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Splinter WM, Rhine EJ. Prophylactic antiemetics in children undergoing tonsillectomy: high-dose vs low-dose ondansetron. Paediatr Anaesth. 1997;7(2):125–9.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Kathirvel S, Shende D, Madan R. Comparison of anti-emetic effects of ondansetron, metoclopromide or a combination of both in children undergoing surgery for strabismus. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1999;16(11):761–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Splinter WM. Prevention of vomiting after strabismus surgery in children: dexamethasone alone versus dexamethasone plus low-dose ondansetron. Paediatr Anaesth. 2001;11(5):591–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Caron E, Bussieres JF, Lebel D, Mathews S, Milot J, Jacob JL, et al. Ondansetron for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting following pediatric strabismus surgery. Can J Ophthalmol. 2003;38(3):214–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Rose JB, Brenn BR, Corddry DH, Thomas PC. Preoperative oral ondansetron for pediatric tonsillectomy. Anesth Analg. 1996;82(3):558–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Splinter WM, Rhine EJ. Prophylaxis for vomiting by children after tonsillectomy: ondansetron compared with perphenazine. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(2):155–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Sukhani R, Pappas AL, Lurie J, Hotaling AJ, Park A, Fluder E. Ondansetron and dolasetron provide equivalent postoperative vomiting control after ambulatory tonsillectomy in dexamethasone-pretreated children. Anesth Analg. 2002;95(5):1230–5.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Stene FN, Seay RE, Young LA, Bohnsack LE, Bostrom BC. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of metoclopramide and ondansetron for prevention of posttonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy emesis. J Clin Anesth. 1996;8(7):540–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Hamid SK, Selby IR, Sikich N, Lerman J. Vomiting after adenotonsillectomy in children: a comparison of ondansetron, dimenhydrinate, and placebo. Anesth Analg. 1998;86(3):496–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Jensen AB, Christiansen DB, Coulthard K, Wilkins A, Roberts G, Walt JH, et al. Tropisetron reduces postoperative vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy. Paediatr Anaesth. 2000;10(1):69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Holt R, Rask P, Coulthard KP, Sinclair M, Roberts G, Van Der Walt J, et al. Tropisetron plus dexamethasone is more effective than tropisetron alone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy. Paediatr Anaesth. 2000;10(2):181–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, University of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations