, Volume 73, Issue 10, pp 1015–1024 | Cite as

Vaccine Development for Tuberculosis: Current Progress

  • Ian M. OrmeEmail author
Leading Article


Very substantial efforts have been made over the past decade or more to develop vaccines against tuberculosis. Historically, this began with a view to replace the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), but more recently most candidates are either new forms of this bacillus, or are designed to boost immunity in children given BCG as infants. Good progress is being made, but very few have, as yet, progressed into clinical trials. The leading candidate has advanced to phase IIb efficacy testing, with disappointing results. This article discusses the various types of vaccines, including those designed to be used in a prophylactic setting, either alone or BCG-boosting, true therapeutic (post-exposure) vaccines, and therapeutic vaccines designed to augment chemotherapy. While there is no doubt that progress is still being made, we have a growing awareness of the limitations of our animal model screening processes, further amplified by the fact that we still do not have a clear picture of the immunological responses involved, and the precise type of long-lived immunity that effective new vaccines will need to induce.


Tuberculosis Purify Protein Derivative Therapeutic Vaccine Smallpox Vaccine Rifapentine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author acknowledges the support, enthusiasm, advice, and periodic admonishment from many of his colleagues, including Randy Basaraba, Diane Ordway, David McMurray, Helen McShane, and Ann Rawkins.

Conflicts of interest

Dr. Orme has no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Immunology and PathologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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