Drug Safety

, Volume 41, Issue 12, pp 1387–1396 | Cite as

Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case–Control Analysis

  • Patrick Imfeld
  • Michael Bodmer
  • Susan S. Jick
  • Christoph R. MeierEmail author
Original Research Article



Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in observational studies. The role of exposure duration, and whether this applies to other dementia subtypes, has not been explored in these studies.


The aim was to study the association between long-term use of PPIs (or of histamine-2 receptor antagonists [H2RAs], as a negative control) and the risk of developing AD or vascular dementia (VaD).


We conducted a case–control analysis on the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We identified 41,029 patients aged ≥ 65 years with newly diagnosed AD or VaD between 1998 and 2015 and matched them 1:1 to dementia-free controls on age, sex, calendar time, general practice, and number of years of recorded history. We applied conditional logistic regression analyses to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), of developing AD or VaD in relation to previous use of PPIs or H2RAs, categorized by exposure duration.


As compared to non-use, long-term PPI use (≥ 100 prescriptions) was not associated with an increased risk of developing AD (aOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97) or VaD (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Neither was long-term use of H2RAs (≥ 20 prescriptions) associated with an increased risk of developing AD (aOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87–1.02) or VaD (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89–1.10).


In this large, case-control analysis, we did not find any evidence for an increased risk of either AD or VaD related to PPI or H2RA use.



We thank Pascal Egger for the programming and technical support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


This study did not receive any funding.

Conflict of interest

Patrick Imfeld, Michael Bodmer, Susan S. Jick, and Christoph R. Meier have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

40264_2018_704_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (247 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 247 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Imfeld
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Bodmer
    • 3
  • Susan S. Jick
    • 4
    • 5
  • Christoph R. Meier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Basel Pharmacoepidemiology Unit, Division of Clinical Pharmacy and Epidemiology, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Hospital PharmacyUniversity Hospital BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Medical ClinicZuger KantonsspitalBaarSwitzerland
  4. 4.Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance ProgramLexingtonUSA
  5. 5.Department of EpidemiologyBoston University School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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