Emergency First-Line Anti-Seizure Medication for Seizures and Status Epilepticus: What is Going Wrong, Doctor?
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Repetitive and prolonged seizures as well as status epilepticus represent life-threatening neurologic emergencies with serious cerebral and systemic sequela . High morbidity and mortality associated with untreated or uncontrolled seizures call for emergency treatment including airway management, hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization, protection from physical injuries, administration of emergency anti-seizure medication, and the identification and treatment of underlying pathologies. Despite the fact that randomized controlled trials in this context are mostly limited to first-line anti-seizure medication (i.e., benzodiazepines) [2, 3, 4, 5], international collaborations of experts including epileptologists, neurologists, neurointensivists, neurosurgeons, and pharmacologists led to the development of treatment guidelines for prolonged seizures and status epilepticus across the age spectrum [6, 7]. However, such guidelines focus on the in-hospital setting and, despite a number of...
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No funding was received for the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Raoul Sutter received research Grants from the Swiss National Foundation (No. 320030_169379), the Research Fund of the University Basel, the Scientific Society Basel, and the Gottfried Julia Bangerter-Rhyner Foundation. He received personal grants from UCB-Pharma and holds stocks from Novartis and Roche.