CNS Drugs

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 269–287 | Cite as

Efficacy and Safety of the Newer Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Approved Since 2010

Review Article

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis treatment faces tremendous changes as a result of the approval of new medications. The new medications have differing safety considerations and risks after long-term treatment, which are important for treating physicians to optimize and individualize multiple sclerosis care. Since the approval of the first multiple sclerosis capsule, fingolimod, the armamentarium of multiple sclerosis therapy has grown with the orally available medications dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide. Fingolimod is mainly associated with cardiac side effects, dimethyl fumarate with bowel symptoms. Several reports about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as a result of dimethyl fumarate or fingolimod therapy raised the awareness of fatal opportunistic infections. Alemtuzumab, a CD52-depleting antibody, is highly effective in reducing relapses but leads to secondary immunity with mainly thyroid disorders in about 30% of patients. Development of secondary B-cell-mediated disease might also be a risk of this antibody. The follow-up drug of the B-cell-depleting antibody rituximab, ocrelizumab, is mainly associated with infusion-related reactions; long-term data are scarce. The medication daclizumab high yield process, acting via the activation of CD56bright natural killer cells, can induce the elevation of liver function enzymes, but also fulminant liver failure has been reported. Therefore, daclizumab has been retracted from the market. Long-term data on the purine nucleoside cladribine in MS therapy, recently authorized in the European Union, have been acquired during the long-term follow-up of the cladribine studies. The small molecule laquinimod is currently under development. We review data of clinical trials and their extensions regarding long-term efficacy and side effects, which might be associated with long-term treatment.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

The authors received no funding for the preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Simon Faissner received travel grants from Biogen Idec and Genzyme. Ralf Gold received speaker’s and board honoraria from Baxter, Bayer Schering, Biogen Idec, CLB Behring, Genzyme, Merck Serono, Novartis, Stendhal, Talecris, and TEVA. His department received grant support from Bayer Schering, BiogenIdec, Genzyme, Merck Serono, Novartis, and TEVA.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, St. Josef-HospitalRuhr-University BochumBochumGermany

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