Advertisement

CNS Drugs

, Volume 30, Issue 9, pp 819–835 | Cite as

Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: A Comprehensive Review

  • Jennifer B. LevinEmail author
  • Anna Krivenko
  • Molly Howland
  • Rebecca Schlachet
  • Martha Sajatovic
Review Article

Abstract

Poor medication adherence is a pervasive problem that causes disability and suffering as well as extensive financial costs among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). Barriers to adherence are numerous and cross multiple levels, including factors related to bipolar pathology and those unique to an individual’s circumstances. External factors, including treatment setting, healthcare system, and broader health policies, can also affect medication adherence in people with BD. Fortunately, advances in research have suggested avenues for improving adherence. A comprehensive review of adherence-enhancement interventions for the years 2005–2015 is included. Specific bipolar adherence-enhancement approaches that target knowledge gaps, cognitive patterns, specific barriers, and motivation may be helpful, as may approaches that capitalize on technology or novel drug-delivery systems. However, much work remains to optimally facilitate long-term medication adherence in people with BD. For adherence-enhancement approaches to be widely adapted, they need to be easily accessible, affordable, and practical.

Keywords

Bipolar Disorder Medication Adherence Prospective Memory Poor Adherence Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

This work was supported in part by the Neurological and Behavioral Outcomes Center, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Conflict of interest

Jennifer Levin receives partial salary support from the following research grants: Reuter Foundation, Reinberger Foundation, Woodruff Foundation, Janssen Scientific Affairs, and National Institutes of Health (NIH). Martha Sajatovic receives partial salary support from the following research grants: Pfizer, Merck, and Ortho-McNeil Janssen, Janssen, Reuter Foundation, Woodruff Foundation, Reinberger Foundation, National Institute of Health (NIH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She has also been a consultant for Bracket, Prophase, Otsuka, Pfizer, Neurocrine, and Sunovion and has received royalties from Springer Press, Johns Hopkins University Press, Oxford Press, UpToDate, and Lexicomp. Ms. Krivenko, Ms. Howland, and Dr. Schlachet report no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Haynes RB, Ackloo E, Sahota N, McDonald HP, Yao X. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(2):CD000011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. Geneva: WHO; 2003. p. 3.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Horne R. Compliance, adherence, and concordance: implications for asthma treatment. Chest. 2006;130(1 Suppl):65S–72S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goodwin GM, Haddad PM, Ferrier IN, Aronson JK, Barnes T, Cipriani A, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: Revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2016;30(6):495–553.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Levin JB, Tatsuoka C, Cassidy KA, Aebi ME, Sajatovic M. Trajectories of medication attitudes and adherence behavior change in non-adherent bipolar patients. Compr Psychiatry. 2015;58:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Velligan DI, Weiden PJ, Sajatovic M, Scott J, Carpenter D, Ross R, et al. The expert consensus guideline series: adherence problems in patients with serious and persistent mental illness. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70(Suppl 4):1–46 (quiz 7–8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scott J, Pope M. Nonadherence with mood stabilizers: prevalence and predictors. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(5):384–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sajatovic M, Ignacio RV, West JA, Cassidy KA, Safavi R, Kilbourne AM, et al. Predictors of nonadherence among individuals with bipolar disorder receiving treatment in a community mental health clinic. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50(2):100–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berk L, Hallam KT, Colom F, Vieta E, Hasty M, Macneil C, et al. Enhancing medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2010;25(1):1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lingam R, Scott J. Treatment non-adherence in affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;105(3):164–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Colom F, Vieta E, Martinez-Aran A, Reinares M, Benabarre A, Gasto C. Clinical factors associated with treatment noncompliance in euthymic bipolar patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(8):549–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sajatovic M, Valenstein M, Blow FC, Ganoczy D, Ignacio RV. Treatment adherence with antipsychotic medications in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2006;8(3):232–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Licht RW, Vestergaard P, Rasmussen NA, Jepsen K, Brodersen A, Hansen PE. A lithium clinic for bipolar patients: 2-year outcome of the first 148 patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104(5):387–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Murru A, Pacchiarotti I, Amann BL, Nivoli AM, Vieta E, Colom F. Treatment adherence in bipolar I and schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. J Affect Disord. 2013;151(3):1003–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Col SE, Caykoylu A, Karakas Ugurlu G, Ugurlu M. Factors affecting treatment compliance in patients with bipolar I disorder during prophylaxis: a study from Turkey. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014;36(2):208–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Belzeaux R, Correard N, Boyer L, Etain B, Loftus J, Bellivier F, et al. Depressive residual symptoms are associated with lower adherence to medication in bipolar patients without substance use disorder: results from the FACE-BD cohort. J Affect Disord. 2013;151(3):1009–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Voils CI, Maciejewski ML, Hoyle RH, Reeve BB, Gallagher P, Bryson CL, et al. Initial validation of a self-report measure of the extent of and reasons for medication nonadherence. Med Care. 2012;50(12):1013–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sajatovic M, Chen PJ, Dines P, Shirley ER. Psychoeducational approaches to medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Dis Manage Health Outcomes. 2007;15(2):181–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Busby KK, Sajatovic M. REVIEW: patient, treatment, and systems-level factors in bipolar disorder nonadherence: a summary of the literature. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2010;16(5):308–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jónsdóttir H, Opjordsmoen S, Birkenaes AB, Engh JA, Ringen PA, Vaskinn A, et al. Medication adherence in outpatients with severe mental disorders: relation between self-reports and serum level. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30(2):169–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Scott J, Pope M. Self-reported adherence to treatment with mood stabilizers, plasma levels, and psychiatric hospitalization. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(11):1927–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Byerly M, Fisher R, Whatley K, Holland R, Varghese F, Carmody T, et al. A comparison of electronic monitoring vs. clinician rating of antipsychotic adherence in outpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2005;133(2–3):129–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koschack J, Marx G, Schnakenberg J, Kochen MM, Himmel W. Comparison of two self-rating instruments for medication adherence assessment in hypertension revealed insufficient psychometric properties. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63(3):299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thompson K, Kulkarni J, Sergejew AA. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses. Schizophr Res. 2000;42(3):241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Velligan DI, Kamil SH. Enhancing patient adherence: introducing smart pill devices. Ther Deliv. 2014;5(6):611–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Levin JB, Sams J, Tatsuoka C, Cassidy KA, Sajatovic M. Use of automated medication adherence monitoring in bipolar disorder research: pitfalls, pragmatics, and possibilities. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2015;5(2):76–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sajatovic M, Velligan DI, Weiden PJ, Valenstein MA, Ogedegbe G. Measurement of psychiatric treatment adherence. J Psychosom Res. 2010;69(6):591–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    van Onzenoort HA, Neef C, Verberk WW, van Iperen HP, de Leeuw PW, van der Kuy PH. Determining the feasibility of objective adherence measurement with blister packaging smart technology. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012;69(10):872–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vieta E, Pacchiarotti I, Scott J, Sánchez-Moreno J, Di Marzo S, Colom F. Evidence-based research on the efficacy of psychologic interventions in bipolar disorders: a critical review. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2005;7(6):449–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leclerc E, Mansur RB, Brietzke E. Determinants of adherence to treatment in bipolar disorder: a comprehensive review. J Affect Disord. 2013;149(1–3):247–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pompili M, Venturini P, Palermo M, Stefani H, Seretti ME, Lamis DA, et al. Mood disorders medications: predictors of nonadherence—review of the current literature. Expert Rev Neurother. 2013;13(7):809–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hou R, Cleak V, Peveler R. Do treatment and illness beliefs influence adherence to medication in patients with bipolar affective disorder? A preliminary cross-sectional study. Eur Psychiatry. 2010;25(4):216–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barraco A, Rossi A, Nicolò G, Group ES. Description of study population and analysis of factors influencing adherence in the observational Italian study “Evaluation of Pharmacotherapy Adherence in Bipolar Disorder” (EPHAR). CNS Neurosci Ther. 2012;18(2):110–8.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baldessarini RJ, Perry R, Pike J. Factors associated with treatment nonadherence among US bipolar disorder patients. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2008;23(2):95–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lang K, Korn J, Muser E, Choi JC, Abouzaid S, Menzin J. Predictors of medication nonadherence and hospitalization in Medicaid patients with bipolar I disorder given long-acting or oral antipsychotics. J Med Econ. 2011;14(2):217–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sajatovic M, Levin J, Fuentes-Casiano E, Cassidy KA, Tatsuoka C, Jenkins JH. Illness experience and reasons for nonadherence among individuals with bipolar disorder who are poorly adherent with medication. Compr Psychiatry. 2011;52(3):280–7.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sajatovic M, Blow FC, Kales HC, Valenstein M, Ganoczy D, Ignacio RV. Age comparison of treatment adherence with antipsychotic medications among individuals with bipolar disorder. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;22(10):992–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Casaletto KB, Kwan S, Montoya JL, Obermeit LC, Gouaux B, Poquette A, et al. Predictors of psychotropic medication adherence among HIV+ individuals living with bipolar disorder. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2016;51(1):69–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    González-Pinto A, Reed C, Novick D, Bertsch J, Haro JM. Assessment of medication adherence in a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2010;43(7):263–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sajatovic M, Valenstein M, Blow F, Ganoczy D, Ignacio R. Treatment adherence with lithium and anticonvulsant medications among patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Serv. 2007;58(6):855–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zeber JE, Miller AL, Copeland LA, McCarthy JF, Zivin K, Valenstein M, et al. Medication adherence, ethnicity, and the influence of multiple psychosocial and financial barriers. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2011;38(2):86–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sajatovic M, Elhaj O, Youngstrom EA, Bilali SR, Rapport DJ, Ganocy SJ, et al. Treatment adherence in individuals with rapid cycling bipolar disorder: results from a clinical-trial setting. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(4):412–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johnson RL, Saha S, Arbelaez JJ, Beach MC, Cooper LA. Racial and ethnic differences in patient perceptions of bias and cultural competence in health care. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19(2):101–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smedley BD, Stith AY, Colburn L, Evans CH, (US) IoM. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity among physicians: an intervention to address health disparities? The right thing to do, the smart thing to do: enhancing diversity in the health professions. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press (US); 2001.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Office of the Surgeon General (US), Center for Mental Health Services (US), National Institute of Mental Health (US). Culture counts: the influence of culture and society on mental health. Mental Health: culture, race, and ethnicity: a supplement to mental health: a report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2001.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Smith JC, Medalia C. Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014. In: Bureau USC, editor. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office; 2015. p. 60–253.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bhugra D. Severe mental illness across cultures. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2006;429:17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Colom F, Vieta E, Tacchi MJ, Sanchez-Moreno J, Scott J. Identifying and improving non-adherence in bipolar disorders. Bipolar Disord. 2005;7(Suppl 5):24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fleck DE, Keck PE, Corey KB, Strakowski SM. Factors associated with medication adherence in African American and white patients with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(5):646–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Danion JM, Neunreuther C, Krieger-Finance F, Imbs JL, Singer L. Compliance with long-term lithium treatment in major affective disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1987;20(5):230–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sajatovic M, Micula-Gondek W, Tatsuoka C, Bialko C. The relationship of gender and gender identity to treatment adherence among individuals with bipolar disorder. Gend Med. 2011;8(4):261–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maarbjerg K, Aagaard J, Vestergaard P. Adherence to lithium prophylaxis: I. Clinical predictors and patient’s reasons for nonadherence. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1988;21(3):121–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kessing LV, Søndergård L, Kvist K, Andersen PK. Adherence to lithium in naturalistic settings: results from a nationwide pharmacoepidemiological study. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9(7):730–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gianfrancesco FD, Rajagopalan K, Sajatovic M, Wang RH. Treatment adherence among patients with bipolar or manic disorder taking atypical and typical antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(2):222–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Crowe M, Wilson L, Inder M. Patients’ reports of the factors influencing medication adherence in bipolar disorder—an integrative review of the literature. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48(7):894–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Montes JM, Maurino J, de Dios C, Medina E. Suboptimal treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: impact on clinical outcomes and functioning. Patient Pref Adherence. 2013;7:89–94.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Perlis RH, Ostacher MJ, Miklowitz DJ, Hay A, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, et al. Clinical features associated with poor pharmacologic adherence in bipolar disorder: results from the STEP-BD study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(3):296–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Keck PE Jr, McElroy SL, Strakowski SM, Bourne ML, West SA. Compliance with maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33(1):87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Arvilommi P, Suominen K, Mantere O, Leppämäki S, Valtonen H, Isometsä E. Predictors of adherence to psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatment in bipolar I or II disorders - an 18-month prospective study. J Affect Disord. 2014;155:110–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Martinez-Aran A, Scott J, Colom F, Torrent C, Tabares-Seisdedos R, Daban C, et al. Treatment nonadherence and neurocognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70(7):1017–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sajatovic M, Biswas K, Kilbourne AK, Fenn H, Williford W, Bauer MS. Factors associated with prospective long-term treatment adherence among individuals with bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59(7):753–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lee E, Xiang YT, Man D, Au RW, Shum D, Tang WK, et al. Prospective memory deficits in patients with bipolar disorder: a preliminary study. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2010;25(7):640–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zogg JB, Woods SP, Sauceda JA, Wiebe JS, Simoni JM. The role of prospective memory in medication adherence: a review of an emerging literature. J Behav Med. 2012;35(1):47–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Clatworthy J, Bowskill R, Parham R, Rank T, Scott J, Horne R. Understanding medication non-adherence in bipolar disorders using a necessity-concerns framework. J Affect Disord. 2009;116(1–2):51–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jónsdóttir H, Opjordsmoen S, Birkenaes AB, Simonsen C, Engh JA, Ringen PA, et al. Predictors of medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013;127(1):23–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mert DG, Turgut NH, Kelleci M, Semiz M. Perspectives on reasons of medication nonadherence in psychiatric patients. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2015;9:87–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Adams J, Scott J. Predicting medication adherence in severe mental disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;101(2):119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fuller M, Sajatovic M. Drug information handbook for psychiatry. 7th ed. Cleveland: Lexi-Comp; 2009.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morselli PL, Elgie R, Cesana BM. GAMIAN-Europe/BEAM survey II: cross-national analysis of unemployment, family history, treatment satisfaction and impact of the bipolar disorder on life style. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6(6):487–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Darling CA, Olmstead SB, Lund VE, Fairclough JF. Bipolar disorder: medication adherence and life contentment. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2008;22(3):113–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vieta E, Azorin JM, Bauer M, Frangou S, Perugi G, Martinez G, et al. Psychiatrists’ perceptions of potential reasons for non- and partial adherence to medication: results of a survey in bipolar disorder from eight European countries. J Affect Disord. 2012;143(1–3):125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cochran SD, Gitlin MJ. Attitudinal correlates of lithium compliance in bipolar affective disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1988;176(8):457–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Clatworthy J, Bowskill R, Rank T, Parham R, Horne R. Adherence to medication in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study exploring the role of patients’ beliefs about the condition and its treatment. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9(6):656–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mago R, Borra D, Mahajan R. Role of adverse effects in medication nonadherence in bipolar disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2014;22(6):363–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Medic GHK, Littlewood KJ, Diez T, Granström O, Kahn RS. Dosing frequency and adherence in chronic psychiatric disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:119–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dolder CR, Lacro JP, Dunn LB, Jeste DV. Antipsychotic medication adherence: is there a difference between typical and atypical agents? Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(1):103–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sylvia LG, Hay A, Ostacher MJ, Miklowitz DJ, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, et al. Association between therapeutic alliance, care satisfaction, and pharmacological adherence in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013;33(3):343–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gibson TB, Jing Y, Kim E, Bagalman E, Wang S, Whitehead R, et al. Cost-sharing effects on adherence and persistence for second-generation antipsychotics in commercially insured patients. Manag Care. 2010;19(8):40–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Strauss JL, Johnson SL. Role of treatment alliance in the clinical management of bipolar disorder: stronger alliances prospectively predict fewer manic symptoms. Psychiatry Res. 2006;145(2–3):215–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zeber JE, Copeland LA, Good CB, Fine MJ, Bauer MS, Kilbourne AM. Therapeutic alliance perceptions and medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008;107(1–3):53–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Reilly-Harrington N, Sachs GS. Psychosocial strategies to improve concordance and adherence in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(7):e04.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Copeland LA, Zeber JE, Salloum IM, Pincus HA, Fine MJ, Kilbourne AM. Treatment adherence and illness insight in veterans with bipolar disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008;196(1):16–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wilder CM, Elbogen EB, Moser LL, Swanson JW, Swartz MS. Medication preferences and adherence among individuals with severe mental illness and psychiatric advance directives. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61(4):380–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Johnson FR, Ozdemir S, Manjunath R, Hauber AB, Burch SP, Thompson TR. Factors that affect adherence to bipolar disorder treatments: a stated-preference approach. Med Care. 2007;45(6):545–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Basco M, Smith J. Faulty decision-making: impact on treatment adherence in bipolar disorder. Primary Psychiatry. 2009;16(8):53–8.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wang PS, Lane M, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, Kessler RC. Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):629–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rowan K, McAlpine DD, Blewett LA. Access and cost barriers to mental health care, by insurance status, 1999–2010. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013;32(10):1723–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pearson WS, Dhingra SS, Strine TW, Liang YW, Berry JT, Mokdad AH. Relationships between serious psychological distress and the use of health services in the United States: findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Int J Public Health. 2009;54(Suppl 1):23–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Report to Congress on the Nation’s Substance Abuse and Mental Health Workforce Issues. Hyde PS, administrator; 2013.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Keck PE, McElroy SL, Strakowski SM, West SA, Sax KW, Hawkins JM, et al. 12-month outcome of patients with bipolar disorder following hospitalization for a manic or mixed episode. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(5):646–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hassan M, Lage MJ. Risk of rehospitalization among bipolar disorder patients who are nonadherent to antipsychotic therapy after hospital discharge. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009;66(4):358–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Li C, Chen C, Qiu B, Yang G. A 2-year follow-up study of discharged psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2014;218(1–2):75–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hong J, Reed C, Novick D, Haro JM, Aguado J. Clinical and economic consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of patients with a manic/mixed episode of bipolar disorder: results from the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) study. Psychiatry Res. 2011;190(1):110–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Viguera AC. Discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders: risks and implications. Bipolar Disord. 1999;1(1):17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gonzalez-Pinto A, Mosquera F, Alonso M, López P, Ramírez F, Vieta E, et al. Suicidal risk in bipolar I disorder patients and adherence to long-term lithium treatment. Bipolar Disord. 2006;8(5 Pt 2):618–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Müller-Oerlinghausen B, Wolf T, Ahrens B, Glaenz T, Schou M, Grof E, et al. Mortality of patients who dropped out from regular lithium prophylaxis: a collaborative study by the International Group for the Study of Lithium-treated patients (IGSLI). Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996;94(5):344–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    López-Jaramillo C, Lopera-Vásquez J, Gallo A, Ospina-Duque J, Bell V, Torrent C, et al. Effects of recurrence on the cognitive performance of patients with bipolar I disorder: implications for relapse prevention and treatment adherence. Bipolar Disord. 2010;12(5):557–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Copeland LA, Miller AL, Welsh DE, McCarthy JF, Zeber JE, Kilbourne AM. Clinical and demographic factors associated with homelessness and incarceration among VA patients with bipolar disorder. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):871–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Robertson AG, Swanson JW, Van Dorn RA, Swartz MS. Treatment participation and medication adherence: effects on criminal justice costs of persons with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(10):1189–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Svarstad BL, Shireman TI, Sweeney JK. Using drug claims data to assess the relationship of medication adherence with hospitalization and costs. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52(6):805–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Durrenberger S, Rogers T, Walker R, de Leon J. Economic grand rounds: the high costs of care for four patients with mania who were not compliant with treatment. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50(12):1539–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gianfrancesco FD, Sajatovic M, Rajagopalan K, Wang RH. Antipsychotic treatment adherence and associated mental health care use among individuals with bipolar disorder. Clin Ther. 2008;30(7):1358–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Birkenaes AB, Opjordsmoen S, Brunborg C, Engh JA, Jonsdottir H, Ringen PA, et al. The level of cardiovascular risk factors in bipolar disorder equals that of schizophrenia: a comparative study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(6):917–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ramsey CM, Leoutsakos JM, Mayer LS, Eaton WW, Lee HB. History of manic and hypomanic episodes and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: 11.5 year follow-up from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. J Affect Disord. 2010;125(1–3):35–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ramsey CM, Spira AP, Mojtabai R, Eaton WW, Roth K, Lee HB. Lifetime manic spectrum episodes and all-cause mortality: 26-year follow-up of the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. J Affect Disord. 2013;151(1):337–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Young AH, Grunze H. Physical health of patients with bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2013;442:3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wheeler KJ, Roberts ME, Neiheisel MB. Medication adherence part two: predictors of nonadherence and adherence. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2014;26(4):225–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    King RM, Vidrine DJ, Danysh HE, Fletcher FE, McCurdy S, Arduino RC, et al. Factors associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive smokers. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012;26(8):479–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Eze-Nliam CM, Thombs BD, Lima BB, Smith CG, Ziegelstein RC. The association of depression with adherence to antihypertensive medications: a systematic review. J Hypertens. 2010;28(9):1785–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Osborn CY, Egede LE. The relationship between depressive symptoms and medication nonadherence in type 2 diabetes: the role of social support. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012;34(3):249–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Levin JB, Aebi ME, Tatsuoka C, Cassidy KA, Sajatovic M. Adherence to psychotropic and nonpsychotropic medication among patients with bipolar disorder and general medical conditions. Psychiatr Serv. 2016;67(3):342–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Levin JB, Krivenko A, Bukach A, Tatsuoka C, Cassidy KA, Sajatovic M. A reexamination of non-psychiatric medication adherence in individuals with bipolar disorder and medical comorbidities. J Nerv Ment Dis (Epub 10 June 2016).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cabassa LJ, Ezell JM, Lewis-Fernández R. Lifestyle interventions for adults with serious mental illness: a systematic literature review. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61(8):774–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Siantz E, Aranda MP. Chronic disease self-management interventions for adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review of the literature. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014;36(3):233–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sajatovic M, Levin J, Tatsuoka C, Micula-Gondek W, Williams TD, Bialko CS, et al. Customized adherence enhancement for individuals with bipolar disorder receiving antipsychotic therapy. Psychiatr Serv. 2012;63(2):176–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sajatovic M, Levin J, Tatsuoka C, Micula-Gondek W, Fuentes-Casiano E, Bialko CS, et al. Six-month outcomes of customized adherence enhancement (CAE) therapy in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2012;14(3):291–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sajatovic M, Davies MA, Ganocy SJ, Bauer MS, Cassidy KA, Hays RW, et al. A comparison of the life goals program and treatment as usual for individuals with bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Serv. 2009;60(9):1182–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Eker F, Harkın S. Effectiveness of six-week psychoeducation program on adherence of patients with bipolar affective disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012;138(3):409–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Javadpour A, Hedayati A, Dehbozorgi GR, Azizi A. The impact of a simple individual psycho-education program on quality of life, rate of relapse and medication adherence in bipolar disorder patients. Asian J Psychiatr. 2013;6(3):208–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    McKenzie K, Chang Y-P. The effect of nurse-led motivational interviewing on medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2015;51(1):36–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Depp CA, Lebowitz BD, Patterson TL, Lacro JP, Jeste DV. Medication adherence skills training for middle-aged and elderly adults with bipolar disorder: development and pilot study. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9(6):636–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wenze SJ, Gaudiano BA, Weinstock LM, Tezanos KM, Miller IW. Adjunctive psychosocial intervention following Hospital discharge for Patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid substance use: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Psychiatry Res. 2015;228(3):516–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Moore DJ, Poquette A, Casaletto KB, Gouaux B, Montoya JL, Posada C, et al. Individualized texting for adherence building (iTAB): improving antiretroviral dose timing among HIV-infected persons with co-occurring bipolar disorder. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(3):459–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Priebe S, Yeeles K, Bremner S, Lauber C, Eldridge S, Ashby D, et al. Effectiveness of financial incentives to improve adherence to maintenance treatment with antipsychotics: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2013;347:f5847.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    MacDonald L, Chapman S, Syrett M, Bowskill R, Horne R. Improving medication adherence in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 30 years of intervention trials. J Affect Disord. 2016;194:202–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gaudiano BA, Weinstock LM, Miller IW. Improving treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: a review of current psychosocial treatment efficacy and recommendations for future treatment development. Behav Modif. 2008;32(3):267–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    van Dulmen S, Sluijs E, van Dijk L, de Ridder D, Heerdink R, Bensing J, et al. Furthering patient adherence: a position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Domino FJ. Improving adherence to treatment for hypertension. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(11):2089–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Santschi V, Wuerzner G, Schneider MP, Bugnon O, Burnier M. Clinical evaluation of IDAS II, a new electronic device enabling drug adherence monitoring. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63(12):1179–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Heneghan CJ, Glasziou P, Perera R. Reminder packaging for improving adherence to self-administered long-term medications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(1):CD005025.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lee JK, Grace KA, Taylor AJ. Effect of a pharmacy care program on medication adherence and persistence, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296(21):2563–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Schneider PJ, Murphy JE, Pedersen CA. Impact of medication packaging on adherence and treatment outcomes in older ambulatory patients. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008;48(1):58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Vrijens B, Belmans A, Matthys K, de Klerk E, Lesaffre E. Effect of intervention through a pharmaceutical care program on patient adherence with prescribed once-daily atorvastatin. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2006;15(2):115–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Berkowitz AC, Goddard DM. Novel drug delivery systems: future directions. J Neurosci Nurs. 2009;41(2):115–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wong S, Chan V. The digital pill: tracking medication adherence through electronic modalities. Med Technol. 2016;85(1):38–40.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sajatovic M, Davis MS, Cassidy KA, Nestor J, Sams J, Fuentes-Casiano E. A technology-enabled adherence enhancement system for people with bipolar disorder: results from a feasibility and patient acceptance analysis. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2015;9:753–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Wenze SJ, Armey MF, Miller IW. Feasibility and acceptability of a mobile intervention to improve treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: a pilot study. Behav Modif. 2014;38(4):497–515.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Depp CA, Mausbach B, Granholm E, Cardenas V, Ben-Zeev D, Patterson TL, et al. Mobile interventions for severe mental illness: design and preliminary data from three approaches. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010;198(10):715–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Depp CA, Ceglowski J, Wang VC, Yaghouti F, Mausbach BT, Thompson WK, et al. Augmenting psychoeducation with a mobile intervention for bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Affect Disord. 2015;174:23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Leucht C, Heres S, Kane JM, Kissling W, Davis JM, Leucht S. Oral versus depot antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia—a critical systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised long-term trials. Schizophr Res. 2011;127(1–3):83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Vieta E, Nieto E, Autet A, Rosa AR, Goikolea JM, Cruz N, et al. A long-term prospective study on the outcome of bipolar patients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2008;9(3):219–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wu CS, Hsieh MH, Tang CH, Chang CJ. Comparative effectiveness of long-acting injectable risperidone vs. long-acting injectable first-generation antipsychotics in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2016;197:189–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Chou YH, Chu PC, Wu SW, Lee JC, Lee YH, Sun IW, et al. A systemic review and experts’ consensus for long-acting injectable antipsychotics in bipolar disorder. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2015;13(2):121–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, Schaffer A, Beaulieu S, Alda M, et al. Canadian network for mood and anxiety treatments (CANMAT) and international society for bipolar disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2013. Bipolar Disord. 2013;15(1):1–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gigante AD, Lafer B, Yatham LN. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. CNS Drugs. 2012;26(5):403–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Uchida S, Hiraoka S, Namiki N. Development of gummi drugs of aripiprazole as hospital formulations. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2015;63(5):354–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Fagiolini A, Forgione RN, Morana B, Maccari M, Goracci A, Bossini L, et al. Asenapine for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14(4):489–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    San L, Casillas M, Ciudad A, Gilaberte I. Olanzapine orally disintegrating tablet: a review of efficacy and compliance. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2008;14(3):203–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sajatovic M, Thompson TR, Nanry K, Edwards S, Manjunath R. Prospective, open-label trial measuring satisfaction and convenience of two formulations of lamotrigine in subjects with mood disorders. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2013;7:411–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Brissos S, Veguilla MR, Taylor D, Balanzá-Martinez V. The role of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a critical appraisal. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2014;4(5):198–219.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryCase Western Reserve University School of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Neurological and Behavioral Outcomes CenterUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyCase Western Reserve University School of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations