Advertisement

CNS Drugs

, Volume 30, Issue 10, pp 951–983 | Cite as

New Pharmacological Agents to Aid Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Harm Reduction: What Has Been Investigated, and What Is in the Pipeline?

  • Emma Beard
  • Lion Shahab
  • Damian M. Cummings
  • Susan Michie
  • Robert West
Review Article

Abstract

A wide range of support is available to help smokers to quit and to aid attempts at harm reduction, including three first-line smoking cessation medications: nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion. Despite the efficacy of these, there is a continual need to diversify the range of medications so that the needs of tobacco users are met. This paper compares the first-line smoking cessation medications with (1) two variants of these existing products: new galenic formulations of varenicline and novel nicotine delivery devices; and (2) 24 alternative products: cytisine (novel outside Central and Eastern Europe), nortriptyline, other tricyclic antidepressants, electronic cigarettes, clonidine (an anxiolytic), other anxiolytics (e.g. buspirone), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, supplements (e.g. St John’s wort), silver acetate, Nicobrevin, modafinil, venlafaxine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), opioid antagonists, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists, glucose tablets, selective cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists, nicotine vaccines, drugs that affect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, drugs that affect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, dopamine agonists (e.g. levodopa), pioglitazone (Actos; OMS405), noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors and the weight management drug lorcaserin. Six ‘ESCUSE’ criteria—relative efficacy, relative safety, relative cost, relative use (overall impact of effective medication use), relative scope (ability to serve new groups of patients) and relative ease of use—are used. Many of these products are in the early stages of clinical trials; however, cytisine looks most promising in having established efficacy and safety with low cost. Electronic cigarettes have become very popular, appear to be efficacious and are safer than smoking, but issues of continued dependence and possible harms need to be considered.

Keywords

Nicotine Smoking Cessation Bupropion Nicotine Replacement Therapy Atomoxetine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

RW undertakes consultancy and research for, and receives travel funds and hospitality from, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications but does not, and will not, take funds from EC manufacturers or the tobacco industry. RW and SM are advisors of the National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. EB has received unrestricted funding from Pfizer. LS has received honoraria and reimbursement for expenses for attending and presenting at meetings and workshops from manufacturers of smoking cessation products. He has also received an unrestricted research grant from Pfizer. DMC declares no conflicts of interest.

Funding

RW’s salary is funded by Cancer Research UK (CRUK). EB is funded by CRUK and by the National Institute for Health Research’s (NIHR’s) School for Public Health Research (SPHR). SM is funded by CRUK and the SPHR. The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. SPHR is a partnership between the Universities of Sheffield, Bristol, Cambridge and Exeter; UCL; The London School for Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; the LiLaC collaboration between the Universities of Liverpool and Lancaster and Fuse; and The Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, a collaboration between Newcastle, Durham, Northumbria, Sunderland and Teesside Universities. DMC is funded by Alzheimer’s Research UK (ARUK). LS received support from a grant by the former UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies (UKCTS). Funding from the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Economic and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council and the National Institute for Health Research under the auspices of the UK Clinical Research Collaboration is gratefully acknowledged (RES-590-28-0004).

References

  1. 1.
    Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, Robinson M, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Thomson B, et al. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980–2012. JAMA. 2014;311(2):183–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2011. 2011. cited; Available from: http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/2011/en/.
  3. 3.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: a report of the Surgeon General. 2014. cited; Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/50th-anniversary/index.htm.
  4. 4.
    Raw M, McNeill A, West R. Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals—A guide to effective smoking cessation interventions for the health care system. Thorax. 1998;53(suppl 5):S1–18.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cahill K, Stevens S, Perera R, Lancaster T. Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Libr. 2013;5(CD009329). Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kotz D, Brown J, West R. Prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments used in the “real world”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Elsevier; 2014. p. 1360–7.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moore D, Aveyard P, Connock M, Wang D, Fry-Smith A, Barton P. Effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;338:b1024.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beard E, McNeill A, Aveyard P, Fidler J, Michie S, West R. Use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction and during enforced temporary abstinence: a national survey of English smokers. Addiction. 2011;106:197–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beard E, Michie S, Fidler J, West R. Use of nicotine replacement therapy in situations involving temporary abstinence from smoking: a national survey of English smokers. Addict Behav. 2013;38(3):1876–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    West R, May S, West M, Croghan E, McEwen A. Performance of English stop smoking services in first 10 years: analysis of service monitoring data. BMJ. 2013;347:f4921.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beard E, Vangeli E, Michie S, West R. The use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction and temporary abstinence: an interview study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14(7):849–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    West R, Raw M, McNeill A, Stead L, Aveyard P, Bitton J, et al. Health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development. Addiction. 2015;110:1388–403.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ebell MH, Barry HC, Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF. Finding POEMs in the medical literature. J Fam Pract. 1999;48(5):350–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singal AG, Higgins PDR, Waljee AK. A primer on effectiveness and efficacy trials. Clin Trans Gastroenterol. 2014;5:e45.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kozlowski L, Strasser A, Giovino G, Erickson P, Terza J. Applying the risk/use equilibrium: use medicinal nicotine now for harm reduction. Tob Control. 2001;10(3):201.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bennett CL, Nebeker JR, Lyons EA, Samore MH, Feldman MD, McKoy JM, et al. The research on adverse drug events and reports (RADAR) project. JAMA. 2005;293(17):2131–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taylor R, Drummond M, Salkeld G, Sullivan S. Inclusion of cost effectiveness in licensing requirements of new drugs: the fourth hurdle. BMJ Br Med J. 2004;329(7472):972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang F, Zhang H, Zang H, Ouyang M. Purchasing pirated software: an initial examination of Chinese consumers. J Consumer Mark. 2005;22(6):340–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker T, Bailey WC, Benowitz NL, Curry SJ, Dorfman SF, Froelicher ES, Goldstein MG, Healton CG, Henderson PN. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Denford S, Frost J, Dieppe P, Cooper C, Britten N. Individualisation of drug treatments for patients with long-term conditions: a review of concepts. BMJ Open. 2014;4(3):e004172.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gligorijevic V, Malod-Dognin N, Przulj N. Patient-specific data fusion for cancer stratification and personalised treatment. Pac Symp Biocomput. 2016;21:321–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    UK Trade and Investment. Unlock your global business potential: UK stratified medicine. 2013. cited; Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/301775/UK_Stratified_Medicine.pdf.
  23. 23.
    MRC. Stratified medicine. 2016 [cited; Available from: http://www.mrc.ac.uk/research/initiatives/stratified-medicine/.
  24. 24.
    National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care. Medicines adherence: involving patients in decisions about prescribed medicines and supporting adherence. London, England; 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hu T-W, Sung H-Y, Keeler TE, Marciniak M. Cigarette consumption and sales of nicotine replacement products. Tob Control. 2000;9(Suppl 2):ii60–3.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Russell MA. Low-tar medium-nicotine cigarettes: a new approach to safer smoking. Br Med J. 1976;1(6023):1430–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Russell MA, Sutton SR, Feyerabend C, Cole PV, Saloojee Y. Nicotine chewing gum as a substitute for smoking. Br Med J. 1977;1(6068):1060–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jarvik ME. Beneficial effects of nicotine. Br J Addict. 1991;86(5):571–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A report of the Surgeon General. How tobacco smoke causes disease: the biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease. 2010. cited; Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/.
  30. 30.
    DiFranza JR. Hooked from the first cigarette. Sci Am. 2008;298(5):82–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bolliger CT, van Biljon X, Axelsson A. A nicotine mouth spray for smoking cessation: a pilot study of preference, safety and efficacy. Respiration. 2007;74(2):196–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shahab L, Brose LS, West R. Novel delivery systems for nicotine replacement therapy as an aid to smoking cessation and for harm reduction: rationale, and evidence for advantages over existing systems. CNS Drugs. 2013;27(12):1007–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shiffman S, Ferguson SG, Gwaltney CJ, Balabanis MH, Shadel WG. Reduction of abstinence-induced withdrawal and craving using high-dose nicotine replacement therapy. Psychopharmacology. 2006;184(3–4):637–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shiffman S, Cone EJ, Buchhalter AR, Henningfield JE, Rohay JM, Gitchell JG, et al. Rapid absorption of nicotine from new nicotine gum formulations. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;91(3):380–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen LL, Inventor. United States patent application publication (US 20011/0110880 A1): Nicotine Lozenege Composition 2011.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    NICE. Smoking: harm reduction NICE guidelines [PH45]. 2013. cited; Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph45.
  37. 37.
    Ferry LH. Non-nicotine pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Prim Care. 1999;26(3):653–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Richmond R, Zwar N. Review of bupropion for smoking cessation. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2003;22(2):203–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Niaura R, Jones C, Kirkpatrick P. Varenicline. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006;5(7):537–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kasza KA, Cummings KM, Carpenter MJ, Cornelius ME, Hyland AJ, Fong GT. Use of stop-smoking medications in the United States before and after the introduction of varenicline. Addiction. 2015;110(2):346–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cahill K, Stead L, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;18(4);CD006103.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sutherland G, Stapleton JA, Russell MA, Jarvis MJ, Hajek P, Belcher M, et al. Randomised controlled trial of nasal nicotine spray in smoking cessation. Lancet. 1992;340(8815):324–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shiffman S, Ferguson SG, Rohay J, Gitchell JG. Perceived safety and efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies among US smokers and ex-smokers: relationship with use and compliance. Addiction. 2008;103(8):1371–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kay J, Fox BS. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single and repeated doses of nicotine with the straw, a novel nicotine replacement product. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(1):63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thornley S, McRobbie H, Lin RB, Bullen C, Hajek P, Laugesen M, et al. A single-blind, randomized, crossover trial of the effects of a nicotine pouch on the relief of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and user satisfaction. Nicotine Tob Research. 2009;11(6):715–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rose JE, Turner JE, Murugesan T, Behm FM, Laugesen M. Pulmonary delivery of nicotine pyruvate: sensory and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;18(5):385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Paudel KS, Wu J, Hinds BJ, Stinchcomb AL. Programmable transdermal delivery of nicotine in hairless guinea pigs using carbon nanotube membrane pumps. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101(10):3823–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shahab L, McEwen A, West R. Acceptability and effectiveness for withdrawal symptom relief of a novel oral nicotine delivery device: a randomised crossover trial. Psychopharmacology. 2011;216(2):187–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pichayakorn W, Suksaeree J, Boonme P, Amnuaikit T, Taweepreda W, Ritthidej GC. Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery. Pharm Dev Technol. 2013;18(5):1111–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lux J, Frecker R. Subjective responses to inhaled and intravenous injected nicotine. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics; 1988: St Louis: Mosby-Year Book Inc; 1988. p. 186.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Strasinger CL, Scheff NN, Wu J, Hinds BJ, Stinchcomb AL. Carbon nanotube membranes for use in the transdermal treatment of nicotine addiction and opioid withdrawal symptoms. Subst Abuse: Res Treat. 2009;3:31.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Westman EC, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE, Rose JE. Oral nicotine solution for smoking cessation: a pilot tolerability study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2001;3(4):391–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Caldwell B, Sumner W, Crane J. A systematic review of nicotine by inhalation: is there a role for the inhaled route? Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14(1):1127–39.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    West R, DiMarino ME, Gitchell J, McNeill A. Impact of UK policy initiatives on use of medicines to aid smoking cessation. Tob Control. 2005;14(3):166–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Beard E, Brown J, McNeill A, Michie S, West R. Has growth in electronic cigarette use by smokers been responsible for the decline in use of licensed nicotine products? Findings from the Smoking Toolkit Study: a longitudinal cross-sectional survey. Thorax. 2016. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-206801.
  56. 56.
    Kotz D, Fidler JA, West R. Did the introduction of varenicline in England substitute for or add to the use of other smoking cessation medications? Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13(9):793–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Henningfield JE, Slade J. Tobacco-dependence medications: public health and regulatory issues. Food Drug LJ. 1998;53:75.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Am Ende M, Roy MC, Smith SW, Waterman KC, Moses SK, Quan ES. Pharmaceutical compositions of 5,7,14-triazatetracyclo[10.3.1.0(2,11).0(4,9)]-hexadeca-2(11)3,5,7,9-pentaene. 2003; PCT Int Appl WO2003045437Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Waterman KC, Arikpo WB, Fergione MB, Graul TW, Johnson BA, MacDonald BC, et al. N-Methylation and N-formylation of a secondary amine drug (varenicline) in an osmotic tablet. J Pharm Sci. 2008;97(4):1499–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Johnson BA, Ziegler CB. Transdermal system for varenicline. Google Patents; 2011.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mansour HM, Sohn M, Al-Ghananeem A, Deluca PP. Materials for pharmaceutical dosage forms: molecular pharmaceutics and controlled release drug delivery aspects. Int J Mol Sci. 2010;11(9):3298–322.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kumar VS, Niranjan SK, Irchhaiya R, Neeraj K, Ali A. A noevel transdermal drug delivery system. Int Res J Pharm. 2012;3(8):39–44.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    George O, Lloyd A, Carroll FI, Damaj MI, Koob GF. Varenicline blocks nicotine intake in rats with extended access to nicotine self-administration. Psychopharmacology. 2011;213(4):715–22.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    DeVane CL. Immediate-release versus controlled-release formulations: pharmacokinetics of newer antidepressants in relation to nausea. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(Suppl 18):14–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sedlacek H-H, Sapienza AM, Eid V. Ways to successful strategies in drug research and development. Wiley; 2008.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stapleton J. Is varenicline cost-effective enough to be funded by the NHS now? 2006. cited; Available from: http://www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_446.pdf.
  67. 67.
    Langley TE, Huang Y, McNeill A, Coleman T, Szatkowski L, Lewis S. Prescribing of smoking cessation medication in England since the introduction of varenicline. Addiction. 2011;106(7):1319–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Meyer TE, Taylor LG, Xie S, Graham DJ, Mosholder AD, Williams JR, et al. Neuropsychiatric events in varenicline and nicotine replacement patch users in the Military Health System. Addiction. 2013;108(1):203–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pasternak B, Svanström H, Hviid A. Use of varenicline versus bupropion and risk of psychiatric adverse events. Addiction. 2013;108(7):1336–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Prochaska JJ, Hilton JF. Risk of cardiovascular serious adverse events associated with varenicline use for tobacco cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;344:e2856.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jeong SH, Newcombe D, Sheridan J, Tingle M. Pharmacokinetics of cytisine, an a4b2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, in healthy smokers following a single dose. Drug Test Anal. 2014;7(6):475–82.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Barlow RB, McLeod LJ. Some studies on cytisine and its methylated derivatives. Br J Pharmacol. 1969;35(1):161–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Reavill C, Walther B, Stolerman IP, Testa B. Behavioural and pharmacokinetic studies on nicotine, cytisine and lobeline. Neuropharmacology. 1990;29(7):619–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Etter JF. Cytisine for smoking cessation: a literature review and a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(15):1553–9.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hajek P, McRobbie H, Myers K. Efficacy of cytisine in helping smokers quit: systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax. 2013;68(11):1037–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;4:Cd006103.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Walker N, Howe C, Glover M, McRobbie H, Barnes J, Nosa V, et al. Cytisine versus nicotine for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(25):2353–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Leaviss J, Sullivan W, Ren S, Everson-Hock E, Stevenson M, Stevens JW, et al. What is the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine compared with varenicline for smoking cessation? A systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2014;18(33):1–120.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Samet JM. Cytisine is effective for smoking cessation: should clinicians use it? Evid Based Med. 2014;18:2014.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Filippidis FT, Gerovasili V, Vardavas CI, Agaku IT, Tountas Y. Determinants of use of smoking cessation aids in 27 European countries. Prev Med. 2014;65:99–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Koegelenberg CF, Noor F, Bateman ED, van Zyl-Smit RN, Bruning A, O’Brien JA, et al. Efficacy of varenicline combined with nicotine replacement therapy vs varenicline alone for smoking cessation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;312(2):155–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jiloha RC. Pharmacotherapy of smoking cessation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2014;56(1):87–95.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hughes JR, Stead LF, Hartmann-Boyce J, Cahill K, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;1:CD000031.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nortriptyline for smoking cessation: a review. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7(4):491–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Aveyard P, Johnson C, Fillingham S, Parsons A, Murphy M. Nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement versus placebo plus nicotine replacement for smoking cessation: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336(7655):1223–7.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wagena EJ, Knipschild P, Zeegers MP. Should nortriptyline be used as a first-line aid to help smokers quit? Results from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction. 2005;100(3):317–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hall SM, Lightwood JM, Humfleet GL, Bostrom A, Reus VI, Munoz R. Cost-effectiveness of bupropion, nortriptyline, and psychological intervention in smoking cessation. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2005;32(4):381–92.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    McRobbie H, Bullen C, Glover M, Whittaker R, Wallace-Bell M, Fraser T. New Zealand smoking cessation guidelines. N Z Med J. 2008;121(1276):57–70.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dawkins L. Electronic cigarettes: what are they and are they effective? E-Cigarette Summit, London, UK: (oral presentation). 2013. cited; Available from: http://e-cigarette-summit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Summit-Presentations.pdf.
  90. 90.
    Torjesen I. E-cigarettes are to be regulated as medicines from 2016. BMJ. 2013;346:f3859.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
  92. 92.
    MHRA. UKPAR e-Voke 10 & 15 mg electronic inhaler. 2015. cited; Available from: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/par/documents/websiteresources/con616843.pdf.
  93. 93.
    McRobbie H, Bullen C, Hartmann-Boyce J, Hajek P. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction. Cochrane Libr. 2014;12:CD010216.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Brown J, Beard E, Kotz D, Michie S, West R. Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study. Addiction. 2014;109(9):1531–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Adkison SE, O’Connor RJ, Bansal-Travers M, Hyland A, Borland R, Yong H-H, et al. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: international tobacco control four-country survey. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(3):207–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Etter J-F, Bullen C. A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette users. Addict Behav. 2014;39(2):491–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Brose LS, Hitchman SC, Brown J, West R, McNeill A. Is use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up. Addiction. 2015; 110(7):1160–8.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hecht SS. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: chemical mechanisms and approaches to prevention. Lancet Oncol. 2002;3(8):461–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Westenberger B. Evaluation of e-cigarettes. St Louis: Food and Drug Administration; 2009. p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hadwiger ME, Trehy ML, Ye W, Moore T, Allgire J, Westenberger B. Identification of amino-tadalafil and rimonabant in electronic cigarette products using high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217(48):7547–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, Kosmider L, Sobczak A, Kurek J, et al. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob control. 2014;23(2):133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Williams M, Villarreal A, Bozhilov K, Lin S, Talbot P. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57987.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Farsalinos KE, Polosa R. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2014;5(2):67–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hajek P, Etter J-F, Benowitz N, Eissenberg T, McRobbie H. Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit. Addiction. 2014;109(11):1801–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McNeill A, Brose L, Calder R, Hitchman S, Hajek P, McRobbie H. E-cigarettes: an evidence update. A report commissioned by Public Health England. Public Health England. 2015. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/457102/Ecigarettes_an_evidence_update_A_report_commissioned_by_Public_Health_England_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2015.
  106. 106.
    NHS Choices. News analysis: E-cigarettes to be regulated as medicines. 2013. http://www.nhs.uk/news/2013/06June/Pages/e-cigarettes-and-vaping.aspx.
  107. 107.
    NCSCT. Electronic cigarettes: A briefing for stop smoking services. 2016. cited; Available from: http://www.ncsct.co.uk/usr/pub/Electronic%20cigarettes.%20A%20briefing%20for%20stop%20smoking%20services.pdf.
  108. 108.
    Bullen C, Howe C, Laugesen M, McRobbie H, Parag V, Williman J, et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013;382(9905):1629–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Anxiolytics for smoking cessation. Cochrane Libr. 2000;2:CD000031.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Glassman AH, Stetner F, Walsh BT, Raizman PS, Fleiss JL, Cooper TB, et al. Heavy smokers, smoking cessation, and clonidine. Results of a double-blind, randomized trial. JAMA. 1988;259(19):2863–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Prochazka AV, Petty TL, Nett L, et al. Transdermal clonidine reduced some withdrawal symptoms but did not increase smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(10):2065–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, Dorfman SF, Goldstein MG, Gritz ER, et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence: a clinical practice guideline. Publications Clearinghouse; 2000.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL. Clonidine for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(3):Cd000058.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ornish SA, Zisook S, McAdams L. Effects of transdermal clonidine treatment on withdrawal symptoms associated with smoking cessation: a randomized, controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(9):2027–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Franks P, Harp J, Bell B. Randomized, controlled trial of clonidine for smoking cessation in a primary care setting. JAMA. 1989;262(21):3011–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hughes JR, Gust SW, Skoog K, Keenan RM, Fenwick JW. Symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. A replication and extension. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48(1):52–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Charles J Bentz. Review: clonidine is more effective than placebo for long term smoking cessation, but has side effects. Evid Based Med. 2005;10(1):19.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
  119. 119.
    Luger TM, Suls J, Vander Weg MW. How robust is the association between smoking and depression in adults? A meta-analysis using linear mixed-effects models. Addict Behav. 2014;39(10):1418–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nowakowska E, Kus K, Florek E, Czubak A, Jodynis-Liebert J. The influence of tobacco smoke and nicotine on antidepressant and memory-improving effects of venlafaxine. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006;25(4):199–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cinciripini PM, Tsoh JY, Wetter DW, Lam C, de Moor C, Cinciripini L, et al. Combined effects of venlafaxine, nicotine replacement, and brief counseling on smoking cessation. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;13(4):282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bet PM, Hugtenburg JG, Penninx BW, Hoogendijk WJ. Side effects of antidepressants during long-term use in a naturalistic setting. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23(11):1443–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Thase ME, Clayton AH, Haight BR, Thompson AH, Modell JG, Johnston JA. A double-blind comparison between bupropion XL and venlafaxine XR: sexual functioning, antidepressant efficacy, and tolerability. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26(5):482–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Masand PS, Gupta S. Long-term side effects of newer-generation antidepressants: SSRIS, venlafaxine, nefazodone, bupropion, and mirtazapine. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2002;14(3):175–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Khalifa M, Daleau P, Turseon DB. Block of sodium channels underlies unheraldded cardiac toxicity observed with the antidepressant agent venlafaxine. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998;30:A136.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lenox-Smith A, Greenstreet L, Burslem K, Knight C. Cost effectiveness of venlafaxine compared with generic fluoxetine or generic amitriptyline in major depressive disorder in the UK. Clin Drug Investig. 2009;29(3):173–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Holliday SM, Benfield P. Venlafaxine. Drugs. 1995;49(2):280–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schuller HM, Jull BA, Sheppard BJ, Plummer HK. Interaction of tobacco-specific toxicants with the neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and its associated mitogenic signal transduction pathway: potential role in lung carcinogenesis and pediatric lung disorders. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;393(1):265–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stead L, Hughes J. Can lobeline help people to quit smoking. Health. 2012;2:CD000124.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kitagawa H, Takenouchi T, Azuma R, Wesnes KA, Kramer WG, Clody DE, et al. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on cognitive function of multiple doses of GTS-21 in healthy, male volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28(3):542–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Johnstone TB, Hogenkamp DJ, Coyne L, Su J, Halliwell RF, Tran MB, et al. Modifying quinolone antibiotics yields new anxiolytics. Nat Med. 2004;10(1):31–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Crooks PA, Bardo MT, Dwoskin LP. Nicotinic receptor antagonists as treatments for nicotine abuse. Adv Pharmacol (San Diego, Calif). 2014;69:513–51.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Shytle R, Penny E, Silver A, Goldman J, Sanberg P. Mecamylamine (Inversine®): an old antihypertensive with new research directions. J Hum Hypertens. 2002;16(7):453–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rose J, Behm F, Westman E. Brand-switching and gender effects in mecamylamine/nicotine smoking cessation treatment. Nicotine Tob Res. 1999;1:286–7.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Leonard S, Adams CE. Smoking cessation and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(11):1877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Freedman R, Olincy A, Buchanan RW, Harris JG, Gold JM, Johnson L, et al. Initial phase 2 trial of a nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(8):1040–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tuan EW, Horti AG, Olson TT, Gao Y, Stockmeier CA, Al-Muhtasib N, et al. AT-1001 is a partial agonist with high affinity and selectivity at human and rat alpha3beta4 nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88(4):640–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Yoshimura RF, Hogenkamp DJ, Li WY, Tran MB, Belluzzi JD, Whittemore ER, et al. Negative allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors blocks nicotine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;323(3):907–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC, Levin ED, Stein RM, Ripka GV. Mecamylamine combined with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation beyond nicotine patch treatment alone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;56(1):86–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lancaster T, Stead LF. Mecamylamine (a nicotine antagonist) for smoking cessation. The Cochrane Library. 1998.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cucchiaro G, Xiao Y, Gonzalez-Sulser A, Kellar KJ. Analgesic effects of sazetidine-A, a new nicotinic cholinergic drug. Anesthesiology. 2008;109(3):512–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Smith RC, Singh A, Infante M, Khandat A, Kloos A. Effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine nasal spray on psychiatric symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27(3):479–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    West R. Glucose for smoking cessation. CNS drugs. 2001;15(4):261–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    West R, May S, McEwen A, McRobbie H, Hajek P, Vangeli E. A randomised trial of glucose tablets to aid smoking cessation. Psychopharmacology. 2010;207(4):631–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    McRobbie H, Hajek P. Effect of glucose on tobacco withdrawal symptoms in recent quitters using bupropion or nicotine replacement. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19(1):57–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Henningfield JE, Keenan RM. Nicotine delivery kinetics and abuse liability. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993;61(5):743–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Pentel PR, LeSage MG. New directions in nicotine vaccine design and use. Adv Pharmacol (San Diego, Calif). 2014;69:553–80.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Pravetoni M, Keyler DE, Pidaparthi RR, Carroll FI, Runyon SP, Murtaugh MP, et al. Structurally distinct nicotine immunogens elicit antibodies with non-overlapping specificities. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83(4):543–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    de Villiers SH, Cornish KE, Troska AJ, Pravetoni M, Pentel PR. Increased efficacy of a trivalent nicotine vaccine compared to a dose-matched monovalent vaccine when formulated with alum. Vaccine. 2013;31(52):6185–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    LeSage MG, Shelley D, Pravetoni M, Pentel PR. Enhanced attenuation of nicotine discrimination in rats by combining nicotine-specific antibodies with a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;102(1):157–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Selecta Biosciences. Recent news. Selecta Biosciences initiates phase 1 clinical study of SEL-068, a first-in-class synthetic nicotine vaccine for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. 2011. cited; Available from: http://www.selectabio.com/news/recent-news/Selecta-Biosciences-Initiates-Phase-1-Clinical-Study-of-SEL-068.cfm.
  152. 152.
    Brimijoin S, Shen X, Orson F, Kosten T. Prospects, promise and problems on the road to effective vaccines and related therapies for substance abuse. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12(3):323–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Cerny EH, Levy R, Mauel J, Mpandi M, Mutter M, Henzelin-Nkubana C, et al. Preclinical development of a vaccine ‘against smoking’. Onkologie. 2002;25(5):406–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Maurer P, Jennings GT, Willers J, Rohner F, Lindman Y, Roubicek K, et al. A therapeutic vaccine for nicotine dependence: preclinical efficacy, and phase I safety and immunogenicity. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35(7):2031–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Pravetoni M, Keyler DE, Raleigh MD, Harris AC, Lesage MG, Mattson CK, et al. Vaccination against nicotine alters the distribution of nicotine delivered via cigarette smoke inhalation to rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81(9):1164–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Satoskar SD, Keyler DE, LeSage MG, Raphael DE, Ross CA, Pentel PR. Tissue-dependent effects of immunization with a nicotine conjugate vaccine on the distribution of nicotine in rats. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003;3(7):957–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    LeSage MG, Keyler DE, Hieda Y, Collins G, Burroughs D, Le C, et al. Effects of a nicotine conjugate vaccine on the acquisition and maintenance of nicotine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology. 2006;184(3–4):409–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lindblom N, de Villiers SH, Kalayanov G, Gordon S, Johansson AM, Svensson TH. Active immunization against nicotine prevents reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats. Respiration. 2002;69(3):254–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Fahim RE, Kessler PD, Kalnik MW. Therapeutic vaccines against tobacco addiction. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12(3):333–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hatsukami DK, Jorenby DE, Gonzales D, Rigotti NA, Glover ED, Oncken CA, et al. Immunogenicity and smoking-cessation outcomes for a novel nicotine immunotherapeutic. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;89(3):392–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Tonstad S, Heggen E, Giljam H, Lagerback PA, Tonnesen P, Wikingsson LD, et al. Niccine(R), a nicotine vaccine, for relapse prevention: a phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15(9):1492–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Cornuz J, Zwahlen S, Jungi WF, Osterwalder J, Klingler K, van Melle G, et al. A vaccine against nicotine for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2008;3(6):e2547.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lockner JW, Lively JM, Collins KC, Vendruscolo JC, Azar MR, Janda KD. A conjugate vaccine using enantiopure hapten imparts superior nicotine-binding capacity. J Med Chem. 2015;58(2):1005–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hoogsteder PH, Kotz D, van Spiegel PI, Viechtbauer W, van Schayck OC. Efficacy of the nicotine vaccine 3′-AmNic-rEPA (NicVAX) co-administered with varenicline and counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Addiction. 2014;109(8):1252–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pittet L, Altreuter D, Ilyinskii P, Fraser C, Gao Y, Baldwin S, et al. Development and preclinical evaluation of SEL-068, a novel targeted synthetic vaccine particle (tSVP™) for smoking cessation and relapse prevention that generates high titers of antibodies against nicotine. J Immunol. 2012;188(Meeting Abstracts 1):75.11.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Desai RI, Bergman J. Effects of the nanoparticle-based vaccine, SEL-068, on nicotine discrimination in squirrel monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40(9):2207–16Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hatsukami DK, Rennard S, Jorenby D, Fiore M, Koopmeiners J, Vos A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a nicotine conjugate vaccine in current smokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;78(5):456–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gartner CE, Barendregt JJ, Wallace A, Hall WD. Would vaccination against nicotine be a cost-effective way to prevent smoking uptake in adolescents? Addiction. 2012;107(4):801–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Shen X, Orson FM, Kosten TR. Vaccines against drug abuse. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;91(1):60–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Raupach T, Hoogsteder PH, Onno van Schayck CP. Nicotine vaccines to assist with smoking cessation: current status of research. Drugs. 2012;72(4):e1–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hammond D, Reid JL, Driezen P, Cummings KM, Borland R, Fong GT, et al. Smokers’ use of nicotine replacement therapy for reasons other than stopping smoking: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey. Addiction. 2008;103(10):1696–703.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Buchhalter AR, Fant RV, Henningfield JE. Novel pharmacological approaches for treating tobacco dependence and withdrawal: current status. Drugs. 2008;68(8):1067–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Jackson A, Nesic J, Groombridge C, Clowry O, Rusted J, Duka T. Differential involvement of glutamatergic mechanisms in the cognitive and subjective effects of smoking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34(2):257–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Zona C, Ciotti MT, Avoli M. Topiramate attenuates voltage-gated sodium currents in rat cerebellar granule cells. Neurosci Lett. 1997;231(3):123–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Shinn AK, Greenfield SF. Topiramate in the treatment of substance related disorders: a critical review of the literature. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(5):634.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Simeone TA, Wilcox KS, White HS. Subunit selectivity of topiramate modulation of heteromeric GABAA receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50(7):845–57.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    McElroy SL, Hudson JI, Capece JA, Beyers K, Fisher AC, Rosenthal NR. Topiramate for the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a placebo-controlled study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(9):1039–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Paparrigopoulos T, Tzavellas E, Karaiskos D, Kourlaba G, Liappas I. Treatment of alcohol dependence with low-dose topiramate: an open-label controlled study. BMC psychiatry. 2011;11(1):41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Dunn KE, Marcus TF, Kim C, Schroeder JR, Vandrey R, Umbricht A. Zonisamide reduces withdrawal symptoms but does not enhance varenicline-induced smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015;17:2015.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kukkar A, Bali A, Singh N, Jaggi AS. Implications and mechanism of action of gabapentin in neuropathic pain. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36(3):237–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Parker DAS, Ong J, Marino V, Kerr DIB. Gabapentin activates presynaptic GABA B heteroreceptors in rat cortical slices. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;495(2–3):137–43.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Sofuoglu M, Mouratidis M, Yoo S, Culligan K, Kosten T. Effects of tiagabine in combination with intravenous nicotine in overnight abstinent smokers. Psychopharmacology. 2005;181(3):504–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Eckstein-Ludwig U, Fei J, Schwarz W. Inhibition of uptake, steady-state currents, and transient charge movements generated by the neuronal GABA transporter by various anticonvulsant drugs. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;128(1):92–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Romberger DJ, Grant K. Alcohol consumption and smoking status: the role of smoking cessation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2004;58(2):77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Grant BF, Hasin DS, Chou SP, Stinson FS, Dawson DA. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and relatedconditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(11):1107–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Baltieri DA, Daró FR, Ribeiro PL, de Andrade AG. Effects of topiramate or naltrexone on tobacco use among male alcohol-dependent outpatients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;105(1):33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Johnson BA, Ait-Daoud N, Akhtar FZ, Javors MA. Use of oral topiramate to promote smoking abstinence among alcohol-dependent smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(14):1600–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Anthenelli RM, Blom TJ, McElroy SL, Keck PE. Preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of topiramate as a potential aid to smoking cessation. Addiction. 2008;103(4):687–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Holes-Lewis KA, Malcolm R, O’Neil PM. Pharmacotherapy of obesity: clinical treatments and considerations. Am J Med Sci. 2013;345(4):284–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Oncken C, Arias AJ, Feinn R, Litt M, Covault J, Sofuoglu M, et al. Topiramate for smoking cessation: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014;16(3):288–96.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Addolorato G, Caputo F, Capristo E, Colombo G, Gessa GL, Gasbarrini G. Ability of baclofen in reducing alcohol craving and intake: II—preliminary clinical evidence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24(1):67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Franklin TR, Harper D, Kampman K, Kildea-McCrea S, Jens W, Lynch KG, et al. The GABA B agonist baclofen reduces cigarette consumption in a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled smoking reduction study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;103(1):30–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Leggio L, Zywiak WH, Edwards SM, Tidey JW, Swift RM, Kenna GA. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Psychopharmacology. 2015;232(1):233–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Myrick H, Malcolm R, Henderson S, McCormick K. Gabapentin for misuse of homemade nicotine nasal spray. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(3):498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    White WD, Crockford D, el-Guebaly N, Patten S. A randomized, open-label pilot comparison of gabapentin and bupropion SR for smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7(5):809–13.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Sood A, Ebbert JO, Schroeder DR, Croghan IT, Sood R, Vander Weg MW, et al. Gabapentin for smoking cessation: a preliminary investigation of efficacy. Nicotine Tob Research. 2007;9(2):291–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Sood A, Ebbert JO, Wyatt KD, Croghan IT, Schroeder DR, Sood R, et al. Gabapentin for smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(3):300–4.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Licata SC, Rowlett JK. Abuse and dependence liability of benzodiazepine-type drugs: GABA A receptor modulation and beyond. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;90(1):74–89.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Khazaal Y, Cornuz J, Bilancioni R, Zullino DF. Topiramate for smoking cessation. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006;60(3):384–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Verrotti A, Loiacono G, Di Sabatino F, Zaccara G. The adverse event profile of zonisamide: a meta-analysis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2013;128(5):297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Mula M. Topiramate and cognitive impairment: evidence and clinical implications. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2012;3(6):279–89.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kuehn BM. FDA warns of adverse events linked to smoking cessation drug and antiepileptics. JAMA. 2008;299(10):1121–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    NHS Cumbria Medicines Management Team. Pregablin or gabapentin for neuropathic pain? 2012. cited; Available from: http://www.cumbria.nhs.uk/ProfessionalZone/MedicinesManagement/Guidelines/Pregablin-for-neuropathic-pain.pdf.
  204. 204.
    Brown JS, Papadopoulos G, Neumann PJ, Price M, Friedman M, Menzin J. Cost-effectiveness of migraine prevention: the case of topiramate in the UK. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(12):1473–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Evins AE, Pachas G, Mischoulon D, Urbanoski K, Carlini S, Sousa J, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the NMDA glycine site antagonist, GW468816, for prevention of relapse to smoking in females. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31(5):597–602.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hara K, Sata T. Inhibitory effect of gabapentin on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51(1):122–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kim Y-S, Chang H-K, Lee J-W, Sung Y-H, Kim S-E, Shin M-S, et al. Protective effect of gabapentin on N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;109(1):144–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Yeh C-Y, Chung S-C, Tseng F-L, Tsai Y-C, Liu Y-C. Biphasic effects of chronic intrathecal gabapentin administration on the expression of protein kinase C gamma in the spinal cord of neuropathic pain rats. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2011;49(4):144–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Schmaal L, Berk L, Hulstijn KP, Cousijn J, Wiers RW, van Den Brink W. Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of nicotine dependence: a double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Eur Addict Res. 2011;17:211–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Baker DA, Xi ZX, Shen H, Swanson CJ, Kalivas PW. The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate. J Neurosci. 2002;22(20):9134–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Moran MM, McFarland K, Melendez RI, Kalivas PW, Seamans JK. Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking. J Neurosci. 2005;25(27):6389–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Varga V, Jenei Z, Janaky R, Saransaari P, Oja SS. Glutathione is an endogenous ligand of rat brain N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors. Neurochem Res. 1997;22(9):1165–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ogita K, Kitago T, Nakamuta H, Fukuda Y, Koida M, Ogawa Y, et al. Glutathione-induced inhibition of Na+-independent and -dependent bindings of L-[3H]glutamate in rat brain. Life Sci. 1986;39(25):2411–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Gere-Pászti E, Jakus J. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on amphetamine-mediated dopamine release in rat brain striatal slices by ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr. 2009;23(6):658–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Di Chiara G, Bassareo V. Reward system and addiction: what dopamine does and doesn’t do. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007;7(1):69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Popik P, Wrobel M, Rygula R, Bisaga A, Bespalov A. Effects of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, on place preference conditioned with drug and nondrug reinforcers in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2003;14(3):237–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Thuerauf N, Lunkenheimer J, Lunkenheimer B, Sperling W, Bleich S, Schlabeck M, et al. Memantine fails to facilitate partial cigarette deprivation in smokers—no role of memantine in the treatment of nicotine dependency? Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996). 2007;114(3):351–7.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Kavirajan H. Memantine: a comprehensive review of safety and efficacy. 2009;8(1):89–109.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    McClure EA, Gipson CD, Malcolm RJ, Kalivas PW, Gray KM. Potential role of N-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders. CNS drugs. 2014;28(2):95–106.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Kavirajan H. Memantine: a comprehensive review of safety and efficacy. 2009.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance. 2011;217.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Bisaga A, Popik P. In search of a new pharmacological treatment for drug and alcohol addiction: N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000;59(1):1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Dani JA. Roles of dopamine signaling in nicotine addiction. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8(3):255–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Hurt RD, Ahlskog JE, Croghan GA, Offord KP, Wolter TD, Croghan IT, et al. Carbidopa/levodopa for smoking cessation: a pilot study with negative results. Nicotine Tob Res. 2000;2(1):71–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Reinholz J, Skopp O, Breitenstein C, Bohr I, Winterhoff H, Knecht S. Compensatory weight gain due to dopaminergic hypofunction: new evidence and own incidental observations. Nutr Metab. 2008;5:35.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Jarvik ME, Caskey NH, Wirshing WC, Madsen DC, Iwamoto-Schaap PN, Elins JL. Bromocriptine reduces cigarette smoking. Addiction. 2000;95(8):1173–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Murphy MFG, Hey K, Johnstone E, Munafo M, Walton R, Willis B, et al. Bromocriptine use is associated with decreased smoking rates. Addict Biol. 2002;7(3):325–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Mugnaini M, Iavarone L, Cavallini P, Griffante C, Oliosi B, Savoia C, et al. Occupancy of brain dopamine D3 receptors and drug craving: a translational approach. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38(2):302–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Foulds J, Burke M, Steinberg M, Williams JM, Ziedonis DM. Advances in pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2004;9(1):39–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    The National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions. Parkinson’s Disease: Economic modelling—dopamine agonists. 2006. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg35/evidence/full-guideline-194930029.
  231. 231.
    Vengeliene V, Leonardi-Essmann F, Perreau-Lenz S, Gebicke-Haerter P, Drescher K, Gross G, et al. The dopamine D3 receptor plays an essential role in alcohol-seeking and relapse. FASEB J. 2006;20(13):2223–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Benowitz NL. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment. Am J Med. 2008;121(4 Suppl 1):S3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Ray R, Rukstalis M, Jepson C, Strasser A, Patterson F, Lynch K, et al. Effects of atomoxetine on subjective and neurocognitive symptoms of nicotine abstinence. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23(2):168–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Garnock-Jones KP, Keating GM. Atomoxetine: a review of its use in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Paediatr Drugs. 2009;11(3):203–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    McCarty M, O’Keefe J, DiNicolantonio J. Carvedilol and spirulina may provide important health protection to smokers and other nicotine addicts: a call for pertinent research. Mo Med. 2014;112(1):72–5.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Klimek V, Zhu M-Y, Dilley G, Konick L, Overholser JC, Meltzer HY, et al. Effects of long-term cigarette smoking on the human locus coeruleus. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(9):821–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Page ME. The promises and pitfalls of reboxetine. CNS Drug Rev. 2003;9(4):327–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Gehricke J-G, Hong N, Wigal TL, Chan V, Doan A. ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98(3):485–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Sacco KA, Creeden C, Reutenauer EL, Vessicchio JC, Weinberger AH, George TP. Effects of atomoxetine on cognitive function and cigarette smoking in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2009;107(2):332–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Silverstone PH, Dadashova R. Atomoxetine treatment for nicotine withdrawal: a pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in adult smokers. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2012;11(1):1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sofuoglu M, Mouratidis M, Yoo S, Kosten T. Adrenergic blocker carvedilol attenuates the cardiovascular and aversive effects of nicotine in abstinent smokers. Behav Pharmacol. 2006;17(8):731–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Sofuoglu M, Babb D, Hatsukami DK. Labetalol treatment enhances the attenuation of tobacco withdrawal symptoms by nicotine in abstinent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5(6):947–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Bond RA, Glass M. Use of beta-adrenergic inverse agonists for smoking cessation. Google Patents; 2012.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Rauhut AS, Mullins SN, Dwoskin LP, Bardo MT. Reboxetine: attenuation of intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;303(2):664–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Miller DK, Wong EH, Chesnut MD, Dwoskin LP. Reboxetine: functional inhibition of monoamine transporters and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;302(2):687–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Wong E. Method of promoting smoking cessation. Google Patents; 2003.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Dadashova R, Silverstone PH. Off-label use of atomoxetine in adults: is it safe? Mental Illn. 2012;4(2):319.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Keating GM, Jarvis B. Carvedilol. Drugs. 2003;63(16):1697–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Ollivier J, Durier P, Bussiere J, Gayet J. Safety and efficacy of once-daily carvedilol vs twice-daily labetalol in mild to moderate hypertension. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;38(2):S164–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Mucci M. Reboxetine: a review of antidepressant tolerability. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford, England). 1996;11(4 Suppl):S33–7.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Dorset NHS. Shared care guideline for the use of atomoxetine in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. 2010. cited; Available from: http://www.dorsetccg.nhs.uk/Downloads/aboutus/medicines-management/Shared%20Care%20Guidelines/Shared%20care%20guideline%20for%20Atomoxetine%20use%20in%20adults%202010.pdf.
  252. 252.
    NICE. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions to increase uptake and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes. 2013. cited; Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG172/documents/mi-secondary-prevention-update-appendices-l-n2.
  253. 253.
    Lakshmi SP, Reddy AT, Zhang Y, Sciurba FC, Mallampalli RK, Duncan SR, et al. Down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in lung epithelial cells promotes a PPARgamma agonist-reversible proinflammatory phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). J Biol Chem. 2014;289(10):6383–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Adis Insight. OMS 405. 2012. cited; Available from: http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800035962.
  255. 255.
    Ciccocioppo R. Compositions and methods for prophylaxis and treatment of addictions. Google Patents; 2009.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Lakshmi SP, Reddy AT, Zhang Y, Sciurba FC, Mallampalli RK, Duncan SR, et al. Down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in lung epithelial cells promotes a PPARγ agonist-reversible proinflammatory phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). J Biol Chem. 2014;289(10):6383–93.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Keith RL. Lung cancer chemoprevention. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2012;9(2):52–6.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Levin D, Bell S, Sund R, Hartikainen S, Tuomilehto J, Pukkala E, et al. Pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk: a multipopulation pooled, cumulative exposure analysis. Diabetologia. 2015;58(3):493–504.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Home P. Safety of PPAR agonists. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 2):S215–S9.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Czoski-Murray C, Warren E, Chilcott J, Beverely C, Psyllaki MA, Cowan J. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of pioglita-zone and rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Health Technol Assess. 8(13);1–91.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Higgins GA, Sellers EM, Fletcher PJ. From obesity to substance abuse: therapeutic opportunities for 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;34(10):560–70.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Bieley HC. Smoking cessation with body weight maintenance and nutritional supplement. Google Patents; 2014.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Levin ED, Johnson JE, Slade S, Wells C, Cauley M, Petro A, et al. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT2C agonist, decreases nicotine self-administration in female rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;338(3):890–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Higgins GA, Silenieks LB, Roßmann A, Rizos Z, Noble K, Soko AD, et al. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces nicotine self-administration, discrimination, and reinstatement: relationship to feeding behavior and impulse control. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37(5):1177–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Guy EG, Fisher DC, Higgins GA, Fletcher PJ. Examination of the effects of varenicline, bupropion, lorcaserin, or naltrexone on responding for conditioned reinforcement in nicotine-exposed rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2014;25(8):775–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Eisai. News release: lorcaserin meets primary endpoint and confirms proof-of-concept as potential aid for smoking cessation in investigational phase II clinical study. 2014. cited; Available from: http://www.eisai.com/news/news201465.html.
  267. 267.
    Shanahan W, Rose JE, Glicklich A, Stubbe S, Halliday D, Zhang J, et al. Lorcaserin for smoking cessation treatment in cigarette smokers: a randomized phase 2 trial. Denver: American Thoracic Society 2015 International Conference; 2015.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Hiatt WR, Thomas A, Goldfine AB. What cost weight loss? Circulation. 2012;125(9):1171–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Finkelstein EA, Kruger E. Meta- and cost-effectiveness analysis of commercial weight loss strategies. Obesity. 2014;22(9):1942–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Farid P, Abate MA. Buspirone use for smoking cessation. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(12):1362–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Del Core MG, Sketch MH Sr. Effect of buspirone on withdrawal symptoms associated with smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(2):350–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Cropp CD, Gora-Harper ML. Ondansetron use for smoking cessation. Ann Pharmacother. 1995;29(10):1041–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Lader M. Assessing the potential for buspirone dependence or abuse and effects of its withdrawal. Am J Med. 1987;82(5):20–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    West R, Hajek P. Randomised controlled trial of ondansetron in smoking cessation. Psychopharmacology. 1996;126(1):95–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Newton RE, Marunycz JD, Alderdice MT, Napoliello MJ. Pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of a non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic: review of the side-effect profile of buspirone. Am J Med. 1986;80(3):17–21.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Constantino-Casas P, Leon-Gonzalez G, Nevarez-Sida A, Valencia-Huarte E, Garcia-Contreras F. [Cost-effectiveness of anxiolytics in anxiety disorders]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2010;48(3):303–8.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Awtry TL, Werling LL. Acute and chronic effects of nicotine on serotonin uptake in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. Synapse. 2003;50(3):206–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Brown RA, Niaura R, Lloyd-Richardson EE, Strong DR, Kahler CW, Abrantes AM, et al. Bupropion and cognitive–behavioral treatment for depression in smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9(7):721–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Spring B, Doran N, Pagoto S, McChargue D, Cook JW, Bailey K, et al. Fluoxetine, smoking, and history of major depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2007;75(1):85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Minami H, Kahler CW, Bloom EL, Strong DR, Abrantes AM, Zywiak WH, et al. Effects of depression history and sex on the efficacy of sequential versus standard fluoxetine for smoking cessation in elevated depressive symptom smokers. Addict Disord Treat. 2015;14(1):29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Blondal T, Gudmundsson LJ, Tomasson K, Jonsdottir D, Hilmarsdottir H, Kristjansson F, et al. The effects of fluoxetine combined with nicotine inhalers in smoking cessation—a randomized trial. Addiction. 1999;94(7):1007–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Covey LS, Glassman AH, Stetner F, Rivelli S, Stage K. A randomized trial of sertraline as a cessation aid for smokers with a history of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(10):1731–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Niaura R, Spring B, Borrelli B, Hedeker D, Goldstein MG, Keuthen N, et al. Multicenter trial of fluoxetine as an adjunct to behavioral smoking cessation treatment. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(4):887.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Demyttenaere K, Jaspers L. Review: bupropion and SSRI-induced side effects. J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22(7):792–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Peveler R, Kendrick T, Buxton M, Longworth L, Baldwin D, Moore M, et al. A randomised controlled trial to compare the cost-effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lofepramine. Health Technol Assess. 2005;9(16):1–134, iii.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Byford S, Barrett B, Roberts C, Wilkinson P, Dubicka B, Kelvin RG, et al. Cost-effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and routine specialist care with and without cognitive–behavioural therapy in adolescents with major depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191(6):521–7.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Kendrick T, Peveler R, Longworth L, Baldwin D, Moore M, Chatwin J, et al. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lofepramine. Randomised controlled trial. 2006;188(4):337–45.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Lancaster T, Stead LF. Silver acetate for smoking cessation. Cochrane Libr. 2012;9:CD000191.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Jensen EJ, Schmidt E, Pedersen B, Dahl R. Effect on smoking cessation of silver acetate, nicotine and ordinary chewing gum. Psychopharmacology. 1991;104(4):470–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicobrevin for smoking cessation. Cochrane Libr. 2006;19(2):CD005990.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    MHRA. MHRA UK public assessment report: Nicobrevin: withdrawn from UK market as risks outweigh benefits. 2011. cited; Available from: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/s-par/documents/websiteresources/con114612.pdf.
  292. 292.
    Wanwimolruk S, Wong S, Coville P, Viriyayudhakorn S, Thitiarchakul S. Cigarette smoking enhances the elimination of quinine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1993;36(6):610–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Ballon JS, Feifel D. A systematic review of modafinil: potential clinical uses and mechanisms of action. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(4):554–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Gerrard P, Malcolm R. Mechanisms of modafinil: a review of current research. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2007;3(3):349–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Lerman C, Roth D, Kaufmann V, Audrain J, Hawk L, Liu A, et al. Mediating mechanisms for the impact of bupropion in smoking cessation treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;67(2):219–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Schnoll RA, Wileyto EP, Pinto A, Leone F, Gariti P, Siegel S, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for nicotine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;98(1):86–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Sofuoglu M, Waters AJ, Mooney M. Modafinil and nicotine interactions in abstinent smokers. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2008;23(1):21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Martin CA, Lile J, Guenthner G, Anestis JC, Batten SR, Kelly TH. Behavioral effects of modafinil and nicotine, alone and in combination, in tobacco-deprived young adult smokers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014;34(2):278–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Schnoll RA, Wileyto EP, Pinto A, Leone F, Gariti P, Siegel S, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for nicotine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;98(1–2):86–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Shearer J, Shanahan M, Darke S, Rodgers C, Van Beek I, McKetin R, et al. A cost-effectiveness analysis of modafinil therapy for psychostimulant dependence. Drug Alcohol Review. 2010;29(3):235–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Fowler JS, Logan J, Wang GJ, Volkow ND. Monoamine oxidase and cigarette smoking. Neurotoxicology. 2003;24(1):75–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Sarginson JE, Killen JD, Lazzeroni LC, Fortmann SP, Ryan HS, Ameli N, et al. Response to transdermal selegiline smoking cessation therapy and markers in the 15q24 chromosomal region. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015;17(9):1126–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Mospan C. Updates in pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. J Nurse Pract. 2016;12(6):421–2.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    George TP, Vessicchio JC, Termine A, Jatlow PI, Kosten TR, O’Malley SS. A preliminary placebo-controlled trial of selegiline hydrochloride for smoking cessation. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53(2):136–43.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Kahn R, Gorgon L, Jones K, McSherry F, Glover ED, Anthenelli RM, et al. Selegiline transdermal system (STS) as an aid for smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14(3):377–82.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Berlin I, Said S, Spreux-Varoquaux O, Launay JM, Olivares R, Millet V, et al. A reversible monoamine oxidase A inhibitor (moclobemide) facilitates smoking cessation and abstinence in heavy, dependent smokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995;58(4):444–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Wimbiscus M, Kostenko O, Malone D. MAO inhibitors: risks, benefits, and lore. Cleve Clin J Med. 2010;77(12):859–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    David SP, Lancaster T, Stead LF, Evins AE, Cahill K. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Libr. 2006;6(6):CD003086.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Berrettini W. Opioid neuroscience for addiction medicine: from animal models to FDA approval for alcohol addiction. Prog Brain Res. 2016;223:253–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Farley AC, Hajek P, Lycett D, Aveyard P. Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD006219.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Mooney ME, Poling J, Gonzalez G, Gonsai K, Kosten T, Sofuoglu M. Preliminary study of buprenorphine and bupropion for opioid-dependent smokers. Am J Addict. 2008;17(4):287–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Benyamin R, Trescot AM, Datta S, Buenaventura R, Adlaka R, Sehgal N, et al. Opioid complications and side effects. Pain Physician. 2008;11(2 Suppl):S105–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    O’Mahony S, Coyle N, Payne R. Current management of opioid-related side effects. Oncology (Williston Park, NY). 2001;15(1):61–73, 7 (discussion 7–8, 80–2).Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    De Lima L, Sweeney C, Palmer JL, Bruera E. Potent analgesics are more expensive for patients in developing countries: a comparative study. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2004;18(1):59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Van Gaal LF, Rissanen AM, Scheen AJ, Ziegler O, Rössner S, Group R-ES. Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study. Lancet. 2005;365(9468):1389–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Boekholdt SM, Peters RJ. Rimonabant: obituary for a wonder drug. Lancet. 2010;376(9740):489–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Cahill K, Ussher Michael H. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Steinberg MB, Foulds J. Rimonabant for treating tobacco dependence. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(3):307–11.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Cahill K, Ussher M. Can cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists help smokers to quit, and could they also reduce the amount of weight gained during the quitting process? 2012;3:CD005353.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Neovius M, Narbro K. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological anti-obesity treatments: a systematic review. Int J Obesity. 2008;32(12):1752–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Falk W, Pollack MH, Cohen L, Cohen B, et al. The antidepressant potential of oral S-adenosyl-l-methionine*. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990;81(5):432–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Butterweck V. Mechanism of action of St John’s wort in depression: what is known? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(8):539–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Rapaport MH, Nierenberg AA, Howland R, Dording C, Schettler PJ, Mischoulon D. The treatment of minor depression with St. John’s wort or citalopram: failure to show benefit over placebo. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(7):931–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Najm WI, Reinsch S, Hoehler F, Tobis JS, Harvey PW. S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) versus celecoxib for the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms: a double-blind cross-over trial. [ISRCTN36233495]. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2004;26(5):6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Yang J, He Y, Du YX, Tang LL, Wang GJ, Fawcett JP. Pharmacokinetic properties of S-adenosylmethionine after oral and intravenous administration of its tosylate disulfate salt: a multiple-dose, open-label, parallel-group study in healthy Chinese volunteers. Clin Ther. 2009;31(2):311–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Fornal CA, Metzler CW, Mirescu C, Stein SK, Jacobs BL. Effects of standardized extracts of St. John’s wort on the single-unit activity of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in awake cats: comparisons with fluoxetine and sertraline. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25(6):858–70.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Parsons A, Ingram J, Inglis J, Aveyard P, Johnstone E, Brown K, et al. A proof of concept randomised placebo controlled factorial trial to examine the efficacy of St John’s wort for smoking cessation and chromium to prevent weight gain on smoking cessation. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;102(1):116–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Sood A, Ebbert JO, Prasad K, Croghan IT, Bauer B, Schroeder DR. A randomized clinical trial of St. John’s wort for smoking cessation. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(7):761–7.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Sood A, Prasad K, Croghan IT, Schroeder DR, Ehlers SL, Ebbert JO. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) for smoking abstinence: a randomized clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(9):854–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Green T, Steingart L, Frisch A, Zarchi O, Weizman A, Gothelf D. The feasibility and safety of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Neural Transm. 2012;119(11):1417–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Hall SD, Wang Z, Huang SM, Hamman MA, Vasavada N, Adigun AQ, et al. The interaction between St John’s wort and an oral contraceptive. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003;74(6):525–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Mischoulon D, Fava M. Role of S-adenosyl-l-methionine in the treatment of depression: a review of the evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(5):1158S–61S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Gaster B, Holroyd J. St John’s wort for depression: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(2):152–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Jacobs MA, Spilken AZ, Norman MM, Wohlberg GW, Knapp PH. Interaction of personality and treatment conditions associated with success in a smoking control program. Psychosom Med. 1971;33(6):545–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Edwards NB, Murphy JK, Downs AD, Ackerman BJ, Rosenthal TL. Doxepin as an adjunct to smoking cessation: a double-blind pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146(3):373–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Pinder RM, Brogden RN, Speight TM, Avery GS. Doxepin up-to-date: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy with particular reference to depression. Drugs. 1977;13(3):161–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Mann A, Catterson A, MacPherson A. Toxicity of imipramine: report on serious side effects and massive overdosage. Can Med Assoc J. 1959;81(1):23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Revicki DA, Brown RE, Keller MB, Gonzales J, Culpepper L, Hales RE. Cost-effectiveness of newer antidepressants compared with tricyclic antidepressants in managed care settings. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(2):47–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Qiumei W, Xiaoxue W. Cost-effectiveness analysis of three therapeutic regimens for depression. China Pharm. 2005;1:027.Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Pine-Abata H, McNeill A, Murray R, Bitton A, Rigotti N, Raw M. A survey of tobacco dependence treatment services in 121 countries. Addiction. 2013;108(8):1476–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Perngparn U, Assanangkornchai S, Pilley C, Aramrattana A. Drug and alcohol services in middle-income countries. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008;21(3):229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Raw M, McNeill A, Murray R. Case studies of tobacco dependence treatment in Brazil, England, India, South Africa and Uruguay. Addiction. 2010;105(10):1721–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Hao W, Chen H, Su Z. China: alcohol today. Addiction. 2005;100(6):737–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    West R, May S, West M, Croghan E, McEwen A. Performance of English stop smoking services in first 10 years: analysis of service monitoring data. 2013;347:f4921.Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Public Health England. Alcohol treatment in England 2013–14. 2014. cited; Available from: http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/adult-alcohol-statistics-2013-14-commentary.pdf.
  346. 346.
    Stead LF, Lancaster T. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:Cd008286.Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Kotz D, Brown J, West R. ‘Real-world’ effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study. Addiction. 2014;109(3):491–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Kotz D, Fidler J, West R. Factors associated with the use of aids to cessation in English smokers. Addiction. 2009;104(8):1403–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    West R, Brown J. Theory of addiction. Wiley; 2013.Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Perkins KA. Improving efficiency of initial tests for efficacy in smoking cessation drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2014;9(11):1259–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Kaper J, Wagena E, Willemsen M, Van Schayck C. Reimbursement for smoking cessation treatment may double the abstinence rate: results of a randomized trial. Addiction. 2005;100(7):1012–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Bertram MY, Lim SS, Wallace AL, Vos T. Costs and benefits of smoking cessation aids: making a case for public reimbursement of nicotine replacement therapy in Australia. Tob Control. 2007;16(4):255–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Beard E, Vangeli E, Michie S, West R. The use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction and temporary abstinence: an interview study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;14(7):849–56.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Foulds J. [Commentary] Improving NRT labeling and correcting public misperceptions. Addiction. 2008;103(8):1379–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Brose LS, West R, McDermott MS, Fidler JA, Croghan E, McEwen A. What makes for an effective stop-smoking service? Thorax. 2011;66(10):924–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Mills EJ, Wu P, Lockhart I, Thorlund K, Puhan M, Ebbert JO. Comparisons of high-dose and combination nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, and bupropion for smoking cessation: a systematic review and multiple treatment meta-analysis. Ann Med. 2012;44(6):588–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Hajek P, Smith KM, Dhanji A-R, McRobbie H. Is a combination of varenicline and nicotine patch more effective in helping smokers quit than varenicline alone? A randomised controlled trial. BMC Med. 2013;11(1):140.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Ramon JM, Morchon S, Baena A, Masuet-Aumatell C. Combining varenicline and nicotine patches: a randomized controlled trial study in smoking cessation. BMC Med. 2014;12(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Ebbert JO, Hatsukami DK, Croghan IT, et al. Combination varenicline and bupropion SR for tobacco-dependence treatment in cigarette smokers: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2014;311(2):155–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Benowitz N. Nicotine replacement therapy: what has been accomplished: can we do better? Drugs. 1993;45(2):157–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Stead Lindsay F, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Hartmann-Boyce J, Cahill K, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Wiley; 2012.Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    West R, Hajek P, Foulds J, Nilsson F, May S, Meadows A. A comparison of the abuse liability and dependence potential of nicotine patch, gum, spray and inhaler. Psychopharmacology. 2000;149(3):198–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Greenland S, Satterfield MH, Lanes SF. A meta-analysis to assess the incidence of adverse effects associated with the transdermal nicotine patch. Drug Saf. 1998;18(4):297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Joseph AM, Norman SM, Ferry LH, Prochazka AV, Westman EC, Steele BG, et al. The safety of transdermal nicotine as an aid to smoking cessation in patients with cardiac disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(24):1792–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Meine TJ, Patel MR, Washam JB, Pappas PA, Jollis JG. Safety and effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patch in smokers admitted with acute coronary syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95(8):976–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Mills EJ, Wu P, Lockhart I, Wilson K, Ebbert JO. Adverse events associated with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. A systematic review and meta-analysis of one hundred and twenty studies involving 177,390 individuals. Tob Induc Dis. 2010;8(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    ASH. Nicotine replacement therapy, VAT reduction and sales of NRT. 2007. cited; Available from: http://www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_696.pdf.
  368. 368.
    Jha P, Peto R, Zatonski W, Boreham J, Jarvis MJ, Lopez AD. Social inequalities in male mortality, and in male mortality from smoking: indirect estimation from national death rates in England and Wales, Poland, and North America. Lancet. 2006;368(9533):367–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Shahab L, McEwen A. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. NCSCT. 2012. cited; Available from: http://www.ncsct.co.uk/usr/pub/B7_Cost-effectiveness_pharmacotherapy.pdf.
  370. 370.
    ASH. Key dates in the history of anti-tobacco campaigning. cited; Available from: http://www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_741.pdf.
  371. 371.
    McRobbie H, Hajek P. Nicotine replacement therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease: guidelines for health professionals. Addiction. 2001;96(11):1547–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Shiffman S, Di Marino ME, Sweeney CT. Characteristics of selectors of nicotine replacement therapy. Tob Control. 2005;14(5):346–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Silla K, Beard E, Shahab L. Characterization of long-term users of nicotine replacement therapy: evidence from a national survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014;16(8):1050–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Hajek P, West R, Foulds J, Nilsson F, Burrows S, Meadow A. Randomized comparative trial of nicotine polacrilex, a transdermal patch, nasal spray, and an inhaler. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(17):2033–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Gonzales D, Bjornson W, Durcan MJ, White JD, Johnston JA, Buist AS, et al. Effects of gender on relapse prevention in smokers treated with bupropion SR. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4):234–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Brose LS, West R, McDermott MS, Fidler JA, Croghan E, McEwen A. What makes for an effective stop-smoking service? Thorax. 2011;27:2011.Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Gilpin EA, Messer K, Pierce JP. Population effectiveness of pharmaceutical aids for smoking cessation: what is associated with increased success? Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8(5):661–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Perkins KA. Issues in the prevention of weight gain after smoking cessation. Ann Behav Med. 1994;16:46–52.Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Medicines Control Agency. Zyban (bupropion hydrocholride)—safety update. 2002. cited; Available from: http://www.mca.gov.uk/ourwork/monitorsafequalmed/safetymessages/zyban26702.pdf.
  380. 380.
    West R, McNeill A, Raw M. Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals: an update. Thorax. 2000;55(12):987–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Woolacott N, Jones L, Forbes C, Mather L, Sowden A, Song F, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2002;6(16):245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Annemans L, Nackaerts K, Bartsch P, Prignot J, Marbaix S. Cost effectiveness of varenicline in Belgium, compared with bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy, brief counselling and unaided smoking cessation. Clin Drug Investig. 2009;29(10):655–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Shearer J, Shanahan M. Cost effectiveness analysis of smoking cessation interventions. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2006;30(5):428–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Woolacott NF, Jones L, Forbes CA, Mather LC, Sowden AJ, Song FJ, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2002;6(16):1–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Department of Health. Statistics on NHS stop smoking services in England. 2006. cited; Available from: http://www.ic/nhs/pubs/nhsstopsmokingstats2005to2006q4.
  386. 386.
    Aveyard P, West R. Managing smoking cessation. BMJ. 2007;335(7609):37–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Hurt RD, Sachs DP, Glover ED, Offord KP, Johnston JA, Dale LC, et al. A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(17):1195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Balmford J, Borland R, Hammond D, Cummings KM. Adherence to and reasons for premature discontinuation from stop-smoking medications: data from the ITC Four-Country Survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13(2):94–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Aubin H-J, Bobak A, Britton JR, Oncken C, Billing CB, Gong J, et al. Varenicline versus transdermal nicotine patch for smoking cessation: results from a randomised open-label trial. Thorax. 2008;63(8):717–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Tashkin DP, Rennard S, Hays JT, Ma W, Lawrence D, Lee TC. Effects of varenicline on smoking cessation in patients with mild to moderate COPD: a randomized controlled trial. Chest Journal. 2011;139(3):591–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Warnier MJ, van Riet EE, Rutten FH, De Bruin ML, Sachs AP. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2012;4(3);727–34.Google Scholar
  392. 392.
    Kaduri P, Voci S, Zawertailo L, Chaiton M, McKenzie K, Selby P. Real-world effectiveness of varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy in patients with and without psychiatric disorders. J Addict Med. 2015;9(3):169–76.Google Scholar
  393. 393.
    Ebbert JO, Croghan IT, Sood A, Schroeder DR, Hays JT, Hurt RD. Varenicline and bupropion sustained-release combination therapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(3):234–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Strong safety signal seen for new varenicline risks. 2012. cited; Available from: www.ismp.org/docs/vareniclinestudy.asp.
  395. 395.
    Singh S, Loke YK, Spangler JG, Furberg CD. Risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events associated with varenicline: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can Med Assoc J. 2011;183(12):1359–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Harrison-Woolrych M, Maggo S, Tan M, Savage R, Ashton J. Cardiovascular events in patients taking varenicline. Drug Saf. 2012;35(1):33–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Svanstrom H, Pasternak B, Hviid A. Use of varenicline for smoking cessation and risk of serious cardiovascular events: nationwide cohort study. BMJ. 2012;345:e7176.Google Scholar
  398. 398.
    Farrell M, Howes S, Bebbington P, Brugha T, Jenkins R, Lewis G, et al. Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity: results of a national household survey. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;179(5):432–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Gunnell D, Irvine D, Wise L, Davies C, Martin R. Varenicline and suicidal behaviour: a cohort study based on data from the General Practice Research Database. BMJ. 2009;339:b3805. Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Thomas KH, Martin RM, Davies NM, Metcalfe C, Windmeijer F, Gunnell D. Smoking cessation treatment and risk of depression, suicide, and self harm in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2013;347:f5704.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Buggy Y, Cornelius V, Fogg C, Kasliwal R, Layton D, Shakir SA. Neuropsychiatric events with varenicline: a modified prescription-event monitoring study in general practice in England. Drug Saf. 2013;36(7):521–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Tonstad S, Davies S, Flammer M, Russ C, Hughes J. Psychiatric adverse events in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of varenicline. Drug Saf. 2010;33(4):289–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Kotz D, Viechtbauer W, Simpson C, van Schayck OCP, West R, Sheikh A. Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric risks of varenicline: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3(10):761–8.Google Scholar
  404. 404.
    Bolin K, Wilson K, Benhaddi H, De Nigris E, Marbaix S, Mork A-C, et al. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline compared with nicotine patches for smoking cessation—results from four European countries. Eur J Public Health. 2009;19(6):650–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Zimovetz EA, Wilson K, Samuel M, Beard SM. A review of cost-effectiveness of varenicline and comparison of cost-effectiveness of treatments for major smoking-related morbidities. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17(2):288–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Mahmoudi M, Coleman CI, Sobieraj DM. Systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of varenicline vs. bupropion for smoking cessation. Int J Clin Pract. 2012;66(2):171–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Hoogendoorn M, Welsing P, Rutten-van Mölken MP. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline compared with bupropion, NRT, and nortriptyline for smoking cessation in the Netherlands. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24(1):51–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Liberman JN, Lichtenfeld MJ, Galaznik A, Mastey V, Harnett J, Zou KH, et al. Adherence to varenicline and associated smoking cessation in a community-based patient setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2013;19(2):125–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Hays JT, Leischow SJ, Lawrence D, Lee TC. Adherence to treatment for tobacco dependence: Association with smoking abstinence and predictors of adherence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(6):574–81. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emma Beard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lion Shahab
    • 1
  • Damian M. Cummings
    • 3
  • Susan Michie
    • 2
  • Robert West
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthCancer Research UK Health Behaviour Research Centre, University College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Clinical, Educational and Health PsychologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and PharmacologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations