CNS Drugs

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 259–272

Management of Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease

Therapy in Practice


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects approximately 1 % of people over the age of 60 years. Accurate diagnosis and individualized assessment of the risks and benefits of available antiparkinsonian medications as well as specific clinical features and the phase of disease should guide treatment for patients with PD. Levodopa still remains the gold standard for the treatment of motor symptoms of PD but dopamine agonists (DAs), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors have also been developed to provide more continuous oral delivery of dopaminergic stimulation in order to improve motor outcomes and decrease the risk of levodopa-induced motor complications. Deep-brain stimulation as well as other invasive therapies can be used for the treatment of drug-refractory levodopa-induced motor complications. Despite all of the therapeutic advances achieved within the last 20 years, PD continues to be a progressive disorder leading to severe disability caused by motor and non-motor symptoms. To date, neuroprotective interventions able to modify PD progression are not available. This review focuses on medical and invasive treatment strategies for early and advanced stages of PD as well as on the treatment of PD non-motor symptoms such as mood and behavioural disorders, cognitive and autonomic dysfunction, and sleep disorders, which can antedate PD motor symptoms for years.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyInnsbruck Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria

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