Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Drug Interaction Profile of Doravirine
Doravirine is a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that has demonstrated good efficacy, tolerability, and safety for the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in phase III clinical trials. Doravirine achieved non-inferiority when compared with efavirenz- and darunavir/ritonavir-based regimens. Fewer adverse effects, including neuropsychiatric effects were observed with doravirine compared with efavirenz. Key pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics as well as drug–drug interactions and the resistance profile were assessed in this clinical review. Doravirine is a pyridinone NNRTI with potent antiviral activity against wild-type HIV-1 virus and common NNRTI variants. Studies in healthy volunteers and HIV-infected individuals have shown that doravirine has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile for once-daily dosing, with an elimination half-life of around 15 h, median time to maximum plasma concentrations of 1–4 h, and time to steady-state concentration of 7 days. The pharmacokinetics of doravirine are not greatly influenced by sex, age, race, or hepatic impairment. Although no dose adjustment is required for doravirine in renal impairment when given as a single tablet, the fixed-dose combination tablet of doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is not recommended in patients with a creatinine clearance of < 50 mL/min. Doravirine has a low potential for drug–drug interactions and does not impact on the pharmacokinetics of other drugs. However, it is metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes and is thus susceptible to interactions with CYP3A inhibitors and inducers. Strong CYP3A inhibitors can significantly increase doravirine exposure; however, this is not considered to be clinically relevant. Conversely, strong CYP3A inducers, such as rifampin, are contraindicated with doravirine owing to a significant reduction in exposure with potential for impaired virological efficacy. Moderate CYP3A inducers, such as rifabutin, may be co-administered if the doravirine dose is increased to 100 mg twice daily. Doravirine has a unique resistance profile and has demonstrated in vitro activity against some of the most common, clinically relevant NNRTI-resistant mutations. Prevalence of baseline NNRTI resistance to doravirine appears to be low in treatment-naïve cohorts. Further data on the efficacy of doravirine in patients with previous treatment experience and/or transmitted NNRTI resistance are required to further inform its place in the current armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of HIV infection.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No sources of funding were received for the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Alison Boyle has received honoraria for lectures from Gilead. Catherine E. Moss has no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article. Catia Marzolini has received research funding from Gilead and honoraria for lectures from MSD. Saye Khoo has received support from ViiV Healthcare, Gilead Sciences, Merck, and Janssen for research, and for the Liverpool Drug Interactions resource.
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