Clinical Pharmacokinetics

, Volume 58, Issue 11, pp 1373–1391 | Cite as

Phenotyping of Human CYP450 Enzymes by Endobiotics: Current Knowledge and Methodological Approaches

  • Gaëlle Magliocco
  • Aurélien Thomas
  • Jules Desmeules
  • Youssef DaaliEmail author
Review Article


Drug response is subject to an important within- and between-individual variability owing, mainly, to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors. Pharmacokinetics includes metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP450), major enzymes of phase I reactions that are responsible for the biotransformation of around 60% of the currently approved drugs. CYP450 activity and/or expression are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as drug–drug interactions or genetic polymorphisms. Present phenotyping strategies with xenobiotics used to assess CYP450 activity could be replaced by less invasive procedures using endogenous CYP450 biomarkers. In this work, we review existing knowledge on endobiotics and their ability to characterise variability of the CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes in humans. To date, it appears that there is a lack of clinical data for the majority of the endogenous compounds described in the literature or some important limitations to allow their use in clinical practice. Additional studies are needed to fill the gap or to identify new candidates, in particular through the use of metabolomics. The use of multivariate models is also a very promising approach to enhance prediction by combining several endogenous phenotyping metrics and other covariates.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No funding has been received for the preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Gaëlle Magliocco, Aurélien Thomas, Jules Desmeules and Youssef Daali have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Clinical Pharmacology and ToxicologyGeneva University HospitalsGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Geneva-Lausanne School of PharmacyUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Unit of ToxicologyCURMLLausanne-GenevaSwitzerland
  4. 4.Swiss Center for Applied Human ToxicologyGenevaSwitzerland
  5. 5.Faculty of Biology and Medicine, Lausanne University HospitalUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  6. 6.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

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