Applied Health Economics and Health Policy

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 369–379 | Cite as

Impact of a Dynamic Microbiological Environment on the Clinical Efficacy of Ertapenem and Piperacillin/Tazobactam in the Treatment of Complicated Community-Acquired Intra-Abdominal Infection in Spain: A Cost-Consequence Analysis

  • Santiago Grau
  • Virginia Lozano
  • Amparo Valladares
  • Rafael Cavanillas
  • Yang Xie
  • Gonzalo Nocea
Original Research Article


Background and Objective

The microbial susceptibility of many antibiotics has been affected by prescribing patterns and their extensive use. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess how these changes could affect the initial efficacy of ertapenem and piperacillin/tazobactam in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) acquired in the community and the potential consequences this may have in healthcare costs in Spain.


The Initial efficacy of ertapenem and piperacillin/tazobactam for patients with APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II scores <10 was extracted from a multicenter randomized study and were combined with the current microbial susceptibilities obtained from the SMART study, a multinational surveillance program. Country-specific pathogens distribution was extracted from a national study in patients with community-acquired IAI. The estimated effectiveness was used in a decision-analytic model to compare total costs between ertapenem and piperacillin/tazobactam in the treatment of complicated IAI. The model performs extensive one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.


The model suggested a savings of €209 (year 2012 values) per patient when complicated IAIs acquired in the community (APACHE II <10) were treated with ertapenem instead of piperacillin/tazobactam. One-way sensitivity analyses showed length of stay as the key driver parameter. Further analysis of this parameter and probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of our evaluation, with a 58 % likelihood of ertapenem being dominant.


Ertapenem appears to be a cost-saving strategy over piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of patients with complicated IAIs acquired in the community in Spain.


Tigecycline Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Ertapenem Spanish National Health System Smart Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The study described in this article was sponsored by Merck & Co., Inc. The study sponsor played a significant role in the analysis and interpretation of data. Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Iberia (PORIB), a consultant company specialized in economic evaluation of health interventions, was hired by Merck & Co., Inc. to collect the data, conduct the analysis, and write the manuscript. S. Grau, V. Lozano, A. Valladares, and R. Cavanillas have participated in acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data and have been involved in drafting and reviewing the manuscript. G. Nocea has participated in the study design and interpretation of data and has been involved in reviewing the manuscript. Y. Xie has participated in the study design and has reviewed the manuscript. The final version submitted for publication was approved by all authors. A. Valladares acts as guarantor for the overall content. The authors thank Miguel Ángel Casado (PhD; medical writer) and Itziar Oyagüez (BA; medical writer), employees of PORIB, for their assistance with the preparation of this manuscript.

Conflict of interest

S. Grau has received honoraria for speaking at symposia organized on behalf of Pfizer, Astellas, Merck Sharp & Dohme, and Novartis. V. Lozano has served as an external consultant for Merck Sharp & Dohme. A. Valladares, R. Cavanillas, Y. Xie, and G. Nocea are current employees of Merck Sharp & Dohme.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santiago Grau
    • 1
  • Virginia Lozano
    • 2
  • Amparo Valladares
    • 3
  • Rafael Cavanillas
    • 4
  • Yang Xie
    • 5
  • Gonzalo Nocea
    • 3
  1. 1.Hospital del MarBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research IberiaMadridSpain
  3. 3.Outcomes Research, Merck Sharp & Dohme LtdMadridSpain
  4. 4.Medical Affairs, Merck Sharp & Dohme LtdMadridSpain
  5. 5.Global Health Outcomes, Merck Sharp & Dohme LtdWhitehouse StationUSA

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