Vascular Tests for Dermatologists

  • Ali Rajabi-Estarabadi
  • Ahmed Kayssi
  • Afsaneh AlaviEmail author
  • Robert S. Kirsner
Review Article


Dermatologists encounter patients with a variety of lower extremity ulcers including those related to venous insufficiency and peripheral arterial disease. Vascular studies, including ankle brachial pressure index, toe pressure, toe brachial index, Doppler arterial waveform, Duplex ultrasonography, and angiography, play an essential role in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of vascular diseases. In fact, dermatologists are often the first medical providers to see patients with complex vascular conditions. Knowledge of the appropriate indications, interpretations, limitations, and advantages of the various vascular studies is critical to the successful and swift management of each patient presenting with a lower extremity ulcer. This study reviews the most commonly ordered arterial and venous studies and discusses the appropriate indications and interpretation of these studies.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No funding was received for the preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Ali Rajabi-Estarabadi, Ahmed Kayssi, Afsaneh Alavi, and Robert Kirsner have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Rajabi-Estarabadi
    • 1
  • Ahmed Kayssi
    • 2
  • Afsaneh Alavi
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Robert S. Kirsner
    • 1
  1. 1.Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous SurgeryUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Division of Vascular SurgerySunnybrook Health Sciences CentreTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Division of Dermatology, Department of MedicineWomen’s College HospitalTorontoCanada

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